AHOK MENGHINA ISLAM,BENAR ATAU BOHONG

BASUKI TJAHAYA PURNAMA AHOK DITUDUH MENISTA ISLAM ?
BENAR ATAU BOHONG ?

Awal kisah huru hara demo ke alamat Ahok dimulai dari makian kotor yang tidak patut diucapkan oleh seorang Habib Novel Bamukmin alias Habib Novel.
Baca cerita dibawah ini dan nilailah sendiri apakah Ahok menistakan islam atau Ahok mengatakan isi sebenarnya dari kitab suci umat Islam, Quran ?
Kita mulai saja ceritanya dimana Ahok dimaki sebagai orang gila.
Ahok adalah manusia ciptaan Allah, dan Habib Novel juga manusia ciptaan Allah, Jika Ahok dikatakan manusia gila, lalu Novel apa ?, sama dan sebangun khan ?.

fiqhmenjawab.net ~menulis dalam webnya :
Usai sidang di Mahkamah Konstitusi, Gubernur DKI Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) tiba-tiba saja diteriaki ‘gila’ oleh Habib Novel Bamukmin alias Habib Novel. Habib Novel bereaksi keras, karena tak terima Ahok yang dianggap telah mempermainkan ayat suci Al-Qur’an. Sebelumnya, setelah menyapa warga di Kepulauan Seribu, Ahok sempat menyebut kalau warga dibohongi dengan menggunakan ayat Al-Maidah untuk tidak memilih dirinya.

Seperti diketahui, ayat dari Surah Al-Maidah yang kerap disebut sebagai dalil menolak ‘pemimpin kafir’ itu ialah,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu mengambil orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi ‘awliya’; sebagian mereka adalah awliya bagi sebagian yang lain. Barangsiapa diantara kamu mengambil mereka menjadi wali, maka sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka. Sesungguhnya Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada orang-orang yang zalim.” (QS. Al-Maidah: 51)

Inilah bunyi ayat al maidah 51,52 dan 53



Berikut kita dapat membaca sendiri tafsiran Quran yang ditulis oleh situs islam resmi. Ibnukatsir online.com menjelaskan dengan jelas bahwa Al maidah 51.52 dan 53 memang melarang umat islam utk berteman dng orang Yahudi dan Nasrani, dan tidak diperkenankan utk mengangkat musuh2 islam menjadi pemimpin umat muslim.
Tafsiran wuran al maidah 51
Menurut http://www.ibnukatsironline.com/2015/05/tafsir-surat-al-maidah-ayat-51-53_5.html
*يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ
وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (51) فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ
فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ
بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ فَيُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ (52) وَيَقُولُ
الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَهَؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ حَبِطَتْ
أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُوا خَاسِرِينَ (53)*
/Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil orang-orang
Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian); /sebagian mereka adalah wali
bagi sebagian yang lain. Barang siapa di anta­ra kalian mengambil mereka
menjadi wali, maka sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka
Sesungguhnya Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada orang-orang yang zalim.
Maka kami akan melihat orang-orang yang ada penyakit dalam hatinya
/(orang-orang munafik) /bersegera mendekati mereka /(Yahudi dan Nasrani)
/seraya berkata, “Kami takut akan mendapat bencana, ” Mudah-mudahan
Allah akan mendatangkan kemenangan /(kepada Rasul-Nya), /atau sesuatu
keputusan dari sisi-Nya. Maka karena itu mereka menjadi menyesal
terhadap apa yang mereka rahasiakan dalam diri mereka. Dan orang-orang
yang beriman akan mengatakan, “Inikah orang-orang yang bersumpah
sungguh-sungguh dengan nama Allah, bahwasanya mereka benar-benar beserta
kamu?” Rusak binasalah segala amal mereka, lalu mereka menjadi
orang-orang yang merugi./
Allah Swt. melarang hamba-hamba-Nya yang mukmin mengangkat orang-orang
Yahudi dan orang-orang Nasrani sebagai wali mereka, karena mereka adalah
musuh-musuh Islam dan para penganutnya; semoga Allah melaknat mereka.
Kemudian Allah memberitahukan bahwa sebagian dari mereka adalah wali
bagi sebagian yang lain.
Selanjutnya Allah mengancam orang mukmin yang melakukan hal itu melalui
firman-Nya:
*وَ**مَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ*
/Barang siapa di antara kalian mengambil mereka menjadi wali, maka
sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka. /(Al-Maidah: 51),
hingga akhir ayat.
Ibnu Abu Hatim mengatakan, telah menceritakan kepada kami Kasir ibnu
Syihab, telah menceritakan kepada kami Muhammad (Yakni Ibnu Sa’id ibnu
Sabiq), telah menceritakan kepada kami Amr ibnu Abu Qais, dari Sammak
ibnu Harb, dari Iyad, bahwa Umar pernah memerintahkan Abu Musa Al Asyari
untuk melaporkan kepadanya tentang semua yang diambil dan yang
diberikannya (yakni pemasukan dan pengeluarannya) dalam suatu catatan
lengkap. Dan tersebutlah bahwa yang menjadi sekretaris Abu Musa saat itu
adalah seorang Nasrani. Kemudian hal tersebut dilaporkan kepada Khalifah
Umar r.a. Maka Khalifah Umar merasa heran akan hal tersebut, lalu ia
berkata, “Sesungguhnya orang ini benar-benar pandai, apakah kamu dapat
membacakan untuk kami sebuah surat di dalam masjid yang datang dari
negeri Syam?” Abu Musa Al-Asy’ari menjawab, “Dia tidak dapat
melakukannya.” Khalifah Umar bertanya, “Apakah dia sedang mempunyai
jinabah?” Abu Musa Al-Asy’ari berkata, “Tidak, tetapi dia adalah seorang
Nasrani.” Maka Khalifah Umar membentakku dan memukul pahaku, lalu
berkata, “Pecatlah dia.” Selanjutnya Khalifah Umar membacakan firman
Allah Swt.: /Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil
orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian). (Al-Maidah: 51),
hingga akhir ayat
Ibnu Abu Hatim mengatakan, telah menceritakan kepada kami Muhammad ibnul
Hasan ibnu Muhammad ibnus Sabah, telah mencerita­kan kepada kami Usman
ibnu Umar, telah menceritakan kepada kami Ibnu Aun, dari Muhammad ibnu
Sirin yang mengatakan bahwa Abdullah ibnu Atabah pernah berkata,
“Hendaklah seseorang di antara kalian memelihara dirinya, jangan sampai
menjadi seorang Yahudi atau seorang Nasrani, sedangkan dia tidak
menyadarinya.” Menurut Muhammad ibnu Sirin, yang dimaksud olehnya
menurut dugaan kami adalah firman Allah Swt. yang mengatakan: /Hai
orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil orang-orang Yahudi
dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian). (Al-Maidah : 51), hingga akhir ayat.
Dan telah menceritakan kepada kami Abu Sa’id Al-Asyaj, telah
menceritakan kepada kami Ibnu Fudail, dari Asim, dari Ikrimah, dari Ibnu
Abbas, bahwa ia pernah ditanya mengenai sembelihan orang-orang Nasrani
Arab. Maka ia menjawab, “Boleh dimakan.” Allah Swt. hanya berfirman:
/Barang siapa di antara kalian mengambil mereka menjadi wali, maka
sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka. /(Al-Maidah: 51)
Hal yang semisal telah diriwayatkan dari Abuz Zanad.
****
Firman Allah Swt.:
*{فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ}*
/Maka kamu akan melihat orang-orang yang ada penyakit dalam hatinya.
/(Al-Maidah: 52)
Yaitu keraguan, kebimbangan, dan kemunafikan.
*{يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ}*
/bersegera mendekati mereka. /(Al-Maidah: 52)
Maksudnya, mereka bersegera berteman akrab dengan orang-orang Yahudi dan
orang-orang Nasrani secara lahir batin.
*{يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ}*
/seraya berkata, “Kami takut akan mendapat bencana./” (Al-Maidah: 52)
Yakni mereka melakukan demikian dengan alasan bahwa mereka takut akan
terjadi suatu perubahan, yaitu orang-orang kafir beroleh kemenangan atas
kaum muslim. Jika hal ini terjadi, berarti mereka akan memperoleh
perlindungan dari orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani, meng­ingat orang-orang
Yahudi dan Nasrani mempunyai pengaruh tersendiri di kalangan
orang-orang kafir, sehingga sikap berteman akrab dengan mereka dapat
memberikan manfaat ini. Maka Allah Swt berfirman menjawab mereka:
*{فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ}*
/Mudah-mudahan Allah akan memberikan kemenangan /(kepada Rasul-Nya).
(Al-Maidah: 52)
Menurut As-Saddi, yang dimaksud dengan /al-Fathu /dalam ayat ini ialah
kemenangan atas kota Mekah. Sedangkan yang lainnya mengatakan bahwa
makna yang dimaksud ialah kekuasaan peradilan dan keputusan.
*{أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ}*
/atau sesuatu keputusan dari-Nya. /(Al-Maidah: 52)
Menurut As-Saddi, makna yang dimaksud ialah memungut /jizyah /atas
orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani.
*{فَيُصْبِحُوا}*
/Maka karena itu mereka menjadi. /(Al-Maidah: 52)
Yakni orang-orang yang menjadikan orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani sebagai
wali mereka dari kalangan kaum munafik.
*{عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّوا فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ نَادِمِينَ}*
/menyesal terhadap apa yang mereka rahasiakan dalam diri mereka
/(Al-Maidah: 52)
Yaitu menyesali perbuatan mereka yang berpihak kepada orang-orang Yahudi
dan Nasrani itu. Dengan kata lain, mereka menyesali perbuatan yang
mereka lakukan karena usahanya itu tidak dapat memberikan hasil apa pun,
tidak pula dapat menolak hal yang mereka hindari, bahkan berpihak kepada
mereka merupakan penyebab utama dari kerusakan itu sendiri. Kini mereka
keadaannya telah dipermalukan dan Allah telah menampakkan perkara mereka
di dunia ini kepada hamba-hamba-Nya yang beriman, padahal sebelumnya
mereka tersembunyi, keadaan dan prinsip mereka masih belum diketahui.
Tetapi setelah semua penyebab yang mempermalukan mereka telah lengkap,
maka tampak jelaslah perkara mereka di mata hamba-hamba Allah yang
mukmin. Orang-orang mukmin merasa heran dengan sikap mereka (kaum
munafik itu), bagaimana mereka dapat menampakkan diri bahwa mereka
seakan-akan termasuk orang-orang mukmin, dan bahkan mereka berani
bersumpah untuk itu, tetapi dalam waktu yang sama mereka berpihak kepada
orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani? Dengan demikian, tampak jelaslah
kedustaan dan kebohongan mereka. Untuk itulah Allah menyebutkan dalam
firman-Nya:
*{وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَهَؤُلاءِ الَّذِينَ أَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ إِنَّهُمْ لَمَعَكُمْ
حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَأَصْبَحُوا خَاسِرِينَ}*
/Dan orang-orang yang beriman akan mengatakan, “Inikah orang-orang yang
bersumpah sungguh-sungguh dengan nama Allah, bahwasanya mereka
benar-benar beserta kalian?” Rusak binasalah segala amal mereka, lalu
mereka menjadi orang-orang yang merugi. /(Al-Maidah: 53)
Para ahli qiraah berbeda pendapat sehubungan dengan huruf /wawu /dari
ayat ini. Jumhur ulama menetapkan huruf /wawu /dalam firman-Nya:
*وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ**آمَنُوا*
/Dan orang-orang yang beriman akan mengatakan. /(Al-Maidah: 53)
Kemudian sebagian dari mereka ada yang membaca /rafa’ /dan mengatakan
sebagai /ibtida /(permulaan kalimat). Sebagian dari mereka ada yang
me-/nasab/-kannya karena di-‘ataf-kan kepada firman-Nya:
*{فَعَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ بِالْفَتْحِ أَوْ أَمْرٍ مِنْ عِنْدِهِ}*
/”Mudah-mudahan Allah akan mendatangkan kemenangan (kepada Rasul-Nya),
atau sesuatu keputusan dari sisi-Nya. . /(Al-Maidah: 53)
Dengan demikian, berarti bentuk lengkapnya ialah /an-yaqula /(dan
mudah-mudahan orang-orang yang beriman mengatakan).
Tetapi ulama Madinah membacanya dengan bacaan berikut:
*{يَقُولُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا}*
/Orang-orang yang beriman akan mengatakan. /(Al-Maidah: 53)
Yakni tanpa memakai huruf /wawu. /demikian pula yang tertera di dalam
mushaf mereka, menurut Ibnu Jarir.
Ibnu Juraij mengatakan dari Mujahid sehubungan dengan firman Allah Swt.:
/Mudah-mudahan Allah akan mendatangkan kemenangan kepada (RasulNya),
atau sesuatu keputusdan dari Sisi-Nya. (Al-Maidah: 52) /Sebagai
konsekuensinya disebutkan dalam firman-Nya: /Orang-orang yang beriman
akan mengatakan, “Inikah orang-orang yang bersumpah sungguh-sungguh
dengan nama Allah, bahwasanya mereka benar-benar beserta kalian?” Rusak
binasalah segala amal mereka, lalu mereka menjadi orang-orang yang
merugi. /(Al-Maidah: 53).
Yakni tanpa memakai /wawu. /Demikianlah menurut salinan yang ada di
tangan kami. Tetapi barangkali ada kalimat yang digugurkan padanya,
karena menurut ungkapan /Tafsir Ruhul Ma’ani /disebutkan bahwa Ibnu
Kasir, Nafi’, dan Ibnu Amir membaca /yaaulu /tanpa memakai /wawu /dengan
interpretasi sebagai /isti-naf bayani. /Seakan-akan dikatakan bahwa
“lalu apakah yang dikatakan oleh orang-orang mukmin saat itu?”.
Para ulama tafsir berbeda pendapat mengenai penyebab yang
melatarbelakangi turunnya ayat-ayat yang mulia ini. As-Saddi
menye­butkan bahwa ayat ini diturunkan berkenaan dengan dua orang
lelaki. Salah seorang dari keduanya berkata kepada lainnya sesudah
Perang Uhud, “Adapun saya, sesungguhnya saya akan pergi kepada si Yahudi
itu, lalu saya berlindung padanya dan ikut masuk agama Yahudi
bersamanya, barangkali ia berguna bagiku jika terjadi suatu perkara atau
suatu hal.”Sedangkan yang lainnya menyatakan, “Adapun saya, sesungguhnya
saya akan pergi kepada si Fulan yang beragama Nasrani di negeri Syam,
lalu saya berlindung padanya dan ikut masuk Nasrani bersamanya.” Maka
Allah Swt. berfirman: /Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian
mengambil orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian).
(Al-Maidah: 51). hingga beberapa ayat berikutnya.
Ikrimah mengatakan bahwa ayat ini diturunkan berkenaan dengan Abu
Lubabah ibnu Abdul Munzir ketika Rasulullah Saw. mengutusnya kepada Bani
Quraizah, lalu mereka bertanya kepadanya, “Apakah yang akan dilakukan
olehnya terhadap kami?” Maka Abu Lubabah mengisya­ratkan dengan
tangannya ke arah tenggorokannya, yang maksudnya bahwa Nabi Saw. akan
menyembelih mereka. Demikianlah menurut apa yang diriwayatkan oleh Ibnu
Jarir.
Menurut pendapat yang lain. ayat ini diturunkan berkenaan dengan
Abdullah ibnu Ubay ibnu Salul, seperti apa yang telah disebutkan oleh
Ibnu Jarir:
*حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْب، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ إِدْرِيسَ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبِي، عَنْ عَطِيَّةَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ قَالَ: جَاءَ
عُبَادَةُ بْنُ الصَّامِتِ، مِنْ بَنِي الْخَزْرَجِ، إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ:
يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ لِي مَوَالِي مَنْ يَهُودٍ كَثِيرٌ عَدَدُهُمْ، وَإِنِّي أَبْرَأُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
مِنْ وَلَايَةِ يَهُودٍ، وَأَتَوَلَّى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ. فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ: إِنِّي رَجُلٌ أَخَافُ
الدَّوَائِرَ، لَا أَبْرَأُ مِنْ وِلَايَةِ مَوَالِي. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لِعَبْدِ
اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ: “يَا أَبَا الحُباب، مَا بَخِلْتَ بِهِ مِنْ وَلَايَةِ يَهُودَ عَلَى عُبَادَةَ بْنِ
الصَّامِتِ فَهُوَ لَكَ دُونَهُ”. قَالَ: قَدْ قَبِلْتُ! فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ
آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ [بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ] }****إِلَى قَوْلِهِ:
{فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ}*
bahwa telah menceritakan kepada kami Abu Kuraib, telah menceritakan
kepada kami Ibnu Idris yang mengatakan bahwa ia pernah mendengar ayahnya
menceritakan hadis berikut dari Atiyyah ibnu Sa’d, bahwa Ubadah ibnus
Samit dari Banil Haris ibnul Khazraj datang kepada Rasulullah Saw., lalu
berkata, “Wahai Rasulullah, sesungguhnya saya mempunyai teman-teman
setia dari kalangan orang-orang Yahudi yang jumlah mereka cukup banyak.
Dan sesungguhnya saya sekarang menyatakan berlepas diri kepada Allah dan
Rasul-Nya dari mengambil orang-orang Yahudi sebagai teman setia saya,
dan sekarang saya berpihak kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya.” Abdullah ibnu
Ubay ibnu Salul berkata, “Sesungguhnya aku adalah seseorang yang takut
akan mendapat bencana. Karenanya aku tidak mau berlepas diri dari mereka
yang telah menjadi teman-teman setiaku.” Maka Rasulullah Saw. bersabda
kepada Abdullah ibnu Ubay, /”Hai Abul Hubab, apa yang engkau pikirkan,
yaitu tidak mau melepaskan diri dari berteman setia dengan orang-orang
Yahudi, tidak seperti apa yang dilakukan oleh Ubadah ibnus Samit. Maka
hal itu hanyalah untukmu, bukan untuk Ubadah.”/ Abdullah ibnu Ubay
berkata, “Saya terima.” Maka Allah Swt. menurunkan firman-Nya: /Hai
orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil orang-orang Yahudi
dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian). (Al-Maidah: 51), hingga dua ayat
berikutnya.
*ثُمَّ قَالَ ابْنُ جَرِيرٍ: حَدَّثَنَا هَنَّاد، حَدَّثَنَا يُونُسُ بْنُ بُكَيْر، حَدَّثَنَا عُثْمَانُ بْنُ عَبْدِ
الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ: لَمَّا انْهَزَمَ أَهْلُ بَدْرٍ قَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ لِأَوْلِيَائِهِمْ مِنْ يَهُودَ:
آمِنُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُصِيبَكُمُ اللَّهُ بِيَوْمٍ مِثْلَ يَوْمِ بَدْرٍ! فَقَالَ مَالِكُ بْنُ الصَّيْفِ: أَغَرَّكُمْ أَنْ
أَصَبْتُمْ رَهْطًا مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ لَا عِلْمَ لَهُمْ بِالْقِتَالِ!! أَمَا لَوْ أمْرَرْنا الْعَزِيمَةَ أَنْ نَسْتَجْمِعَ
عَلَيْكُمْ، لَمْ يَكُنْ لَكُمْ يَدٌ بِقِتَالِنَا فَقَالَ عُبَادَةُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ أَوْلِيَائِي مِنَ
الْيَهُودِ كَانَتْ شَدِيدَةً أَنْفُسُهُمْ، كَثِيرًا سِلَاحُهُمْ، شَدِيدَةً شَوْكَتُهُمْ، وَإِنِّي أَبْرَأُ إِلَى اللَّهِ
[تَعَالَى] وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ وِلَايَةِ يَهُودَ، وَلَا مَوْلَى لِي إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ. فَقَالَ عَبْدُ
اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ: لَكِنِّي لَا أَبْرَأُ مِنْ وَلَاءِ يَهُودٍ أَنَا رَجُلٌ لَا بُدَّ لِي مِنْهُمْ. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ
اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “يَا أَبَا الْحُبَابِ أَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي نَفَّسْتَ بِهِ مِنْ وَلَاءِ يَهُودَ
عَلَى عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ، فَهُوَ لَكَ دُونَهُ؟ ” فَقَالَ: إِذًا أقبلُ! قَالَ: فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ: {يَا
أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ [بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ] }
إِلَى قَوْلِهِ: {وَاللَّهُ يَعْصِمُكَ مِنَ النَّاسِ}*
Kemudian Ibnu Jarir mengatakan, telah menceritakan kepada kami Hannad,
telah menceritakan kepada kami Yunus ibnu Bukair, telah menceritakan
kepada kami Usman ibnu Abdur Rahman, dari Az-Zuhri yang menceritakan
bahwa ketika kaum musyrik mengalami kekalahan dalam Perang Badar, kaum
muslim berkata kepada teman-teman mereka yang dari kalangan orang-orang
Yahudi, “Masuk Islamlah kalian sebelum Allah menimpakan kepada kalian
suatu bencana seperti yang terjadi dalam Perang Badar.” Malik ibnus Saif
berkata, “Kalian telah teperdaya dengan kemenangan kalian atas
segolongan orang-orang Quraisy yang tidak mempunyai pengalaman dalam
peperangan. Jika kami bertekad menghimpun kekuatan untuk menyerang
kalian, maka kalian tidak akan berdaya untuk memerangi kami.” Maka
Ubadah ibnus Samit berkata, “Wahai Rasulullah, sesungguh­nya teman-teman
sejawatku dari kalangan orang-orang Yahudi adalah orang-orang yang
berjiwa keras, banyak memiliki senjata, dan kekuatan mereka cukup
tangguh. Sesungguhnya aku sekarang berlepas diri kepada Allah dan
Rasul-Nya dari berteman dengan orang-orang Yahudi. Sekarang bagiku tidak
ada pemimpin lagi kecuali Allah dan Rasul-Nya.” Tetapi Abdullah ibnu
Ubay berkata, “Tetapi aku tidak mau berlepas diri dari berteman sejawat
dengan orang-orang Yahudi. Sesungguhnya aku adalah orang yang bergantung
kepada mereka.” Maka Rasulullah Saw. bersabda, /”Hai Abul Hubab,
bagaimanakah jika apa yang kamu sayangkan, yaitu berteman sejawat dengan
orang-orang Yahudi terhadap Ubadah ibnus Samit, hal itu hanyalah
untukmu, bukan untuk dia?”/ Abdullah ibnu Ubay menjawab, “Kalau begitu,
aku bersedia menerima­nya.” Maka Allah menurunkan firman-Nya: /Hai
orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil orang-orang Yahudi
dan Nasrani menjadi wali /(kalian). (Al-Maidah: 51) sampai dengan
firman-Nya: /Allah memelihara kamu dari /(gangguan) /manusia.
/(Al-Maidah: 67)
Muhammad ibnu Ishaq mengatakan, kabilah Yahudi yang mula-mula berani
melanggar perjanjian antara mereka dan Rasulullah Saw. adalah Bani Qainuqa.
*فَحَدَّثَنِي عَاصِمُ بْنُ عُمَرَ بْنِ قَتَادَةَ قَالَ: فَحَاصَرَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ
حتى نَزَلُوا عَلَى حُكْمِهِ، فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بن أبي بن سَلُولَ، حِينَ أَمْكَنَهُ اللَّهُ
مِنْهُمْ، فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، أَحْسِنْ فِي مَوَالي. وَكَانُوا حُلَفَاءَ الْخَزْرَجِ، قَالَ: فَأَبْطَأَ عَلَيْهِ
رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَقَالَ: يَا مُحَمَّدُ، أَحْسِنْ فِي مَوَالِي. قَالَ: فَأَعْرَضَ
عَنْهُ. فَأَدْخَلَ يَدَهُ فِي جَيْبِ دِرْعِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ
اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ. “أَرْسِلْنِي”. وَغَضِبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ حَتَّى
رُئِي لِوَجْهِهِ ظُلَلًا ثُمَّ قَالَ: “وَيْحَكَ أَرْسِلْنِي”. قَالَ: لَا وَاللَّهِ لَا أُرْسِلُكَ حَتَّى تُحْسِنَ فِي
مَوَالي، أَرْبَعِمِائَةِ حَاسِرٍ، وَثَلَاثِمِائَةِ دَارِعٍ، قَدْ مَنَعُونِي مِنَ الْأَحْمَرِ وَالْأَسْوَدِ،
تَحْصُدُهُمْ فِي غَدَاةٍ وَاحِدَةٍ؟! إِنِّي امْرُؤٌ أَخْشَى الدَّوَائِرَ، قَالَ: فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى
اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “هُم لَكَ.”*
Muhammad ibnu Ishaq mengatakan, telah menceritakan kepadanya Asim ibnu
Umar ibnu Qatadah yang mengatakan bahwa lalu Rasulullah Saw. mengepung
mereka hingga mereka menyerah dan mau tunduk di bawah hukumnya. Lalu
bangkitlah Abdullah ibnu Ubay ibnu Salul kepada Rasulullah, setelah
Allah memberikan kemenangan kepadanya atas mereka. Kemudian Abdullah
Ibnu Ubay ibnu Salul berkata, “Hai Muhammad, perlakukanlah teman-teman
sejawatku itu dengan baik, karena mereka adalah teman-teman sepakta
orang-orang Khazraj.” Rasulullah Saw. tidak melayaninya, dan Abdullah
ibnu Ubay ibnu Salul berkata lagi, “Hai Muhammad, perlakukanlah
teman-teman sejawatku ini dengan baik. Tetapi Rasulullah Saw. tidak
mempedulikannya. Kemudian Abdullah ibnu Ubay memasukkan tangannya ke
dalam kantong baju jubah Nabi Saw., dan Nabi Saw. bersabda
kepadanya.”/Lepaskanlah aku/!” Bahkan Rasulullah Saw. marah sehingga
kelihatan roman muka beliau memerah, kemudian bersabda lagi, “/Celakalah
kamu, lepaskan aku. /Abdullah ibnu Ubay berkata, “Tidak, demi Allah,
sebelum engkau bersedia akan memperlakukan teman-teman sejawatku dengan
perlakuan yang baik. Mereka terdiri atas empat ratus orang yang tidak
memakai baju besi dan tiga ratus orang memakai baju besi, dahulu mereka
membelaku dari ancaman orang-orang yang berkulit merah dan berkulit
hitam yang selalu mengancamku, sesungguhnya aku adalah orang yang takut
akan tertimpa bencana.” Maka Rasulullah Saw. bersabda, “/Mereka
kuserahkan kepadamu/.”
*قَالَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ: فَحَدَّثَنِي أَبُو إِسْحَاقَ بْنُ يَسار، عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ
عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ قَالَ: لَمَّا حَارَبَتْ بَنُو قَيْنُقَاع رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ،
تَشَبَّثَ بِأَمْرِهِمْ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ، وَقَامَ دُونَهُمْ، وَمَشَى عُبَادَةُ بْنُ الصَّامِتِ إِلَى رَسُولِ
اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَكَانَ أَحَدَ بَنِي عَوْف بْنِ الْخَزْرَجِ، لَهُ مِنْ حِلْفِهِمْ مِثْلَ
الَّذِي لِعَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ، فَجَعَلَهُمْ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَتَبَرَّأَ إِلَى
اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ حِلْفِهِمْ، وَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أَتَبَرَّأُ إِلَى
اللَّهِ وَإِلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ حِلْفِهِمْ، وَأَتَوَلَّى اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ، وَأَبْرَأُ مِنْ حِلْفَ
الْكُفَّارِ وَوَلَايَتِهِمْ. فَفِيهِ وَفِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ نَزَلَتِ الْآيَاتُ فِي الْمَائِدَةِ: {يَا
أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ} إِلَى
قَوْلِهِ: {وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَإِنَّ حِزْبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْغَالِبُونَ}*
Muhammad ibnu Ishaq berkata, telah menceritakan kepadaku Abu Ishaq ibnu
Yasar, dari Ubadah ibnul Walid ibnu Ubadah ibnus Samit yang mengatakan
bahwa ketika Bani Qainuqa’ memerangi Rasulullah Saw., Abdullah ibnu Ubay
berpihak dan membela mereka, sedangkan Ubadah ibnus Samit berpihak
kepada Rasulullah Saw. Dia adalah salah seorang dari kalangan Bani Auf
ibnul Khazraj yang juga merupakan teman sepakta Bani Qainuqa’, sama
dengan Abdullah ibnu Ubay. Ubadah ibnus Samit menyerahkan perkara mereka
kepada Rasulullah Saw. dan berlepas diri kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya dari
berteman dengan mereka. Lalu ia mengatakan, “Wahai Rasulullah, saya
berlepas diri kepada Allah dan Rasul-Nya dari berteman dengan mere­ka;
dan sekarang saya berpihak kepada Allah, Rasul-Nya, dan orang-orang
mukmin; saya pun menyatakan lepas dari perjanjian saya dengan
orang-orang kafir dan tidak mau lagi berteman dengan mereka.” Berkenaan
dengan dia dan Abdullah ibnu Ubay ayat-ayat ini diturunkan,- yaitu
firman Allah Swt. yang ada di dalam surat Al-Maidah: /Hai orang-orang
yang beriman, janganlah kalian mengambil orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani
menjadi wali /(kalian); /sebagian mereka adalah wali bagi sebagian yang
lain. /(Al-Maidah: 51) sampai dengan firman-Nya: /Dan barang siapa
mengambil Allah, Rasul-Nya, dan orang-orang mukmin menjadi penolongnya,
maka sesungguhnya pengikut /(agama) /Allah itulah yang pasti menang.
/(Al-Maidah: 56)
*قَالَ الْإِمَامُ أَحْمَدُ: حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ زَكَرِيَّا بْنِ أَبِي زَائِدَةَ،
عَنْ محمد بن****إِسْحَاقَ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَة، عَنْ أُسَامَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ قَالَ: دَخَلْتُ مَعَ
رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ نَعُودُهُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ النَّبِيُّ
صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: “قَدْ كُنْتُ أَنْهَاكَ عَنْ حُبّ يَهُودَ”. فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ: فَقَدْ أَبْغَضَهُمْ
أَسْعَدُ بْنُ زُرَارَةَ، فَمَاتَ.*
Imam Ahmad mengatakan, telah menceritakan kepada kami Qutaibah ibnu
Sa’id, telah menceritakan kepada kami Yahya ibnu Zakaria ibnu Abu
Zaidah, dari Muhammad ibnu Ishaq, dari Az-Zuhri, dari Urwah, dari Usamah
ibnu Zaid yang menceritakan bahwa ia pernah bersama dengan Rasulullah
Saw. menjenguk Abdullah ibnu Ubay yang sedang sakit. Maka Nabi Saw.
bersabda kepadanya: /Aku pernah melarangmu jangan berteman dengan
orang-orang Yahudi. /Tetapi Abdullah ibnu Ubay menjawab, “As’ad ibnu
Zararah pernah membenci mereka, dan ternyata dia mati.”
Hal yang sama telah diriwayatkan oleh Abu Daud melalui hadis Muhammad
ibnu Ishaq.
Posted in: Juz 6

PENDAPAT BERBEDA DATANG DARI PROF-QURAISH-SHIHAB
YANG TIDAK SECARA MUTLAK MELARANG MENGANGKAT PEMIMPIN NON ISLAM
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Usai sidang di Mahkamah Konstitusi, Gubernur DKI Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok) tiba-tiba saja diteriaki ‘gila’ oleh Habib Novel Bamukmin alias Habib Novel. Habib Novel bereaksi keras, karena tak terima Ahok yang dianggap telah mempermainkan ayat suci Al-Qur’an. Sebelumnya, setelah menyapa warga di Kepulauan Seribu, Ahok sempat menyebut kalau warga dibohongi dengan menggunakan ayat Al-Maidah untuk tidak memilih dirinya.

Seperti diketahui, ayat dari Surah Al-Maidah yang kerap disebut sebagai dalil menolak ‘pemimpin kafir’ itu ialah,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu mengambil orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi ‘awliya’; sebagian mereka adalah awliya bagi sebagian yang lain. Barangsiapa diantara kamu mengambil mereka menjadi wali, maka sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka. Sesungguhnya Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada orang-orang yang zalim.” (QS. Al-Maidah: 51)

Baca juga: BAHTSUL MASAIL: HUKUM MEMILIH PEMIMPIN NON MUSLIM

Benarkan ayat di atas menyerukan penolakan “pemimpin kafir”? Menurut pakar tafsir Al-Qur’an Prof. Quraish Shihab, ayat di atas tidaklah berdiri sendiri namun memiliki kaitan dengan ayat-ayat sebelumnya. Hanya memenggal satu ayat dan melepaskan ayat lain berimplikasi pada kesimpulan akhir. Padahal, Al-Maidah ayat 51 merupakan kelanjutan atau konsekuensi dari petunjuk-petunjuk sebelumnya.

Prof. Quraish Shihab
“Konsekuensi dari sikap orang yang memusuhi Al-Qur’an, enggan mengikuti tuntunannya…”

Pada ayat sebelumnya, Al-Qur’an diturunkan untuk meluruskan apa yang keliru dari kitab Taurat dan Injil akibat ulah kaum-kaum sebelumnya. Jika mereka – Yahudi dan Nasrani, enggan mengikuti tuntunan Al-Qur’an, maka mereka berarti memberi ‘peluang’ pada Allah untuk menjatuhkan siksa terhadap mereka karena dosa-dosa yang mereka lakukan.

“Jadi, mereka dinilai enggan mengikuti tuntunan Tuhan tapi senang mengikuti tuntunan jahiliah,” katanya dalam pengajian Tafsir Al-Qur’an di salah satu stasiun TV swasta.

Baca juga: QURAISH SHIHAB YANG ENGGAN DIPANGGIL HABIB ATAU KIAI

Lalu, dilanjutkan oleh ayat 51 surat Al-Maidah. Kalau memang seperti itu sikap orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani – mengubah kitab suci mereka, enggan mengikuti Al-Qur’an, keinginannya mengikuti jahiliyah, – “Maka wahai orang-orang beriman janganlah engkau menjadikan orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani sebagai awliya.”

Bagi Quraish Shihab, hubungan ayat ini dan ayat sebelumnya sangat ketat. “Kalau begitu sifat-sifatnya, jangan jadikan mereka awliya. Nah, awliya itu apa?,” tanyanya memantik diskusi sebelum mengkaji lebih dalam.

‘Awliya’ ialah jamak atau bentuk plural dari ‘wali’. Di Indonesia, kata ini populer sehingga ada kata wali-kota, wali-nikah dst. Wali ialah, kata penulis Tafsir Al Misbah ini, pada mulanya berarti “yang dekat”. Karena itu, waliyullah juga bisa diartikan orang yang dekat dengan Allah.

Wali kota itu berarti yang mestinya paling dekat dengan masyarakat. Orang yang paling cepat membantu Anda, ialah orang yang paling dekat dengan Anda. Nah, dari sini lantas dikatakan bahwa wali itu pemimpin atau penolong.

Adapun wali dalam pernikahan – apalagi terhadap anak gadis – sebenarnya fungsinya melindungi anak gadis itu sehingga tidak dibohongi oleh pria yang hanya ingin ‘iseng’ padanya.
Wali Allah berarti orang yang dekat pada Allah. Seseorang yang dekat pada yang lain, berarti ia senang padanya. Setan jauh daripadanya karena ia tidak senang.

“Dari sini, kata ‘wali’ yang jamaknya ‘awliya’ memiliki makna bermacam-macam.”

Yang jelas, kata jebolan Al Azhar Mesir ini, kalau ia dalam konteks hubungan antar manusia, berarti persahabatan yang begitu kental. Sehingga tidak ada lagi rahasia. Kalau dalam hubungan suami-istri itu cinta yang melebur kepribadian.

Baca juga: BENARKAH DILARANG MEMILIH NON-MUSLIM SEBAGAI PEMIMPIN?

“Dalam ayat ini, jangan angkat mereka –Yahudi dan Nasrani- yang sifatnya seperti dikemukakan pada ayat sebelumnya menjadi wali atau orang dekatmu. Sehingga engkau membocorkan rahasia kepada mereka. Sehingga tidak ada batas antara mereka.”

Dengan demikian, ‘awliya’ bukan sebatas bermakna pemimpin, kata Quraish Shihab. “Itu pun, sekali lagi, jika mereka enggan mengikuti tuntunan Allah dan hanya mau mengikuti tuntunan Jahiliyah seperti ayat yang lain.”

Kita lihat, jika mereka juga menginginkan kemaslahatan untuk kita, boleh tidak kita bersahabat? Quraish Shihab kembali bertanya, jika ada pilihan antara pilot pesawat yang pandai namun kafir dan pilot kurang pandai yang Muslim, “pilih mana?” sontak jamaah yang hadir pun tertawa.

Atau, pilihan antara dokter Nasrani yang kaya pengalaman dan dokter Muslim tapi minim pengalaman. Dalam konteks seperti ini, bagi Quraish Shihab, tidak dilarang. Yang terlarang ialah melebur sehingga tidak ada lagi perbedaan termasuk dalam kepribadian dan keyakinan. Karena tidak ada lagi batas, kita menyampaikan hal-hal yang berupa rahasia pada mereka. “Itu yang terlarang.”

Namun kalau pergaulan sehari-hari, dagang, membeli barang dari tokonya dsb, tidaklah dilarang. Selanjutnya ayat ini berbicara tentang sebagian mereka adalah awliya bagi sebagian yang lain. Artinya, sebagian orang Yahudi bekerjasama dengan orang Nasrani yang walaupun keduanya beda agama namun kepentingannya sama, yaitu mencederai kalian. Oleh sebab itu, Al-Qur’an berpesan, “Siapa yang menjadikan mereka itu orang yang dekat, yaitu meleburkan kepribadiannya sebagai Muslim sehingga sama keadaannya (sifat-sifatnya) dengan mereka, oleh ayat ini diaggap sama dengan mereka.”

Baca juga: SAATNYA MEMBACA KITAB TAFSIR AL-MAIDAH AYAT 51

Terakhir, Allah tidak memberi petunjuk pada orang-orang zalim. Menurut Quraish Shihab, petunjuk ada dua macam; umum dan khusus. Petunjuk khusus itu, memberi tahu dan mengantar. Allah memberi tahu kepada semua manusia bahwa ini baik dan itu buruk tapi tidak semua diantar oleh-Nya. Di sisi lain, ada orang yang tidak sekedar diberitahu jalan baik, namun juga diantar jika orang itu menginginkan. Meski demikian, Allah tidak memberi petunjuk khusus kepada mereka yang tidak menempatkan sesuatu pada tempatnya. []

Lihat videonya: https://youtu.be/kYjeb6KMKh0

Source: islamindonesia.id
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WEBSITE INI MALAH LEBIH SADIS LAGI DLM MENGAMALKAN AL MAIDAH AYAT 51

Alamatnya : https://konsultasisyariah.com/28439-tafsir-surat-al-maidah-ayat-51.html
Simak saja kata2 yang sangat jelas mengajarkan kebencian agama,suku dan ras
“Sebelum gubernur kafir itu menyebutnya, masyarakat gak pernah sadar dan gak pernah ada perhatian tentang ayat ini. Banyak masyarakat juga gak pernah perhatian, bahwa ayat ini merupakan dalil larangan memilih pemimpin dari yahudi dan nasrani. Sungguh ini efek samping dari konspirasi yang sedang digencarkan si gubernur kafir itu. Namun Allah menghendaki lain, konspirasi balas konspirasi,”
” Umar melarang, jangan sampai orang kafir menjadi pejabat yang memiliki posisi di pemerintahan. Sekalipun dia hanya seorang akuntan negara.”
“Orang muslim yang menjadi TEMAN-AHOAX, para pendukung AHOAX, berpihak pada AHOAX, merekalah Komplotan Munafik Indonesia (KMI). Jangan pernah shalat bersama mereka.”
Bila orang semacam ini jadi pemimpin, bagaimana nasib bangsa Indonesia kelak ?
Kita mulai saja baca tulisannya
Surat al-Maidah ayat 51
Bagaimana tafsir surat al-Maidah ayat 51. Dan bagaimana sikap kita dg ungkapan tokoh ormas yang membela pelecehan orang kafir terhadap al-Quran?
Jawab:
Bismillah was shalatu was salamu ‘ala Rasulillah, wa ba’du,
Sebelum membahas tafsir surat al-Maidah ayat 51, saya tertarik untuk menyebutkan dua catatan terkait peristiwa ini,
Pertama, kejadian ini merupakan imbal balik atas konspirasi yang digencarkan si gubernur kafir
Seketika ayat ini menjadi sangat tenar di masyarakat, setelah si gubernur kafir itu berusaha ingin menggugatnya dari al-Quran. Masyarakat sering menyebutnya, serasa baru saja diturunkan. Melihat keadaan ini saya teringat peristiwa wafatnya Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.
Sebelum kedatangan Abu Bakr radhiyallahu ‘anhu, Umar berkhutbah dengan lantang, menegaskan bahwa Nabi Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam tidak mati. Tapi Nabi Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam mendatangi panggilan Rab-nya seperti yang terjadi pada Musa ‘alaihis salam.
Ketika Abu Bakr datang, beliau langsung mendatangi jenazah Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam untuk memastikan kondisinya. Setelah beliau melihat dengan mata kepala sendiri bahwa Muhammad telah meninggal, beliau langsung keluar rumah duka menuju masjid, menyuruh Umar untuk duduk, dan beliau menyampaikan pesan,
أما بعد، من كان منكم يعبد محمدا صلى الله عليه وسلم فإن محمدا قد مات، ومن كان منكم يعبد الله، فإن الله حي لا يموت
Amma ba’du, siapa yang menyembah Muhammad shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, ketahuilah bahwa Muhammad telah meninggal. Dan siapa yang menyembah Allah, sesungguhnya Allah Maha Hidup, dan tidak mati.
Kemudian Abu Bakr radhiyallahu ‘anhu mengutip firman Allah,
وَما مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ، قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ، أَفَإِنْ ماتَ أَوْ قُتِلَ انْقَلَبْتُمْ عَلى أَعْقابِكُمْ، وَمَنْ يَنْقَلِبْ عَلى عَقِبَيْهِ فَلَنْ يَضُرَّ اللَّهَ شَيْئاً، وَسَيَجْزِي اللَّهُ الشَّاكِرِينَ
Muhammad itu tidak lain hanyalah seorang rasul, sungguh telah ada sebelumnya beberapa rasul. Apakah jika dia wafat atau dibunuh, kamu akan murtad? Barangsiapa yang murtad, ia tidak dapat merugikan Allah sedikitpun, dan Allah akan memberi balasan kepada orang-orang yang bersyukur. (QS. Ali Imran: 144)
Kata Ibnu Abbas, mengomentari pernyataan di atas,
والله لكأن الناس لم يعلموا أن الله أنزل هذه الآية حتى تلاها أبو بكر، فتلقاها منه الناس كلهم، فما أسمع بشرا من الناس إلا يتلوها
Demi Allah, seolah-olah masyarakat belum pernah tahu bahwa Allah telah menurunkan ayat ini, sampai dibaca oleh Abu Bakr. Lalu disebut-sebut semua orang. Setiap saya bertemu orang, pasti dia membaca ayat ini. (ar-Rahiq al-Makhtum, hlm. 432).
Sebelum gubernur kafir itu menyebutnya, masyarakat gak pernah sadar dan gak pernah ada perhatian tentang ayat ini. Banyak masyarakat juga gak pernah perhatian, bahwa ayat ini merupakan dalil larangan memilih pemimpin dari yahudi dan nasrani. Sungguh ini efek samping dari konspirasi yang sedang digencarkan si gubernur kafir itu. Namun Allah menghendaki lain, konspirasi balas konspirasi,
وَمَكَرُوا وَمَكَرَ اللَّهُ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ
Mereka melakukan konspirasi, dan Allah juga membalas konspirasi mereka. Dan Allah sebaik-baik dalam membalas konspirasi. (QS. Ali Imran: 54)
Kedua, bahwa orang kafir sekalipun, mereka bisa memahami pesan yang ada dalam al-Qur’an. Meskipun mereka ndableg, dan tidak mau menerimanya. Mereka kufur kepada seluruh isi al-Quran. Ini dalil bahwa sebenarnya hujjah (bukti kebenaran) telah sampai kepada mereka. Hanya saja mereka tidak memiliki hidayah taufiq, sehingga mereka tidak mau mengamalkannya.
Diriwayatkan oleh Imam Ahmad, dari jalur Thariq bin Syihab, bahwa pernah ada orang Yahudi yang datang menemui Umar bin Khatab radhiyallahu ‘anhu, lalu mengatakan,
يا عمر، إنكم تقرءون آية في كتابكم، لو علينا معشر اليهود نزلت لاتخذنا ذلك اليوم عيدا
Wahai Umar, kalian membaca satu ayat di kitab kalian, andaikan ayat ini turun kepada kami kaum Yahudi, tentu akan kami jadikan hari turunnya ayat itu sebagai hari raya.
Umar bertanya: “Ayat apa itu?”
Jawab Yahudi: “Firman Allah,
الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي
“Pada hari dimana Aku sempurnakan agama kalian untuk kalian, dan aku penuhi nikmat-Ku (nikmat hidayah) untuk kalian…” (QS. Al-Maidah: 3)
Selanjutnya, khalifah Umar berkomentar,
والله إني لأعلم اليوم الذي نزلت على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، والساعة التي نزلت فيها على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، نزلت عَشية عَرَفَة في يوم جمعة
“Demi Allah, saya tahu hari dimana ayat ini turun kepada Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, waktu dimana ayat ini turun kepada Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. Ayat ini turun di siang hari Arafah, pada hari Jumat.” (HR. Ahmad 188).
Ini menunjukkan bahwa orang sesat seukuran yahudi sekalipun, mereka tetap membaca al-Quran, sehingga hujjah telah sampai ke mereka.
Tafsir QS. al-Maidah ayat 51
Saya tidak perlu berpannjang lebar. Hanya ingin mencamtumkan riwayat dari Umar bin Khatab radhiyallahu ‘anhu. Dari Sammak bin Harb, dari Iyadh,
أن عمر أمر أبا موسى الأشعري أن يرفع إليه ما أخذ وما أعطى في أديم واحد، وكان له كاتب نصراني، فرفع إليه ذلك، فعجب عمر رضي الله عنه وقال: إن هذا لحفيظ، هل أنت قارئ لنا كتابًا في المسجد جاء من الشام؟ فقال: إنه لا يستطيع أن يدخل المسجد فقال عمر: أجُنُبٌ هو؟ قال: لا بل نصراني. قال: فانتهرني وضرب فخذي، ثم قال: أخرجوه” ثم قرأ: { يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ
Umar memerintahkan Abu Musa al-Asy’ari untuk melaporkan semua yang diterima dan yang diserahkan dalam satu catatan. Abu Musa memiliki juru tulis beragama nasrani. Kemudian catatan itu diserahkan. Dan Umar radhiyallahu ‘anhu terheran, beliau mengatakan, “Ini sangat rinci.” Lalu beliau meminta,
“Apakah nanti di masjid, kamu bisa membacakan untuk kami, surat yang datang dari Syam?”
Abu Musa mengatakan, “Dia tidak boleh masuk masjid?”
Tanya Umar, “Mengapa? Apakah dia junub?”
“Bukan, dia nasrani.” Jawab Abu Musa.
Umar langsung membentakku dan memukul pahaku, dan mengatakan, “Keluarkan dia.”
kemudian beliau membaca firman Allah,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آَمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
“Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu mengambil orang-orang Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadi pemimpin-pemimpin(mu); sebahagian mereka adalah pemimpin bagi sebahagian yang lain. Barangsiapa diantara kamu mengambil mereka menjadi pemimpin, maka sesungguhnya orang itu termasuk golongan mereka. Sesungguhnya Allah tidak memberi petunjuk kepada orang-orang yang zalim..” (QS. Al-Maidah: 51)
Riwayat ini disebutkan oleh Ibnu katsir dalam tafsirnya (3/132).
Umar melarang, jangan sampai orang kafir menjadi pejabat yang memiliki posisi di pemerintahan. Sekalipun dia hanya seorang akuntan negara.
Komplotan Munafiq Indonesia (KMI)
Sikap dan perilaku jahat kaum munafik – yang secara lahir mengaku beriman, tetapi batinnya mencintai kekufuran – bahkan diabadikan dalam satu surat khusus, yaitu Surat al-Munafiqun (surat ke-63). Mereka dikenal sebagai pendusta, mengaku-aku iman padahal selalu memusuhi kaum Muslimin dan membela orang kafir.
Kadang mereka tak segan bersumpah-sumpah agar bisa dipercaya. Padahal, mereka selalu berusaha menghalagi manusia untuk mendekat kepada Allah. Juga, tak jarang penampilan lahiriah kaum munafik itu sangat memukau; ucapan-ucapan mereka pun banyak didengar orang. Mereka bisa berpenampilan seperti profesor ahli tafsir, atau pemuka ormas besar, atau mengaku pakar agama. Silahkan Anda baca QS. al-Munafiqun, ayat: 1-5.
Dalam peristiwa semacam ini, anda sudah bisa menebak arah gerakannya. Mereka akan selalu menjadi garda depan pembela gubernur kafir itu. Mereka sangat berharap, agar yang menang adalah gubernur kafir.
Anda baca ayat ini:
بَشِّرِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا . الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِنْدَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا
“Kabarkanlah kepada orang-orang munafik bahwa mereka akan mendapat siksaan yang pedih, (yaitu) orang-orang yang mengambil orang-orang kafir menjadi teman-teman dan penolong dengan meninggalkan orang-orang mukmin. Apakah mereka mencari kemenangan di sisi orang kafir itu? maka sesungguhnya semua kemenangan kepunyaan Allah. (QS. an-Nisa’: 138 – 139)
Orang muslim yang menjadi TEMAN-AHOAX, para pendukung AHOAX, berpihak pada AHOAX, merekalah Komplotan Munafik Indonesia (KMI). Jangan pernah shalat bersama mereka.
Ya Rabb kami, jauhkan kami dari kehadiran pemimpin kafir di tengah kami. Dan jauhkan kami dari komplotan munafiqun, yang selalu berdusta atas nama-Mu. Lindungi kami dari konspirasi mereka. Sesungguhnya Engkau Maha Kuasa atas segala sesuatu.
Wa shallallahu ‘ala nabiyyina muhammadin wa ‘ala aalihi wa shahbihi wa sallam.
Dijawab oleh Ustadz Ammi Nur Baits (Dewan Pembina Konsultasisyariah.com)

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Ahok dan Kepemimpinan Non-Muslim

Ahok dan Kepemimpinan Non-Muslim
Penulis Mun’im Sirry –
Senin, 4 April 2016

Shinta Nuriyah Wahid, istri Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid (ketiga kanan), bersama anak-anaknya antara lain Yenny Wahid dan Anita Hayatunnufus menyerahkan Gus Dur Award kepada Gubernur DKI Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama dalam acara peresmian rumah pergerakan Griya Gus Dur di Taman Amir Hamzah, Jakarta, Minggu (24/1). ANTARA FOTO/Reno Esnir.
Kontroversi seputar kepemimpinan non-Muslim dalam masyarakat Muslim kembali menjadi perbincangan publik. Intrik politik di balik wacana ini jelas terlihat. Setiap kali ada non-Muslim maju sebagai calon dalam pemilihan kepala daerah (pilkada), isu ini selalu dimunculkan sebagai instrumen politik untuk memobilisasi pemilih Muslim dengan mengobarkan sentimen fanatik terhadap calon non-Muslim.
“Perang wacana” ini seolah tak pernah berakhir. Masing-masing pihak mengutip ayat-ayat tertentu dari kitab suci. Ayat yang paling sering dikutip ialah surat al-Ma’idah ayat 51, yang melarang Muslim memilih Yahudi dan Kristen sebagai awliya. Kata “awliya” sengaja tidak diterjemahkan karena bisa dimaknai sebagai “pemimpin”, “teman”, atau “sekutu”.
Ketika Basuki Tjahaja Purnama alias Ahok muncul sebagai calon kuat gubernur dalam Pilkada DKI Jakarta, ayat itu pun disajikan kembali dengan berbagai perspektif. Yang terlupakan dalam diskusi kita ialah aspek sejarah. Apa yang diajarkan sejarah Islam tentang kepemimpinan non-Muslim?
Belajar dari Sejarah
Sejarah Islam bukan hanya terkait narasi tentang kaum Muslim. Sejak awal, elemen non-Muslim menempati posisi penting dalam pemerintahan Muslim. Dengan melihat peran mereka dalam praktik pemerintahan Muslim awal, debat soal agama Ahok dan calon non-Muslim lain diharapkan bisa segera diakhiri.
Tak dapat dimungkiri, sebenarnya kepemimpinan non-Muslim sudah lama menjadi kebijakan. Dalam sejarah Islam, mereka memangku jabatan-jabatan penting selama pemerintahan Umayah, Abbasiyah hingga syi’ah Fatimiyah. Misalnya, mereka diangkat menjadi perdana menteri (wuzara), gubernur (awliya) dan sekretaris (kuttab). Berikut saya berikan beberapa contoh, kemudian kita diskusikan kenapa hal itu terjadi.
Di bawah pemerintahan Umayah (661-750), banyak non-Muslim diangkat untuk posisi-posisi pemerintahan strategis mengelola administrasi negara. Khalifah Umayah pertama yang mempekerjakan non-Muslim secara rutin ialah Mu‘awiyah, yang berkuasa dari 661 hingga 680. Khalifah pertama ini mengangkat beberapa sekretaris Kristen untuk mengelola urusan keuangan negara. Misalnya, Mansur bin Sarjun (Sergius), seorang Kristen. Khalifah Marwan (683-685) punya dua sekretaris Kristen, yakni Athanasius dan Ishaq. Yang disebut terakhir kemudian diangkat sebagai kepala pemerintahan di Alexandria.
Pendek kata, hingga akhir pemerintahan Umayah, kantor-kantor pemerintahan cukup bersahabat dengan non-Muslim. Mereka dapat ditemukan di hampir setiap sektor.
Kebijakan ini berlanjut pada pemerintahan Abbasiyah. Ketika sistem wazarah (kantor pedana menteri) yang diadopsi dari Kerajaan Sasanian Persia diperkenalkan ke dalam pemerintahan Abbasiyah, jabatan tertinggi setelah kepala negara (khalifah) ini pun sering diberikan kepada non-Muslim. Tugas wazir (perdana menteri) ialah mengimplementasikan tata-kelola negara.
Khalifah Abbasiyah pertama yang mempekerjakan non-Muslim ialah al-Mu‘tasim (833-842). Ia dikenal karena perhatiannya, bahkan favoritisme, dalam mengangkat non-Muslim untuk jabatan-jabatan publik. Dua orang Kristen bersaudara dikabarkan punya kedekatan khusus dengan sang khalifah: Yang satu bernama Salmuyah, menempati posisi sekretaris negara.
Saking strategisnya posisi Salmuyah, setiap dokumen kenegaraan harus mendapat persetujuannya. Saudaranya bernama Ibrahim dipercaya Khalifah untuk menjadi pengelola Baitul Mal atau semacam departemen keuangan. Karena posisi ini terkait dengan denyut nadi negara, pengelolaan kementerian ini kita bayangkan akan diserahkan kepada Muslim. Ternyata tidak.
Al-Mu‘tasim juga punya seorang perdana menteri Kristen bernama Fadl bin Marwan bin Masarjis. Menurut penulis biografi Ibn Khallikan (wafat 1282), al-Mu‘tasim sangat mempercayai Fadl, sehingga muncul kesan umum bahwa ia bahkan lebih powerful dibanding khalifah sendiri. Kekuasaan Fadl yang begitu luas juga akhirnya memicu ketegangan antara dirinya dan khalifah sehingga menyebabkan keretakan hubungan mereka.
Daftar pemimpin non-Muslim dalam masyarakat Muslim awal cukup panjang. Tak cukup ruang untuk disebutkan secara detail di sini. Di bawah pemerintahan Fatimiyah di Mesir, kebijakan ini bukan hanya berlanjut, bahkan lebih ekstensif. Sudah menjadi rahasia umum, bahwa non-Muslim menempati jabatan publik secara tidak proporsional. Tidak ada rezim pemerintahan Muslim yang memberikan tingkat favoritisme kepada non-Muslim serupa seperti apa yang dilakukan dinasti Fatimiyah.
Memang, di sana-sini muncul kegusaran di kalangan tertentu atas pengangkatan non-Muslim yang begitu massif. Khalifah al-Mutawakkil (847-862), misalnya, disebutkan melarang non-Muslim untuk menempati jabatan publik. Sebelumnya, Umar bin Abdul Aziz, khalifah Umayah, dikabarkan mengeluarkan dekrit diskriminatif terkait non-Muslim.
Menarik dicatat, al-Mutawakkil sendiri sebenarnya mempekerjakan orang-orang Kristen, seperti Dulayl bin Ya‘qub. Umar juga menyewa arsitek Kristen untuk membangun istananya. Belum lagi sejumlah orang Kristen yang diangkat menjadi sekretaris dan dokter.
Kebijakan Meritokrasi
Pertanyaan tersisa: Kenapa non-Muslim dibutuhkan untuk mengelola negara? Alasan utamanya ialah pragmatisme. Yakni, bahwa banyak non-Muslim punya pengalaman dan kecakapan untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan. Seperti umum diketahui, ekspansi politik Islam berlangsung begitu cepat, dan para Muslim Arab itu umumnya tidak punya pengalaman mengelola negara.
Dalam banyak kasus, para pemimpin Muslim membiarkan sistem tata-kelola daerah taklukan yang sudah berlangsung lama tetap berada di tangan non-Muslim. Lebih dari itu, sistem tata-kelola itu tidak dikenal di kalangan penguasa Muslim Arab, sehingga mereka membutuhkan pegawai yang punya pengalaman mengelola jalannya roda pemerintahan. Itulah sebabnya orang-orang Kristen yang sudah memiliki keterampilan dibutuhkan untuk menjabat posisi-posisi strategis tersebut.
Kemampuan dan pengalaman menjadi kunci dari kebijakan penguasa Muslim untuk menempatkan non-Muslim sebagai perdana menteri, gubernur atau sekretaris. Sebagai birokrat yang terlatih dalam sistem pemerintahan Byzantium atau Sasanian, non-Muslim dibutuhkan untuk menstabilkan administrasi negara.
Kita dapat simpulkan, meritokrasi merupakan pertimbangan utama dalam pengangkatan non-Muslim. Banyak sarjana menyebut praktik itu memperlihatkan betapa pemerintahan Muslim awal cukup toleran terhadap non-Muslim, termasuk untuk menjabat posisi penting. Yang lebih penting ialah kita bisa belajar dari sejarah dan menghentikan perdebatan soal validitas kepemimpinan non-Muslim.
Dengan demikian, mereka yang mempersoalkan agama Ahok bukan saja buta sejarah tapi juga ngeyel terhadap hal-hal yang tidak berdasar. Sudah saatnya kita ucapkan RIP (rest in peace) untuk isu agama yang satu ini.

Tidak Ada Larangan Kepemimpinan Non-Muslim dalam Al-Qur’an
Penulis Mohamad Guntur Romli –
Kamis, 29 September 2016
17837

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Gubernur DKI Jakarta Basuki Tjahaja Purnama menerima Gus Dur Award 2016 dari Shinta Nuriyah Wahid, istri Presiden keempat Indonesia Gus Dur, di Pegangsaan, Jakarta, Minggu (24/1). ANTARA FOTO/Reno E.
Pemilihan Kepala Daerah DKI Jakarta semakin dekat, sayangnya makin gencar politisasi ayat. Sebenarnya saya tidak tertarik dengan perdebatan perang ayat, karena akan terlihat menggunakan ayat-ayat al-Qur’an untuk menyerang lawan dan membela calonnya sendiri. Namun, politisasi ayat mesti dihentikan, apalagi ayat-ayat yang sengaja dimunculkan menjelang pilkada dan pemilu.
Dulu, ada partai politik yang mengaku partai Islam paling keras mengeluarkan fatwa pengharaman kepemimpinan perempuan, karena calonnya waktu itu Megawati. Namun setelah Megawati menjadi presiden, mereka paling bersemangat berkoalisi.
Demikian pula menjelang Pilkada Jakarta, karena ada calon yang non-muslim: Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (Ahok), ayat-ayat al-Qur’an pun dipolitisasi untuk menjegalnya. Sayangnya, mereka yang melakukan politisasi SARA (suku, agama, ras, dan antargolongan) terhadap Ahok, sebelum ini ngotot ingin memboyong Tri Rismaharini, Wali Kota Surabaya, ke Jakarta. Padahal, mereka masih memiliki fatwa yang melarang kepemimpinan perempuan.
Jauh sebelum Pilkada Jakarta, tahun 2013, saya sudah menulis buku Islam Tanpa Diskriminasi: Mewujudkan Islam yang Rahmatan Lil Alamin, yang bertujuan menyiarkan ajaran Islam non-diskriminatif, baik atas dasar SARA, gender, dan kelas sosial. Dalam buku itu saya juga sudah membahas soal kepemimpinan non-muslim, jauh sebelum ada polemik soal Pilkada Jakarta. Tulisan di bawah ini, hanyalah rangkuman dari buku saya itu.
Sebab utama polemik pelarangan kepemimpinan non-muslim saat ini berakar pada dasar: politisasi agama. Karena ayat-ayat ini hanya dipolitisasi, hanya dijadikan alat politik, maka tidak dipahami secara mendalam. Ayat-ayat al-Qur’an tidak diambil sebagai sumber inspirasi dan ajaran, tapi hanya sebagai “senjata pemukul”. Ayat-ayat itu tidak dipahami maksud dan tafsirnya secara detail, tidak dilacak sebab-sebab turunnya ayat-ayat ini, mereka pun hanya mempermainkan makna harfiahnya, yang lagi-lagi menunjukkan kekeliruan yang fatal.
Mereka membatasi arti wali dalam al-Qur’an, yang bentuk jamaknya awliyâ’ dengan terjemahan “pemimpin” saja. Padahal, kata wali bisa berarti: pelindung, pengasuh, penolong, teman, sekutu, dan bisa juga penguasa atau pemimpin. Tapi kata “wali” dalam konteks al-Qur’an dalam ayat-ayat yang mereka kutip sebenarnya lebih condong maknanya sebagai “penolong, teman, dan sekutu”. Yang patut dicatat, kecaman-kecaman al-Qur’an itu akibat dari ketegangan politik antara umat Islam waktu itu dengan komunitas-komunitas di luar Islam.
Larangan ini bersifat kontekstual, karena ada sebab-sebab yang melatarbelakanginya. Ketegangan politis dan psikologis akibat konflik-konflik saat itu telah mendorong sikap agar umat Islam selalu waspada dan berhati-hati. Misalnya yang terekam dalam ayat-ayat berikut ini:
(1) Menjadikan orang kafir sebagai “wali” yang berarti “pelindung” seperti yang termaktub dalam surat Âli Imrân (3) ayat 28:
لا يَتَّخِذِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِنْ دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذَلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَيْءٍ إِلا أَنْ تَتَّقُوا مِنْهُمْ تُقَاةً وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفْسَهُ
Janganlah orang yang beriman mengambil orang yang kafir—bukan orang yang mukmin—sebagai pelindung, barang siapa melakukan hal itu tiada sesuatu pertolongan dari Allah kecuali untuk menjaga diri terhadap mereka sebaik-baiknya, Allah memperingatkan kamu (supaya ingat) kepada-Nya.
Dalam redaksi yang hampir sama dalam surat al-Nisâ’ (4) ayat 144 dan 138-139, al-Tawbah (9) ayat 23, al-Mumtahanah (60) ayat 1.
(2). Menjadikan orang Yahudi dan Kristen menjadi “wali” yang berarti “pelindung” bersumber dari surat al-Mâ’idah (5) ayat 51-52:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (٥١) فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ… (٥٢)
Hai orang yang beriman janganlah kamu ambil orang Yahudi dan Nasrani sebagai pelindung, sebagian mereka bagi sebagian yang lain dan barang siapa di antara kamu berpaling kepada mereka ia pun termasuk golongan mereka, sungguh Allah tiada memberi bimbingan kepada kaum yang zalim, kau lihat mereka yang dalam hatinya ada penyakit (kemunafikan) cepat-cepat mendekat mereka (orang Yahudi) sambil berkata “Kami takut nasib yang malang menimpa kami.”
(3). Menjadikan musuh Allah dan Rasul-Nya dan orang kafir sebagai “wali” yang artinya “teman setia (sekutu)” serta dilarang mencintai mereka, bersumber dari surat al-Mumtahanah (60) ayat 1:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ…
Hai orang yang beriman janganlah ambil musuh-musuh-Ku dan musuh-musuhmu sebagai teman setia (sekutu) dengan memperlihatkan kasih sayang kepada mereka, padahal mereka telah ingkar akan Kebenaran yang datang kepadamu…
Menurut Syaikh Yusuf al-Qaradhawi, tokoh yang terpandang di kalangan Islam Politik, dalam kitab Ghayr al-Muslimîn fi al-Mujtama’ al-Islâmî (1992: 73-75), kita perlu memahami ayat-ayat di atas sesuai dengan sebab-sebab turunnya ayat-ayat tersebut, sehingga tidak digunakan untuk membuat jarak, keterputusan hingga kebencian terhadap komunitas non-muslim.
Pertama, larangan menjadikan orang-orang non-muslim sebagai “wali” (pelindung, penolong dan sekutu) apabila mereka merasa hanya kelompok mereka saja yang paling merasa paling baik dan istimewa berdasarkan agama, keyakinan, pemikiran, dan ibadah mereka. Merasa merasa paling baik sebagai orang Yahudi, Kristen, dan Majusi, bukan sebagai tetangga, mitra dan warga negara.
Kedua, larangan mengasihi yang disebutkan dalam ayat di atas bukan berdasarkan berbeda agama, tetapi karena menyakiti dan memusuhi orang-orang Islam, Allah dan Rasul-Nya.
(a). Dalam surat al-Mujadilah (58) ayat 22 disebutkan:
لا تَجِدُ قَوْمًا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ مَنْ حَادَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوْ كَانُوا آبَاءَهُمْ أَوْ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ أَوْ إِخْوَانَهُمْ أَوْ عَشِيرَتَهُمْ
Tiada kamu dapatkan orang yang beriman kepada Allah dan Hari Akhirat akan mencintai orang yang merintangi Alllah dan Rasul-Nya, sekalipun mereka ayah-ayah, atau putera-puteranya, saudara-saudaranya atau keluarganya.
Ayat ini menegaskan tidak boleh mencintai orang-orang yang merintangi, membatasi, membangkang dan melakukan permusuhan pada Allah dan Rasul-Nya.
(b). Allah melarang orang yang beriman (muslim) untuk mengasihi dan menjadikan sekutu orang-orang yang memusuhi Allah dan Rasul-Nya, dan mengusir Nabi Muhammad Saw dari Mekkah seperti yang termaktub dalam ayat 1 surat al-Mumtahanah. Namun bagi mereka yang tidak memusuhi, larangan ini tidak berlaku, malah sebaliknya orang-orang Islam harus melakukan kebaikan dan berlaku adil terhadap mereka. Perintah ini ada dalam surat yang sama al-Mumtahanah ayat 8:
لا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ
Allah tidak melarang kamu berlaku baik dan adil terhadap mereka yang tiada memerangi kamu karena agama dan tiada mengusir kamu dari rumahmu, sungguh Allah mencintai orang-orang yang menegakkan keadilan.
Ketiga, Islam memperbolehkan seorang Muslim menikah dengan perempuan Ahl Kitab (al-Ma’idah ayat 5), kehidupan suami-istri akan berpijak pada ketenangan jiwa, penuh cinta, dan kasih sayang. Aturan ini menunjukkan tidak ada larangan seorang Muslim mencintai orang non-muslim.
Al-Ma’idah Ayat 51
Bagaimana dengan ayat 51 surat al-Maídah yang sering dijadikan alasan menolak pemimpin non-muslim?
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لا تَتَّخِذُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوْلِيَاءَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ مِنْكُمْ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ (٥١) فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ يُسَارِعُونَ فِيهِمْ يَقُولُونَ نَخْشَى أَنْ تُصِيبَنَا دَائِرَةٌ… (٥٢)
Hai orang yang beriman janganlah kamu ambil orang Yahudi dan Nasrani sebagai pelindung, sebagian mereka bagi sebagian yang lain dan barang siapa di antara kamu berpaling kepada mereka ia pun termasuk golongan mereka, sungguh Allah tiada memberi bimbingan kepada kaum yang zalim (51), kau lihat mereka yang dalam hatinya ada penyakit (kemunafikan) cepat-cepat mendekat mereka (orang Yahudi) sambil berkata, “Kami takut nasib yang malang menimpa kami.” (52).
Ayat 51 dari surat al-Mâ’idah kita perlu memahami sebab-sebab turunnya (asbâbun nuzul) ayat tersebut, meskipun secara sederhana kita bisa saja memaknai orang Yahudi dan Kristen yang dimaksud ayat ini adalah mereka yang eksklusif, arogan, dan egois: hanya membela kepentingan agama mereka.
Menurut Syaikh Muhammad Thahir bin Ashur dalam kitab al-Tahrîr wa al-Tanwîr (1984: 232), sebab ayat 51 surat al-Mâ’idah turun ada dua riwayat. Pertama, setelah Perang Uhud di mana umat Islam menderita kekalahan terbesar melawan orang Mekkah. Kekalahan ini berdampak buruk pada mental masyarakat Madinah, baik orang-orang Muslim dan orang-orang non-muslim yang menjadi sekutu mereka. Setelah mengetahui kekalahan tentara Muslim, penduduk Madinah ada yang mulai ciut dan kehilangan kepercayaan pada kepemimpinan Nabi Muhammad.
Menurut mereka, telah ada perputaran nasib (al-dawâ’ir)—yang sebelumnya tentara Muslim menang perang, tapi pada Perang Uhud mereka kalah besar. Ancaman dan serbuan dari penduduk Mekkah terhadap penduduk Madinah mulai terbayang. Mereka menganggap Nabi Muhammad dan umat Islam tidak akan mampu menjadi pelindung dan sekutu yang kuat lagi.
Kemudian ada penduduk Madinah yang ingin membelot, meminta suaka politik atau meminta bantuan dari pihak lawan. Dari mereka ada yang berkata, “Aku akan meminta perlindungan kepada komunitas Yahudi dan memeluk agama Yahudi agar aku terlindungi dari serbuan orang Mekkah.” Ada pula yang berkata, “Aku mau minta perlindungan pada orang Kristen di Syam dan menjadi sekutu mereka.” Maka, ayat di atas mengecam orang-orang dalam konteks ini: membelot dengan meminta bantuan musuh.
Riwayat kedua dikisahkan ketika ada ketegangan antara kaum muslimin dengan salah satu komunitas Yahudi: Bani Qaynuqa’, anggota perjanjian masyarakat Madinah. Bani Qaynuqa’ dituding melanggar perjanjian dan Nabi Muhammad ingin menagih tanggung jawab dan kesetiaan mereka.
Sikap Nabi Muhammad menimbulkan perpecahan dalam koalisi masyarakat Madinah, dari pembesar suku Khazraj bernama Ubadah bin al-Shamit langsung membatalkan persekutuan dengan Bani Qaynuqa’. Namun seorang pembesar lain bernama Abdullah bin Ubay bin Salul, yang dikenal sebagai tokoh munafik, kecut nyalinya dan cenderung ingin mempertahankan kolaborasi dengan Bani Qaynuqa’.
Ia takut Nabi Muhammad dan tentaranya kalah melawan Bani Qaynuqa’. Abdullah berkilah yang nantinya disitir oleh al-Qur’an: “Aku laki-laki yang sangat takut perputaran nasib,”—maksudnya ia takut tertimpa nasib malang dengan melawan Bani Qaynuqa’. Maka, ayat ini mengecam pilihan Abdullah bin Ubay yang masih ingin mempertahankan koalisi/sekutu dengan pihak pelanggar kesepakatan yang berarti telah menjadi lawan.
Inti dari ayat ini dari dua riwayat sebab turunnya, meskipun berbeda, bisa dipahami sebagai larangan terhadap sikap pengecut, khianat dan mementingkan keselamatan sendiri, tidak setia pada kawan dan perjanjian yang sudah disepakati.
Sedangkan ayat 1 dari surat al-Mumtahanah larangan menjadikan “musuh Allah” dan “orang kafir” sebagai kawan setia dan sekutu maksudnya adalah—menurut Imam Assuyuthi dalam kitab Ad-Durrul Mantsur—orang-orang Mekkah yang waktu itu memusuhi dan memerangi Nabi Muhammad dan pengikutnya, serta mengusir mereka dari Mekkah.
Kesimpulan
Pertama, ayat-ayat yang sering dipolitisasi untuk melarang kepemimpinan non-muslim berasal dari kekeliruan terjemahan kata awliyaa—yang diterjemahkan sebagai “pemimpin” yang lebih tepat untuk konteks kalimat ayat-ayat di atas adalah sebagai: pelindung, pengasuh, penolong, teman dan sekutu. Karena kita juga tidak memaknai kalimat “wali kelas” yang berbeda dari “pemimpin alias ketua kelas”, pun “wali murid” yang maksudnya “pengasuh murid”, bukan “pemimpin murid”. Dalam al-Qur’an juga ada “Wali Allah”—awliyaa’ Allah, maksudnya tentu bukan “pemimpin Allah” tapi “orang yang sangat dekat dengan Allah”.
Kedua, ayat-ayat larangan dan kecaman memiliki konteks ketegangan, kezaliman, dan permusuhan antarkomunitas kabilah dan agama yang terjadi saat itu, yang tak bisa dioperasikan untuk konteks yang berbeda. Kita jangan meniru ISIS dan al-Qaidah yang mengoperasikan ayat-ayat konteks perang dalam kondisi yang damai. Ayat-ayat perang (qital) dalam al-Quran bertujuan membela diri (defensif), tapi ISIS dan gerombolannya menggunakannya untuk konteks yang bertentangan dengan tujuan menyerang (ofensif).
Ketiga, dalam relasi sosial dan politik, yang patut menjadi fokus dan pertimbangan utama adalah tindakan-tindakan orang, bukan pada perbedaan keyakinan. Kecaman hingga larangan yang disebutkan al-Qur’an kepada pihak yang disebut “kafir”, “musyrik”, “Ahl Kitab” lebih ke soal tindakan buruk, jahat, dan kesewenang-wenangan, bukan ke soal perbedaan keyakinan.
Dan keburukan ini pun juga bisa terjadi di kalangan Muslim. Muslim yang berbuat kezaliman tidak akan dibela oleh al-Qur’an, sedangkan non-muslim yang menerima kezaliman malah dibela (baca: Ketika Al-Qur’an Lebih Membela Non-Muslim). Maka, larangan kepemimpinan berlaku pada siapa pun yang berbuat jahat, buruk, permusuhan dan kezaliman, bukan karena berdasarkan agamanya.
Karena dalam ayat lain, al-Qur’an mengakui ada orang-orang Kristen yang juga mencintai orang-orang Muslim, “Dan sesungguhnya kamu akan menemukan yang paling dekat persahabatannya dengan orang-orang yang beriman (Islam) ialah orang-orang yang berkata, “Sesungguhnya kami ini orang Nasrani (Kristen)”, Surat al-Ma’idah ayat 82.
Keempat, marilah kita jadikan al-Qur’an sebagai inspirasi bagi kedamaian, kerukunan, kebhinekaan, keutuhan NKRI dan bangsa Indonesia, karena Republik Indonesia didirikan para ulama dan tokoh-tokoh bangsa lintas agama, suku dan pulau. Masa depan bangsa dan negara ini di tangan kita, keutuhannya tergantung sikap kita menghadapi perbedaan, apakah kita bisa seperti para pendahulu yang mampu melintasi perbedaan dan tidak menjadikan agama sebagai memecah-belah tapi menjadi spirit persatuan.
Al-Qur’an sangat mengagungkan ajaran persatuan, keadilan, kedamaian, dan kesejahteraan, yang menjadi agenda utama kebangsaan kita. Jangan jadikan al-Qur’an seperti dalam genggaman orang-orang ISIS dan sejenisnya yang bisa memecah-belah persatuan dan mendatangkan bencana.
Kelima, dalam hidup bersama, perlu diutamakan prinsip-prinsip kewarganegaraan di mana ada pengakuan pada kesetaraan, kesamaan hak dan kewajiban serta pada nilai-nilai kemanusiaan yang menentang segala bentuk diskriminasi, perendahan dan pengucilan yang hanya didasarkan pada perbedaan agama dan etnis saja. Dalam prinsip warga negara tidak ada kelompok minoritas dan mayoritas, karena setiap orang dilihat sebagai warga negara, yang memiliki hak dan kewajiban yang sama.

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SIAPAKAH JESUS ITU

Who Was Jesus?

Exploring the History of Jesus’ Life

Staff for this book:

Robin Ngo, Megan Sauter — Editors Robert Bronder — Designer Susan Laden — Publisher

About the Biblical Archaeology Society The excitement of archaeology and the latest in Bible scholarship since 1974
The Biblical Archaeology Society (BAS) was founded in 1974 as a nonprofit, nondenominational, educational organization dedicated to the dissemination of information about archaeology in the Bible lands.

BAS educates the public about archaeology and the Bible through its bimonthly magazine, Biblical Archaeology Review, an award-winning website http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org, books and multimedia products (DVDs, CD-ROMs and videos), tours and seminars. Our readers rely on us to present the latest scholarship in a fair and accessible manner. BAS serves as an important authority and as an invaluable source of reliable information.

Publishing Excellence

BAS’s flagship publication is Biblical Archaeology Review. BAR is the only magazine that brings the academic study of archaeology to a broad general audience eager to understand the world of the Bible. Covering both the Hebrew Bible and New Testament, BAR presents the latest discoveries and controversies in archaeology with breathtaking photography and informative maps and diagrams. BAR’s writers are the top scholars, the leading researchers, the world-renowned experts. BAR is the only nonsectarian forum for the discussion of Biblical archaeology.

BAS produced two other publications, Bible Review (1985–2005), and Archaeology Odyssey (1998–2006). The complete editorial contents of all three magazines are available on the BAS Library online. The BAS Library also contains the texts of four highly acclaimed books: Aspects of Monotheism, Feminist Approaches to the Bible, The Rise of Ancient Israel and The Search for Jesus. Yearly memberships to the BAS Library are available at http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org/library. This comprehensive collection of materials is also available to colleges, universities, churches and other
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The society, its magazine, and its founder and editor Hershel Shanks have been the subject of widespread acclaim and media attention in publications as diverse as Time, People, Civilization, U.S. News and World Report, The New York Times, The Washington Post and The Jerusalem Post. BAS has also been featured on television programs aired by CNN, PBS and Discovery Channel. To learn more about the Biblical Archaeology Society and subscribe to BAR, visit us online at http://www.biblicalarchaeology.org

Table of Contents

IV Introduction

by Robin Ngo

1 Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible by Lawrence Mykytiuk

15 Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home by Philip J. King

18 Has Jesus’ Nazareth House Been Found?

by Ken Dark

25 Did Jesus Marry?

by Birger A. Pearson

31 Sidebar: “From Saint to Sinner”

34 Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?

by Jonathan Klawans

46 Sidebar: “When Passover Begins: The Synoptics versus John”

47 Authors

48 Notes

Introduction

Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, the world’s largest religion. As a teacher in first-century Galilee, he influenced countless people. Yet many questions today surround this enigmatic person. Where was he really born—Bethlehem or Nazareth? Did he marry? Is there evidence outside of the Bible that proves he actually walked the earth? This Biblical Archaeology Society eBook, Who Was Jesus? Exploring the History of Jesus’ Life—drawn from articles in Biblical Archaeology Review and Bible Review—examines the history of Jesus’ life, from where he was born, where he grew up and whether there is extra-Biblical evidence for his existence.

Did Jesus of Nazareth really exist? What’s the evidence outside of the Bible? In “Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible,” Lawrence Mykytiuk examines Classical and Jewish writings from the first several centuries C.E. These records give us a glimpse of the person who would become the central figure in Christianity mere decades after his crucifixion.

Where was Jesus born? The Gospels of Matthew and Luke say that Jesus was born in Bethlehem.

So why is he called a Nazorean and a Galilean throughout the New Testament? In “Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home,” Philip J. King examines what the Bible actually says about Bethlehem, traditionally considered Jesus’ birthplace, and Nazareth, Jesus’ hometown.

What was Nazareth like during Jesus’ time? In “Has Jesus’ Nazareth House Been Found?” Ken Dark describes the excavation of an intriguing first-century “courtyard house” that may have been revered as Jesus’ boyhood home in the Byzantine period. Other archaeological evidence suggests that Jesus’ Nazareth was larger and wealthier than previously thought.

Modern movies and novels always want to marry Jesus off to one of his most prominent—and perhaps scandalous—female followers, Mary Magdalene. But Jesus’ own words suggest he wasn’t interested in such worldly matters, according to Birger A. Pearson in “Did Jesus Marry?”

Matthew, Mark and Luke say that Jesus was crucified on Passover, suggesting that the Last Supper was a Seder, a ritual meal held in celebration of this Jewish holiday. John indicates otherwise. Who’s right, if any of them? Jonathan Klawans examines this question in “Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?”

We hope you enjoy this journey through the history of Jesus’ life. These and other fascinating insights into the Biblical world can be found in the pages of Biblical Archaeology Review and Bible Review.

Robin Ngo

Biblical Archaeology Society

2015

Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible

By Lawrence Mykytiuk

Sant’Apollinare Nuovo Ravenna, Italy/Bridgeman Images

THE MAN CHRIST JESUS. Did Jesus of Nazareth exist as a real human being? Outside of the New Testament, what is the evidence for his existence? In this article, author Lawrence Mykytiuk examines the extra-Biblical textual and archaeological evidence associated with the man who would become the central figure in Christianity. Here Jesus is depicted in a vibrant sixth-century C.E. mosaic from the Basilica of Sant’Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna, Italy.

After two decades toiling in the quiet groves of academe, I published an article in BAR titled “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible.”a The enormous interest this article generated was a complete surprise to me. Nearly 40 websites in six languages, reflecting a wide spectrum of secular and religious orientations, linked to BAR’s supplementary web page.b Some even posted translations.

I thought about following up with a similar article on people in the New Testament, but I soon realized that this would be so dominated by the question of Jesus’ existence that I needed to consider this
question separately. This is that article:

Did Jesus of Nazareth, who was called Christ, exist as a real human being, “the man Christ Jesus”

according to 1 Timothy 2:5?

The sources normally discussed fall into three main categories: (1) classical (that is, Greco-Roman), (2) Jewish and (3) Christian. But when people ask whether it is possible to prove that Jesus of Nazareth actually existed, as John P. Meier pointed out decades ago, “The implication is that the Biblical evidence

for Jesus is biased because it is encased in a theological text written by committed believers. What they really want to know is: Is there extra-Biblical evidence … for Jesus’ existence?”c

Therefore, this article will cover classical and Jewish writings almost exclusively.

Tacitus—or more formally, Caius/Gaius (or Publius) Cornelius Tacitus (55/56–c. 118 C.E.)—was a Roman senator, orator and ethnographer, and arguably the best of Roman historians. His name is based on the Latin word tacitus, “silent,” from which we get the English word tacit. Interestingly, his compact prose uses silence and implications in a masterful way. One argument for the authenticity of the quotation below is that it is written in true Tacitean Latin. But first a short introduction.

Tacitus, Opera Quae Exstant, trans. by Justus Lipsius (Antwerp, Belgium: Ex officina Plantiniana, apud
Joannem Moretum, 1600). Courtesy of the Philadelphia Rare Books & Manuscripts Co. (PRB&M)

TACIT CONFIRMATION. Roman historian Tacitus’s last major work, Annals, mentions a
“Christus” who was executed by Pontius Pilate and from whom the Christians derived their name. Tacitus’s brief reference corroborates historical details of Jesus’ death from the New Testament. The pictured volume of Tacitus’s works is from the turn of the 17th century. The volume’s title page features Plantin Press’s printing mark depicting angels, a compass and the motto Labore et Constantia (“By Labor and Constancy”).

Bibliotheque nationale, Paris, France/Giraudon/Bridgeman Images

Roman historian Tacitus

Tacitus’s last major work, titled Annals, written c. 116–117 C.E., includes a biography of Nero. In 64

C.E., during a fire in Rome, Nero was suspected of secretly ordering the burning of a part of town where he wanted to carry out a building project, so he tried to shift the blame to Christians. This was the occasion for Tacitus to mention Christians, whom he despised. This is what he wrote—the following excerpt is translated from Latin by Robert Van Voorst:

[N]either human effort nor the emperor’s generosity nor the placating of the gods ended the scandalous belief that the fire had been ordered [by Nero]. Therefore, to put down the rumor, Nero substituted as culprits and punished in the most unusual ways those hated for their shameful acts … whom the crowd called “Chrestians.” The founder of this name, Christ [Christus in Latin], had been executed in the reign of Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate … Suppressed for a time, the deadly superstition erupted again not only in Judea, the origin of this evil, but also in the city [Rome], where all things horrible and shameful from everywhere come together and become popular.

Codex Mediceus 68 II, fol. 38r, the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Italy
CHRESTIANS OF CHRIST. Book XV of Tacitus’s Annals is preserved in the 11th–12th-
century Codex Mediceus II, a collection of medieval manuscripts now housed in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy, along with other manuscripts and books that belonged to the Medici family. Highlighted above is the Latin text reading “… whom the crowd called
‘Chrestians.’ The founder of this name, Christ, had been executed in the reign of Tiberius by the procurator Pontius Pilate …”
Tacitus’s terse statement about “Christus” clearly corroborates the New Testament on certain historical details of Jesus’ death. Tacitus presents four pieces of accurate knowledge about Jesus:
(1) Christus, used by Tacitus to refer to Jesus, was one distinctive way by which some referred to him, even though Tacitus mistakenly took it for a personal name rather than an epithet or title; (2)
this Christus was associated with the beginning of the movement of Christians, whose name originated from his; (3) he was executed by the Roman governor of Judea; and (4) the time of his death was during Pontius Pilate’s governorship of Judea, during the reign of Tiberius. (Many New Testament scholars date Jesus’ death to c. 29 C.E.; Pilate governed Judea in 26–36 C.E., while Tiberius was emperor 14–37 C.E.)
Tacitus, like classical authors in general, does not reveal the source(s) he used. But this should not detract from our confidence in Tacitus’s assertions. Scholars generally disagree about what his sources were. Tacitus was certainly among Rome’s best historians—arguably the best of all—at the top of his game as a historian and never given to careless writing.

Earlier in his career, when Tacitus was Proconsul of Asia, he likely supervised trials, questioned people accused of being Christians and judged and punished those whom he found guilty, as his friend Pliny the Younger had done when he too was a provincial governor. Thus Tacitus stood a very good
chance of becoming aware of information that he characteristically would have wanted to verify before accepting it as true.

The other strong evidence that speaks directly about Jesus as a real person comes from Josephus, a Jewish priest who grew up as an aristocrat in first-century Palestine and ended up living in Rome, supported by the patronage of three successive emperors. In the early days of the first Jewish Revolt against Rome (66–70 C.E.), Josephus was a commander in Galilee but soon surrendered and became a prisoner of war. He then prophesied that his conqueror, the Roman commander Vespasian, would become emperor, and when this actually happened, Vespasian freed him. “From then on Josephus lived in Rome under the protection of the Flavians and there composed his historical and apologetic writings” (Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz). He even took the name Flavius, after the family name of his patron, the emperor Vespasian, and set it before his birth name, becoming, in true Roman style, Flavius Josephus. Most Jews viewed him as a despicable traitor. It was by command of Vespasian’s son Titus that a Roman army in 70 C.E. destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple, stealing its contents as spoils of war, which are partly portrayed in the imagery of their gloating triumph on the Arch of Titus in Rome. After Titus succeeded his father as emperor, Josephus accepted the son’s imperial patronage, as he did of Titus’s brother and successor, Domitian.

Josephus, Famovs and Memorable Works of Josephvs, trans. by Thomas Lodge (London: J. L. for
Andrew Hebb, 1640).

JAMES, BROTHER OF JESUS. In Jewish Antiquities, parts of which are included in this mid-17th- century book of translations, Josephus refers to a James, who is described as “the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah.” Josephus’s mention of Jesus to specify which James was being executed by the high priest Ananus in 62 C.E. affirms the existence of the historical Jesus.

Burgerbibliothek Bern Cod. 50, f.2r

Jewish historian Josephus is pictured in the ninth-century medieval manuscript Burgerbibliothek
Bern Codex under the Greek caption “Josippos Historiographer.”

Yet in his own mind, Josephus remained a Jew both in his outlook and in his writings that extol Judaism. At the same time, by aligning himself with Roman emperors who were at that time the worst enemies of the Jewish people, he chose to ignore Jewish popular opinion.

Josephus stood in a unique position as a Jew who was secure in Roman imperial patronage and protection, eager to express pride in his Jewish heritage and yet personally independent of the Jewish community at large. Thus, in introducing Romans to Judaism, he felt free to write historical views for Roman consumption that were strongly at variance with rabbinic views.

In his two great works, The Jewish War and Jewish Antiquities, both written in Greek for educated people, Josephus tried to appeal to aristocrats in the Roman world, presenting Judaism as a religion to be admired for its moral and philosophical depth. The Jewish War doesn’t mention Jesus except in some versions in likely later additions by others, but Jewish Antiquities does mention Jesus—twice.

The shorter of these two references to Jesus (in Book 20) is incidental to identifying Jesus’ brother James, the leader of the church in Jerusalem. In the temporary absence of a Roman governor between Festus’s death and governor Albinus’s arrival in 62 C.E., the high priest Ananus instigated James’s execution. Josephus described it:

Being therefore this kind of person [i.e., a heartless Sadducee], Ananus, thinking that he had a favorable opportunity because Festus had died and Albinus was still on his way, called a meeting
[literally, “sanhedrin”] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah … James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.

James is otherwise a barely noticed, minor figure in Josephus’s lengthy tome. The sole reason for referring to James at all was that his death resulted in Ananus losing his position as high priest. James (Jacob) was a common Jewish name at this time. Many men named James are mentioned in Josephus’s works, so Josephus needed to specify which one he meant. The common custom of simply giving the father’s name (James, son of Joseph) would not work here, because James’s father’s name was also very common. Therefore Josephus identified this James by reference to his famous brother Jesus. But James’s brother Jesus (Yehoshua) also had a very common name. Josephus mentions at least 12 other men named Jesus. Therefore Josephus specified which Jesus he was referring to by adding the phrase “who is called Messiah,” or, since he was writing in Greek, Christos. This phrase was necessary to
identify clearly first Jesus and, via Jesus, James, the subject of the discussion. This extraneous reference to Jesus would have made no sense if Jesus had not been a real person.

Few scholars have ever doubted the authenticity of this short account. On the contrary, the huge majority accepts it as genuine. The phrase intended to specify which Jesus, translated “who is called Christ,” signifies either that he was mentioned earlier in the book or that readers knew him well enough to grasp the reference to him in identifying James. The latter is unlikely. First-century Romans generally had little or no idea who Christus was. It is much more likely that he was mentioned earlier in Jewish Antiquities. Also, the fact that the term “Messiah”/“Christ” is not defined here suggests that an earlier passage in Jewish Antiquities has already mentioned something of its significance. This phrase is also appropriate for a Jewish historian like Josephus because the reference to Jesus is a noncommittal,
neutral statement about what some people called Jesus and not a confession of faith that actually asserts that he was Christ.

This phrase—“who is called Christ”—is very unlikely to have been added by a Christian for two reasons. First, in the New Testament and in the early Church Fathers of the first two centuries C.E., Christians consistently refer to James as “the brother of the Lord” or “of the Savior” and similar terms, not “the brother of Jesus,” presumably because the name Jesus was very common and did not necessarily refer to their Lord. Second, Josephus’s description in Jewish Antiquities of how and when James was executed disagrees with Christian tradition, likewise implying a non-Christian author.

This short identification of James by the title that some people used in order to specify his brother gains credibility as an affirmation of Jesus’ existence because the passage is not about Jesus. Rather, his
[literally, “sanhedrin”] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah … James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.

James is otherwise a barely noticed, minor figure in Josephus’s lengthy tome. The sole reason for referring to James at all was that his death resulted in Ananus losing his position as high priest. James (Jacob) was a common Jewish name at this time. Many men named James are mentioned in Josephus’s works, so Josephus needed to specify which one he meant. The common custom of simply giving the father’s name (James, son of Joseph) would not work here, because James’s father’s name was also very common. Therefore Josephus identified this James by reference to his famous brother Jesus. But James’s brother Jesus (Yehoshua) also had a very common name. Josephus mentions at least 12 other men named Jesus. Therefore Josephus specified which Jesus he was referring to by adding the phrase “who is called Messiah,” or, since he was writing in Greek, Christos. This phrase was necessary to
identify clearly first Jesus and, via Jesus, James, the subject of the discussion. This extraneous reference to Jesus would have made no sense if Jesus had not been a real person.

Few scholars have ever doubted the authenticity of this short account. On the contrary, the huge majority accepts it as genuine. The phrase intended to specify which Jesus, translated “who is called Christ,” signifies either that he was mentioned earlier in the book or that readers knew him well enough to grasp the reference to him in identifying James. The latter is unlikely. First-century Romans generally had little or no idea who Christus was. It is much more likely that he was mentioned earlier in Jewish Antiquities. Also, the fact that the term “Messiah”/“Christ” is not defined here suggests that an earlier passage in Jewish Antiquities has already mentioned something of its significance. This phrase is also appropriate for a Jewish historian like Josephus because the reference to Jesus is a noncommittal,
neutral statement about what some people called Jesus and not a confession of faith that actually asserts that he was Christ.

This phrase—“who is called Christ”—is very unlikely to have been added by a Christian for two reasons. First, in the New Testament and in the early Church Fathers of the first two centuries C.E., Christians consistently refer to James as “the brother of the Lord” or “of the Savior” and similar terms, not “the brother of Jesus,” presumably because the name Jesus was very common and did not necessarily refer to their Lord. Second, Josephus’s description in Jewish Antiquities of how and when James was executed disagrees with Christian tradition, likewise implying a non-Christian author.

This short identification of James by the title that some people used in order to specify his brother gains credibility as an affirmation of Jesus’ existence because the passage is not about Jesus. Rather, his
the highest standing among us, had condemned him to be crucified, those who in the first place came to love him did not give up their affection for him, for on the third day, he appeared to them restored to life. The prophets of God had prophesied this and countless other marvelous things about him. And the tribe of Christians, so called after him, have still to this day not died out.

All surviving manuscripts of the Testimonium Flavianum that are in Greek, like the original, contain the same version of this passage, with no significant differences.

The main question is: Did Flavius Josephus write this entire report about Jesus and his followers, or did a forger or forgers alter it or possibly insert the whole report? There are three ways to answer this question:

Alternative 1: The whole passage is authentic, written by Josephus.

Alternative 2: The whole passage is a forgery, inserted into Jewish Antiquities.

Alternative 3: It is only partly authentic, containing some material from Josephus, but also some later additions by another hand(s).

Regarding Alternative 1, today almost no scholar accepts the authenticity of the entire standard Greek Testimonium Flavianum. In contrast to the obviously Christian statement “He was the Messiah” in the Testimonium, Josephus elsewhere “writes as a passionate advocate of Judaism,” says Josephus expert Steve Mason. “Everywhere Josephus praises the excellent constitution of the Jews, codified by Moses, and declares its peerless, comprehensive qualities … Josephus rejoices over converts to Judaism. In all this, there is not the slightest hint of any belief in Jesus” as seems to be reflected in
the Testimonium.

The bold affirmation of Jesus as Messiah reads as a resounding Christian confession that echoes St. Peter himself! It cannot be Josephus. Alternative 1 is clearly out.

Regarding Alternative 2—the whole Testimonium Flavianum is a forgery—this is very unlikely. What is said, and the expressions in Greek that are used to say it, despite a few words that don’t seem characteristic of Josephus, generally fit much better with Josephus’s writings than with Christian writings. It is hypothetically possible that a forger could have learned to imitate Josephus’s style or that a reviser adjusted the passage to that style, but such a deep level of attention, based on an extensive, detailed
reading of Josephus’s works and such a meticulous adoption of his vocabulary and style, goes far beyond what a forger or a reviser would need to do. Even more important, the short passage (treated above) that mentions Jesus in order to identify

James appears in a later section of the book (Book 20) and implies that Jesus was mentioned previously.

The best-informed among the Romans understood Christus to be nothing more than a man’s personal name, on the level of Publius and Marcus. First-century Romans generally had no idea that calling someone “Christus” was an exalted reference, implying belief that he was the chosen one, God’s anointed. The Testimonium, in Book 18, appropriately found in the section that deals with Pilate’s time as governor of Judea, is apparently one of Josephus’s characteristic digressions, this time occasioned by mention of Pilate. It provides background for Josephus’s only other written mention of Jesus (in Book 20), and it connects the name Jesus with his Christian followers. The short reference to Jesus in the later
book depends on the longer one in the earlier (Book 18). If the longer one is not genuine, this passage lacks its essential background. Alternative 2 should be rejected.

Alternative 3—that the Testimonium Flavianum is based on an original report by Josephus that has been modified by others, probably Christian scribes, seems most likely. After extracting what appear to be Christian additions, the remaining text appears to be pure Josephus. As a Romanized Jew, Josephus would not have presented these beliefs as his own. Interestingly, in three openly Christian, non-Greek versions of the Testimonium Flavianum analyzed by Steve Mason, variations indicate changes were
made by others besides Josephus. The Latin version says Jesus “was believed to be the Messiah.” The Syriac version is best translated, “He was thought to be the Messiah.” And the Arabic version with open coyness suggests, “He was perhaps the Messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders.” Alternative 3 has the support of the overwhelming majority of scholars.

We can learn quite a bit about Jesus from Tacitus and Josephus, two famous historians who were not Christian. Almost all the following statements about Jesus, which are asserted in the New Testament, are corroborated or confirmed by the relevant passages in Tacitus and Josephus. These independent historical sources—one a non-Christian Roman and the other Jewish—confirm what we are told in the Gospels:

1. He existed as a man. The historian Josephus grew up in a priestly family in first-century Palestine and wrote only decades after Jesus’ death. Jesus’ known associates, such as Jesus’ brother James,
were his contemporaries. The historical and cultural context was second nature to Josephus. “If any

Jewish writer were ever in a position to know about the non-existence of Jesus, it would have been Josephus. His implicit affirmation of the existence of Jesus has been, and still is, the most significant obstacle for those who argue that the extra-Biblical evidence is not probative on this point,” Robert Van Voorst observes. And Tacitus was careful enough not to report real executions of nonexistent people. . His personal name was Jesus, as Josephus informs us.

3. He was called Christos in Greek, which is a translation of the Hebrew word Messiah, both of which mean “anointed” or “(the) anointed one,” as Josephus states and Tacitus implies, unaware, by reporting, as Romans thought, that his name was Christus.

4. He had a brother named James (Jacob), as Josephus reports.

5. He won over both Jews and “Greeks” (i.e., Gentiles of Hellenistic culture), according to Josephus, although it is anachronistic to say that they were “many” at the end of his life. Large growth in the number of Jesus’ actual followers came only after his death.

6. Jewish leaders of the day expressed unfavorable opinions about him, at least according to some versions of the Testimonium Flavianum.

7. Pilate rendered the decision that he should be executed, as both Tacitus and Josephus state.

8. His execution was specifically by crucifixion, according to Josephus.

9. He was executed during Pontius Pilate’s governorship over Judea (26–36 C.E.), as Josephus implies and Tacitus states, adding that it was during Tiberius’s reign.

Some of Jesus’ followers did not abandon their personal loyalty to him even after his crucifixion but submitted to his teaching. They believed that Jesus later appeared to them alive in accordance with prophecies, most likely those found in the Hebrew Bible. A well-attested link between Jesus and Christians is that Christ, as a term used to identify Jesus, became the basis of the term used to identify his followers: Christians. The Christian movement began in Judea, according to Tacitus. Josephus
observes that it continued during the first century. Tacitus deplores the fact that during the second century it had spread as far as Rome.

As far as we know, no ancient person ever seriously argued that Jesus did not exist. Referring to the first several centuries C.E., even a scholar as cautious and thorough as Robert Van Voorst freely observes, “… [N]o pagans and Jews who opposed Christianity denied Jesus’ historicity or even questioned it.” Nondenial of Jesus’ existence is particularly notable in rabbinic writings of those first several centuries C.E.: “… [I]f anyone in the ancient world had a reason to dislike the Christian faith, it was the rabbis. To argue successfully that Jesus never existed but was a creation of early Christians would have been the most effective polemic against Christianity … [Yet] all Jewish sources treated Jesus as a fully historical person … [T]he rabbis … used the real events of Jesus’ life against him” (Van Voorst).

Thus his birth, ministry and death occasioned claims that his birth was illegitimate and that he performed miracles by evil magic, encouraged apostasy and was justly executed for his own sins. But they do not deny his existence.

Lucian of Samosata (c. 115–200 C.E.) was a Greek satirist who wrote The Passing of Peregrinus, about a former Christian who later became a famous Cynic and revolutionary and died in 165 C.E. In two sections of Peregrinus—here translated by Craig A. Evans—Lucian, while discussing Peregrinus’s career, without naming Jesus, clearly refers to him, albeit with contempt in the midst of satire:

It was then that he learned the marvelous wisdom of the Christians, by associating with their priests and scribes in Palestine. And—what else?—in short order he made them look like children, for he was a prophet, cult leader, head of the congregation and everything, all by himself. He interpreted and explained some of their books, and wrote many himself. They revered him as a god, used him as a lawgiver, and
set him down as a protector—to be sure, after that other whom they still worship, the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world.

For having convinced themselves that they are going to be immortal and live forever, the poor wretches despise death and most even willingly give themselves up. Furthermore, their first lawgiver persuaded them that they are all brothers of one another after they have transgressed once for all by denying the Greek gods and by worshiping that crucified sophist himself and living according to his laws.

Although Lucian was aware of the Christians’ “books” (some of which might have been parts of the New Testament), his many bits of misinformation make it seem very likely that he did not read them. The compound term “priests and scribes,” for example, seems to have been borrowed from Judaism, and indeed, Christianity and Judaism were sometimes confused among classical authors.

Lucian seems to have gathered all of his information from sources independent of the New Testament and other Christian writings. For this reason, this writing of his is usually valued as independent evidence for the existence of Jesus.
This is true despite his ridicule and contempt for Christians and their “crucified sophist.” “Sophist” was a derisive term used for cheats or for teachers who only taught for money. Lucian despised Christians for worshiping someone thought to be a criminal worthy of death and especially despised “the man who was crucified.”

Other testimony that has some value, but much less, as evidence regarding the existence of Jesus appears in the writings of the following people:

• Celsus, the Platonist philosopher, considered Jesus to be a magician who made exorbitant claims.

• Pliny the Younger, a Roman governor and friend of Tacitus, wrote about early Christian worship of Christ “as to a god.”

• Suetonius, a Roman writer, lawyer and historian, wrote of riots in 49 C.E. among Jews in Rome which might have been about Christus but which he thought were incited by “the instigator Chrestus,”
whose identification with Jesus is not completely certain.

• Mara bar Serapion, a prisoner of war held by the Romans, wrote a letter to his son that described
“the wise Jewish king” in a way that seems to indicate Jesus but does not specify his identity. Other documentary sources are doubtful or irrelevant.
One can label the evidence treated above as documentary (sometimes called literary) or as archaeological. Almost all sources covered above exist in the form of documents that have been copied and preserved over the course of many centuries, rather than excavated in archaeological digs. Therefore, although some writers call them archaeological evidence, I prefer to say that these truly ancient texts are ancient documentary sources, rather than archaeological discoveries.

Some ossuaries (bone boxes) have come to light that are inscribed simply with the name Jesus (Yeshu or Yeshua‘ in Hebrew), but no one suggests that this was Jesus of Nazareth. The name Jesus was very common at this time, as was Joseph. So as far as we know, these ordinary ossuaries have nothing to do with the New Testament Jesus. Even the ossuary from the East Talpiot district of Jerusalem, whose inscription is translated “Yeshua‘, son of Joseph,” does not refer to him.

As for the famous James ossuary first published in 2002,d whose inscription is translated “Jacob, son of Joseph, brother of Yeshua‘,” more smoothly rendered, “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus,” it is unprovenanced, and it will likely take decades to settle the matter of whether it is authentic. Following well-established, sound methodology, I do not base conclusions on materials whose authenticity is uncertain, because they might be forged. Therefore the James ossuary, which is treated in many other publications, is not included here.

As a final observation: In New Testament scholarship generally, a number of specialists consider the question of whether Jesus existed to have been finally and conclusively settled in the affirmative. A few vocal scholars, however, still deny that he ever lived.

Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home

By Philip J. King

According to the Gospels, Jesus was born in Bethlehem but lived in Nazareth. While there has been a lot of scholarly discussion about whether or not he was actually born in Bethlehem,a both places are useful for teaching about the historical Jesus—regardless of any perceived conflict—and inspire us to take a deeper look at how Jesus was influenced by his environment.

The Biblical towns of Bethlehem and Nazareth are strikingly different from each other in many ways; at the same time they figure prominently in the life and ministry of Jesus. The issue to be discussed is the birthplace of Jesus. It seems clear from the infancy narratives in the Gospels that Bethlehem was the place of Jesus’ birth: “In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, ‘Where is the child who has been born king of the Jews?’” (Matthew 2:1–2); “Joseph also went from the town of Nazareth in Galilee to Judea, to the city of David called Bethlehem … He went to be registered with Mary, to whom he was engaged and who was expecting a child. While they were there, the time came for her to deliver her child. And she gave birth to her firstborn son” (Luke 2:4–7).

The infancy narratives in the Gospels give no indication that Jesus was born elsewhere.

The Gospel of John also attests that the birth of Jesus took place in Bethlehem: “Has not the scripture said that the Messiah is descended from David and comes from Bethlehem, the village where David lived?” (John 7:42).

Micah, one of the four great prophets of the eighth century B.C.E., is responsible for the classic messianic poem wherein a new David shall arise from Bethlehem, the birthplace of David, to rule in a future age: “But you, O Bethlehem of Ephrathah, who are one of the little clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to rule in Israel, whose origin is from of old, from ancient days” (Micah 5:2). The New Testament interprets this poem as a reference to Jesus’ birth.

The family of David was closely associated with Bethlehem. The Lord sent Samuel to Bethlehem to find a replacement for King Saul from among the sons of Jesse. When David was presented, the Lord said, “Rise and anoint him; for this is the one” (1 Samuel 16:12). Then Samuel anointed David in the presence of his brothers, and the spirit of the Lord descended upon David from that day on. The name Bethlehem first occurs in 1 Samuel 16:4. Nazareth, an obscure agricultural village in Southern Galilee, is not mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament), in the Talmud or by the historian Josephus. Joseph may have settled in Nazareth because of its proximity to Sepphorisb where opportunities for work were readily available when Herod Antipas was reconstructing his capital there. Jesus and his family probably spent a significant amount of time at Nazareth. Luke’s Gospel is a valuable source of information about Jesus’ childhood. For example, Luke relates that Jesus and his parents were still living at Nazareth when Jesus was 12 years old. Every year Jesus and his parents went to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover festival and then returned to Nazareth. Luke relates that on one particular year Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem, unbeknownst to Mary and Joseph, to engage in discussion with the teachers in the Temple.
Subsequently, he went with his parents and came to Nazareth and was obedient to them (Luke 2:41–51).

During his public life, Jesus visited Nazareth infrequently because he had not been received cordially there; according to Luke 4:16–27, quite the contrary occurred: “When they heard this, all in the [Nazareth] synagogue were filled with rage. They got up, drove him out of the town, and led him to the brow of the
hill on which their town was built, so that they might hurl him off the cliff” (Luke 4:28–29). What sparked this outrage was that in the synagogue of Nazareth Jesus had declared himself the fulfillment of prophecy (Luke 4:21). The Temple in Jerusalem manifested an aversion to everything foreign—not so the synagogue.

It is obvious from the foregoing that Nazareth derives its importance entirely from its relationship to the life and teaching of Jesus.

The term “Nazarene” (the Greek word has two different spellings [see below, Matthew 2:23], both understood as references to Nazareth) is applied to Jesus in all four of the Gospels and in Acts. Otherwise the derivation and meaning of this word are surrounded by conjecture. It may be a play on Isaiah’s prophecy that “A shoot shall come out from the stump of Jesse [that is, from the family of David’s father], and a branch [historical king; Hebrew netzer] shall grow out of his roots” (Isaiah 11:1). This passage projects into the future the expectation of an ideal king.

“After being warned in a dream, he [Joseph] went away to the district of Galilee. There he made his home in a town called Nazareth, so that what had been spoken through the prophets might be fulfilled,
‘He will be called a Nazorean’” (Matthew 2:22–23). The source of this citation is unknown.

When evaluating Biblical literature some readers are disappointed to learn what they had been reading is not fact but fiction. If the material is not a blow-by-blow description of a person or event, its value in their estimation has been compromised. For those who have been trained in mathematical precision, the presumption is that anything less is devalued. Just the facts, they say; anything less is watered down. For them this narrow approach will produce an end product that is both bland and vapid.

On the other hand, literature that is the product of creativity and imagination is rich and vibrant. It is the difference between prose and poetry.

All of us should be enriched by our environment—not untouched by it. So too in the time of Jesus. My purpose in this column is to illustrate how both Nazareth and Bethlehem influenced Jesus.
Has Jesus’ Nazareth House Been Found?

By Ken Dark

Ken Dark

HOME OF JESUS? Pictured is the rock-cut doorway of the first-century house at the Sisters of Nazareth Convent. The combination of rock-built construction and quarried-rock construction can be seen clearly. The door opens to the “Chambre Obscure,” another part of the original house structure partly cut out of the natural rock. The rock overhang in the corner is naturally occurring and was likely left in its current form to support the roof. In front of the doorway, a fragment of the original floor survives.

What was Nazareth like when Jesus lived there? The evidence is sparse but intriguing.

Surprising as it may seem, very little archaeological work has been done in Nazareth itself. However, a site within the Sisters of Nazareth Convent, across the street from the Church of the Annunciation, may contain some of the best evidence of the small town that existed here in Jesus’ time. Although known since the 1880s, this had never previously been properly published or even studied by professional archaeologists—until the Nazareth Archaeological Project began work here in 2006.1

NAZARETH. The excavation site in the cellar of the Sisters of Nazareth Convent (A) may reveal the childhood home of Jesus. Finds from this site and those in the vicinity of the Church of the Annunciation (B) and the International Marian Center (C) suggest that the town of Nazareth was somewhat larger and wealthier than often portrayed.

Ancient Nazareth was served by three to seven springs, two of which, the Apostles’ Fountain (E)
and Mary’s Well (D), are still known.

The story begins with the chance discovery of an ancient cistern in the 1880s, shortly after the convent was built. Excavations were then undertaken by the nuns, their workmen and even children from their school. They exposed a complex sequence of unusually well preserved archaeological features, including Crusader-period walls and vaults, a Byzantine cave-church, Roman-period tombs and other rock-cut and built structures. The nuns made a small museum of the pottery, coins, glass and other portable artifacts that they recovered. Then construction of the new convent buildings revealed the walls of a large Byzantine church with a triple apse, polychrome mosaic floors and white marble fittings, rebuilt in the Crusader period.

Did all this ancient construction, including churches and burials, indicate that the site was considered holy, or at least of some importance, at various periods after Jesus’ time? Was this perhaps founded on a belief that the site was somehow related to Jesus’ home?

In 1936, the Jesuit Father Henri Senès, who had been an architect before entering the Church, recorded the previously exposed structures in great detail and undertook some further, though limited, excavations. Unfortunately Senès never published his work (apart from a brief guide pamphlet). But he did leave a substantial archive of notes and drawings, little known outside the convent, to which the nuns have graciously given us access.

Within the Sisters of Nazareth Convent is the first-century “courtyard house.” While excavation in this area was initiated in 1880, it was not until the Nazareth Archaeological Project began their investigation in 2006 that the site was studied by professional archaeologists.

Rotem Hofman

In 2006, we began to reexamine the site. It soon became clear that there was a lengthy

chronological sequence of well-preserved structures and features. This included the successive Crusader and Byzantine churches, two Early Roman-period tombs, a phase of small-scale quarrying and, of particular note, a rectilinear structure with partly rock-cut and partly stone-built walls.

The rectilinear structure was cut through by the forecourt of a tomb dated to the first century; therefore the rectilinear structure must have been built earlier than this time. That this structure also dated to the Roman period was confirmed by the Kefar Hananya-type pottery (standard domestic pottery of Roman-period Galilee; see photo p. 62), the date of which is otherwise known.2 Probable fragments of limestone vessels indicate that the inhabitants were very likely Jewish. Limestone vessels are not subject to impurity under Jewish law and were therefore very popular in Jewish communities at this time.

The east side of the structure originally had rock built walls, as this part of the house was built away from the naturally occurring rock cave. The visible wall was rebuilt in the Crusader period but may incorporate remains of the first-century A.D. wall.

Ken Dark

What sort of building was this rectilinear structure? It had been constructed by cutting back a limestone hillside as it sloped toward the wadi (valley) below, leaving carefully smoothed freestanding rock walls, to which stone-built walls were added. The structure included a series of rooms. One, with its doorway, survived to its full height. Another had a stairway rising adjacent to one of its walls. A rock overhang had been carefully retained in one room, its upper surface worked to support part of a roof or upper story—which otherwise must have been built of another material, probably timber. Just inside the surviving doorway, earlier excavations had revealed part of its original chalk floor. Associated finds, including cooking pottery and a spindle whorl, suggested domestic occupation.

Taken together, the walls conformed to the plan of a so-called courtyard house, one of the typical architectural forms of Early Roman-period settlements in the Galilee.

The excellent preservation of this rectilinear structure or house can be explained by its later history. Great efforts had been made to encompass the remains of this building within the vaulted cellars of both the Byzantine and Crusader churches, so that it was thereafter protected.

Initially puzzling was the use of the site for Jewish burial. Although domestic occupation was of course prohibited by Jewish law on burial sites, burial on a disused domestic site was another matter. The burials were also separated from domestic occupation by a phase of quarrying. It is clear the house was already disused before the site was used for tombs. The immediate area was mostly destroyed before the tombs were constructed. Consequently, the apparent conflict between domestic occupation and burial is an illusory one. The house must date from the first century A.D. or earlier. No stratified pottery earlier or later than the Early Roman period was discovered in layers associated with the house.3

ROLLING TOMB STONE. The forecourt of this tomb cuts through the courtyard house that may have once been Jesus’ home. Initially this was confusing, as Jewish law would not permit burials to take place near habitations, but the courtyard house had been abandoned prior to the installation of the tombs as evidenced by a period of quarrying. Both structures date to the first century A.D. The rock “door” would be similar to the stone that covered the entrance to the tomb of Jesus, which was rolled away at the resurrection (Mark
16:3; Matthew 28:2; Luke 24:2; John 20:1).
Ken Dark
In 2009, another first-century courtyard house was discovered nearby—in a salvage (or rescue) excavation directed by Yardenna Alexandre of the Israel Antiquities Authority prior to the construction of the International Marian Center next to the Church of the Annunciation.4 This reveals a structure similar to the Sisters of Nazareth house. The principal difference between the two structures is that the Marian Center structure has fewer rock-cut components as it was built on relatively flat ground farther away from the side of the hill.

Consequently, we now have two first-century courtyard houses from central Nazareth. These, together with the other earlier discoveries at the Church of the Annunciation, provide evidence for an Early Roman Jewish settlement that was larger, and perhaps slightly wealthier, than is often envisaged. Such evidence would be consistent with what archaeologists of the Roman provinces elsewhere
conventionally term a “small town”: a large village, perhaps perceived by contemporaries as a small urban center, serving as a focus for smaller agricultural communities nearby.

Nazareth was served by at least three, and possibly as many as seven, springs or wells. St. Mary’s Well is perhaps the best known of these. Another is the so-called Apostles’ Fountain near the modern Mensa Church. We found another spring in the course of our fieldwork at the Sisters of Nazareth Convent; it remains accessible through its Crusader-period wellhead. Another water source is implied by an unpublished plan of about 1900 in the convent archive, where a water channel is shown leading from the so-called Synagogue Church, north of the convent. According to Gottfried Schumacher, in the 19th century local people knew of another spring located to the south.5 The Palestine Exploration Fund’s famous Survey of Western Palestine in the 1870s recorded a well within the Franciscan precinct of the Church of the Annunciation. Finally, in his 1923 Das Land Der Bibel, Paul Range says he saw another spring west of the Old City of Nazareth.

The hinterland of Nazareth is oriented to the north. To the south a high rocky ridge cuts off easy movement by foot or animal-drawn cart. To the north, however, a relatively gentle walk leads to the Nahal Zippori, the broad valley between Nazareth and the Roman town of Sepphoris (Zippori in Hebrew). This valley is well watered by the stream that flows along its center and by numerous springs and a few
rivulets on its slopes. The part of Nahal Zippori closest to Nazareth was probably the agricultural hinterland of the settlement.

Between 2004 and 2010, the Nazareth Archaeological Project surveyed a wide transect across Nahal Zippori. We identified a series of previously unknown Early Roman-period sites, probably farms and small villages, which (with just two exceptions) had no pre-Roman material. At a few sites we also found evidence of quarrying.
It may be possible to say something of the cultural identity of those living in the Nahal Zippori at this time. All the sites on the south side of the valley, nearer to Nazareth, featured Kefar Hananya-type pottery. Some also had the type of limestone vessels associated elsewhere with Jewish settlements. However, all of those on the north side of the valley, nearer Sepphoris, had a much wider range of artifacts, including red-slipped imported Eastern Terra Sigillata pottery and imported amphora. Communities closer to Sepphoris apparently embraced the cultural world of the Roman provinces; those
closer to Nazareth chose a strictly Jewish material culture, perhaps denoting a more conservative attitude to religious belief and concepts of purity and rejecting “Roman” culture as a whole.a
Nowhere else in the Roman Empire is there such a seemingly clear-cut boundary between people accepting and those rejecting Roman culture, even along the imperial Roman frontiers. This suggests that the Nazareth area was unusual for the strength of its anti-Roman sentiment and/or the strength of its Jewish identity. It also suggests that there was no close connection between Nazareth and Sepphoris in the Early Roman period. Perhaps these places occupied focal roles in separate “settlement systems” on either side of the valley.

Some recent scholarship has argued that the Roman culture of Sepphoris, closer than 5 miles from Nazareth, would have played an important part in Jesus’ youth. Sepphoris, with its shop-lined streets, mosaic-floored townhouses and monumental public buildings, might initially appear to support this contention. But the Sepphoris seen by visitors today is largely a later construction. Very little of what is known of Sepphoris may be assigned with certainty to the early first century.

The first-century evidence that we do have from Sepphoris suggests an urban center with an administrative function, domestic occupation and public buildings. It may have been relatively cosmopolitan, in the sense that it was open to Roman provincial culture, but it remained a Jewish community.

By contrast, Nazareth was a local center without the trappings of Roman culture, perhaps analogous to nearby Capernaum or Chorazin in its facilities and scale, rather than to Sepphoris (which, incidentally, is not mentioned in the New Testament). The description in the Gospels of the Nazareth synagogue
(Mark 6:1–6; Matthew 13:54–58; Luke 4:16–30) is exactly the sort of building we would expect in an Early Roman provincial “small town.” Such a small town was also exactly the sort of place where one might expect to find a rural craftsman—a tekton (Mark 6:3; Matthew 13:55)—like Joseph.

This evidence suggests that Jesus’ boyhood was spent in a conservative Jewish community that had little contact with Hellenistic or Roman culture. (It is extremely unlikely to be the sort of place where, as some have argued, one would have encountered “cynic” philosophy.)
None of this, of course, has any explicit connection with Jesus. There is one possible connection, however. A seventh-century pilgrim account known as De Locus Sanctis, written by Adomnán of Iona, describes two large churches in the center of Nazareth. One is identifiable as the Church of the Annunciation, located just across the modern street from the Sisters of Nazareth Convent. The other stood nearby and was built over vaults that also contained a spring and the remains of two
tombs, tumuli in Adomnán’s “Insular Latin.” Between these two tombs, Adomnán tells us, was the house in which Jesus was raised. From this is derived the more recent name for the church that Adomnán describes: the Church of the Nutrition, that is, “the church of the upbringing of Christ,” the location of which has been lost.6

At the Sisters of Nazareth Convent there was evidence of a large Byzantine church with a spring and two tombs in its crypt. The first-century house described at the beginning of this article, probably a courtyard house, stands between the two tombs. Both the tombs and the house were decorated with mosaics in the Byzantine period, suggesting that they were of special importance, and possibly
venerated. Only here have we evidence for all the characteristics that De Locus Sanctis ascribes to the

Church of the Nutrition, including the house.

Was this the house where Jesus grew up? It is impossible to say on archaeological grounds. On the other hand, there is no good archaeological reason why such an identification should be discounted. What we can say is that this building was probably where the Byzantine church builders believed Jesus had spent his childhood in Nazareth.

Did Jesus Marry?

By Birger A. Pearson

Collection Russian State Museum, St. Petersburg / Photo by Scala / Art Resource, NY

Mary Magdalene reaches out to the risen Jesus beside his tomb, but he spurns her, saying “Touch me not”—in Latin, Noli me tangere (John 20:16–18). Longstanding tradition identifies Mary Magdalene as a repentant whore. Her long dark tresses and red dress in this 1835 painting by Russian artist Alexander Ivanov are intended to recall her promiscuous past. In more recent years, however, scholars and novelists alike have suggested that the Magdalene was also Jesus’ wife. In the accompanying article, Birger A. Pearson examines the evidence—both from extrabiblical accounts of Mary as well as from Jesus’ own conversations about marriage—in order to declare this marriage null and void.

There is not the slightest hint in the New Testament that Jesus ever married. Yet, Jesus’ marital status has become a hot topic—again—as a result of the best-selling book The Da Vinci Code.1 Novelist Dan Brown claims not only that Jesus married Mary Magdalene, but that the happy couple bore a daughter who became the ancestress of the Merovingian dynasty of France.

In 1970 New Testament scholar William Phipps created a smaller-scale sensation with his work of nonfiction, Was Jesus Married?2 Noting that in Jesus’ day, all ordinary Jewish men were expected to marry, Phipps suggested Jesus was probably no exception. According to Phipps, Jesus would have married by the time he turned 18.

As to who Jesus’ wife might have been, Phipps also suggested Mary Magdalene as the most likely candidate (see box). Phipps offered the following scenario: Jesus married Mary Magdalene during the second decade of his life, and she became an adulteress.3 Jesus forgave her, and she repented, staying faithful to him until the end. His experience with her contributed to his strong stand against divorce. In a later book, The Sexuality of Jesus, Phipps admitted that although he believed Mary Magdalene was the most likely candidate for Jesus’ wife, no certainty could be achieved on the question. He concluded: “It is considerably more risky to attempt to identify whom Jesus married than it is to affirm that he married.”4 But is it really possible that Jesus married? One answer to that question is: Anything is possible. After all, we know precious little about Jesus’ life before we encounter him in the Gospels in connection with the activity of John the Baptist sometime around 27 C.E. (Luke 3:1). We know that he grew up in the Galilean town of Nazara (Matthew 4:13; Luke 4:16) or Nazareth (Mark 1:9; John 1:45–46), that his mother’s name was Mary (probably Miriam in Hebrew), his father was a carpenter named Joseph, and he had four brothers and at least three sisters (Matthew 13:55–56; Mark 6:3; Luke 4:22; Acts 1:14). But we do not know much else of his early years. So what was he doing before he fell in with John?

Phipps answers this question by assuming that Jesus did what almost all young Jewish men did.

In The Da Vinci Code, however, Dan Brown claims that Jesus’ marriage to Mary is a matter of historical record, attested in ancient writings suppressed by the Church. According to Brown, in order to cover up the secret relationship between Mary and Jesus, the Church smeared Mary by creating the legend that she had been a whore (it is not in the New Testament; see box).

Brown mentions “countless references to Jesus and Magdalene’s union” in the ancient record, but he cites only two apocryphal gospels, both of them texts preserved in Coptic: the Gospel of Philip, known from a fourth-century copy found at Nag Hammadi, Egypt, and the Gospel of Mary, known from a fifth- century copy.5 Phipps also relied on the Gospel of Philip in concocting his vision of Jesus’ and Mary’s life together.6

The Gospel of Philip was originally written in Greek, probably sometime in the third century, probably somewhere in Syria. The title of the Gospel of Philip is likely not original, and is evidently based on the observation that Philip is the only apostle named in it. The text consists of a compendium of teachings on various subjects reflecting the tradition of an eastern branch of the Valentinian school of Gnostic Christianity.a Unfortunately the manuscript is damaged, and there are lacunae, or gaps, in the text. The passage given in The Da Vinci Code reads as follows (with brackets indicating lacunae):

And the companion of the […] Mary Magdalene. [… loved] her more than [all] the disciples [and used to] kiss her [often] on her […]. The rest of [the disciples …]. They said to him, “Why do you love her more than all of us?” The Savior answered and said to them, “Why do I not love you like her”?7

The first two lacunae can safely be restored as references to Jesus (“the Savior”), and “mouth” is a likely restoration for the third lacuna, so the text could read: “And the companion of the Savior was Mary Magdalene. The Savior loved her more than all the disciples and used to kiss her often on her mouth.”
There are actually two passages in the Gospel of Philip relating to Mary (although Brown only quotes this one). The other passage reads:

There were three who always walked with the lord: Mary his mother and 8 sister and the Magdalene, the one who was called his companion. His sister and his mother and his companion were each a Mary.9

An accurate interpretation of these passages from the Gospel of Philip is by no means obvious.10 A sexual relationship between Mary and Jesus cannot be ruled out a priori . But it does seem unlikely. First, both passages refer to Mary Magdalene three times as Jesus’ “companion.” The Greek word koinonos is used twice, and its Coptic equivalent hotre is used once.11 The word can also be translated as “partner”
(in business), “fellow-member” (of a society), “accomplice” (in crime) or “sharer” (in something). But I know of no instance where the word means “spouse,” though it is not out of the question that the word could be used for a sexual “partner.” The reference to the savior’s “kissing” Mary might also be interpreted romantically, but it is more likely a reference to the chaste, liturgical “kiss of peace” mentioned several times in the Gospel of Philip and the New Testament (Romans 16:16; 1 Corinthians 16:20; 2 Corinthians
13:12; 1 Thessalonians 5:26; 1 Peter 5:14).12

More importantly, immediately following the first passage quoted above, Jesus goes on to explain Mary’s special role in terms of her capacity to receive his instruction—and not her sex appeal. When, in the Gospel of Philip, the disciples ask Jesus why he loves Mary more than them, Jesus responds, “Why do I not love you like her?” He then answers his own question: “When a blind man and one who sees are both together in darkness, they are no different from one another. When the light comes, then he who sees will see the light, and he who is blind will remain in darkness.”13 Jesus is suggesting that he favors Mary because she is like a sighted person compared with the dullard male disciples, who are like blind men. Thus, Mary’s “companionship” is spiritual rather than physical. When quoting this passage, Brown conveniently left off the second half.

In any case, there is no indication at all in the Gospel of Philip that Jesus and Mary Magdalene were man and wife. A sexual relationship might be read into that gospel, but it seems a stretch. Further, no conclusion about Jesus’ historical relationship to Mary Magdalene should be drawn from a third-century Gnostic text like the Gospel of Philip.

The second noncanonical gospel Dan Brown relies on in The Da Vinci Code is the Gospel of

Mary,14 which was originally written in Greek, probably sometime in the mid-second century. It consists of a Mary. Unfortunately the text is incomplete; several pages are missing from the manuscript. The only passage quoted in The Da Vinci Code reads as follows (the unnamed woman is Mary):15

Peter answered and spoke concerning these same things. He questioned them about the Savior: “Did he really speak with a woman without our knowledge (and) not openly? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?” … Levi answered and said to Peter, “Peter, you have always been hot-tempered. Now I see you contending against the woman like the adversaries. But if the Savior made her worthy, who are you indeed to reject her? Surely the Savior knows her very well. That is why he loved her more than us.”16

Out of context—which is how Dan Brown presents this quotation—the text could be read to suggest that Jesus had an intimate relationship with his beloved Mary, and that he didn’t want the other disciples to know about it.

But when the passage is read in context, we get a very different impression of their relationship, as described by the Gospel of Mary. Just before Peter made this speech, Mary had recounted a revelation she had received in a vision she had of the Savior, and the disciple Andrew had commented that “these teachings are strange ideas.” Then Peter speaks. At issue here is whether or not Mary’s account of her experiences is valid. Levi’s comment that the Savior “loved her more than us” is based on his observation that she has been given instruction that has apparently been denied to the male disciples. Nothing is said of any sexual relationship between Jesus and Mary, least of all any hint of marriage between them.

Jesus’ special love for Mary is mentioned earlier in the Gospel of Mary, too. Mary is discussing with the other (male) disciples teachings they had heard from the Savior. At one point Peter says to Mary, “Sister, we know that the Savior loved you more than the rest of women. Tell us the words of the Savior which you remember—which you know (but) we do not, nor have we heard them.”17 Mary then recounts what she learned in a vision of the Savior. Peter is suggesting that of all the female followers of Jesus, Mary is the favored one. No sexual relationship is implied, only that Mary has a greater capacity to understand and act upon Jesus’ teachings.

Thus, the Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Mary lend no support whatsoever to William Phipps’s and Dan Brown’s independent suggestions that Jesus married Mary Magdalene. The Gospel of
Mary underscores her role vis-à-vis Jesus’ male disciples as an authoritative source for his esoteric teaching, but there is nothing in it to support the notion that Jesus and Mary were man and wife. While a sexual relationship between Mary and Jesus cannot be completely ruled out in the Gospel of Philip’s treatment of Mary, their relationship is more likely to be seen as a spiritual one. Completely absent from the Gospel of Philip is the notion that Jesus and Mary were man and wife.
revelation dialogue between Jesus and his disciples, and a report of a revelation given by Jesus to Mary. Unfortunately the text is incomplete; several pages are missing from the manuscript. The only passage quoted in The Da Vinci Code reads as follows (the unnamed woman is Mary):15

Peter answered and spoke concerning these same things. He questioned them about the Savior: “Did he really speak with a woman without our knowledge (and) not openly? Are we to turn about and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?” … Levi answered and said to Peter, “Peter, you have always been hot-tempered. Now I see you contending against the woman like the adversaries. But if the Savior made her worthy, who are you indeed to reject her? Surely the Savior knows her very well. That is why he loved her more than us.”16

Out of context—which is how Dan Brown presents this quotation—the text could be read to suggest that Jesus had an intimate relationship with his beloved Mary, and that he didn’t want the other disciples to know about it.

But when the passage is read in context, we get a very different impression of their relationship, as described by the Gospel of Mary. Just before Peter made this speech, Mary had recounted a revelation she had received in a vision she had of the Savior, and the disciple Andrew had commented that “these teachings are strange ideas.” Then Peter speaks. At issue here is whether or not Mary’s account of her experiences is valid. Levi’s comment that the Savior “loved her more than us” is based on his observation that she has been given instruction that has apparently been denied to the male disciples. Nothing is said of any sexual relationship between Jesus and Mary, least of all any hint of marriage between them.

Jesus’ special love for Mary is mentioned earlier in the Gospel of Mary, too. Mary is discussing with the other (male) disciples teachings they had heard from the Savior. At one point Peter says to Mary, “Sister, we know that the Savior loved you more than the rest of women. Tell us the words of the Savior which you remember—which you know (but) we do not, nor have we heard them.”17 Mary then recounts what she learned in a vision of the Savior. Peter is suggesting that of all the female followers of Jesus, Mary is the favored one. No sexual relationship is implied, only that Mary has a greater capacity to understand and act upon Jesus’ teachings.

Thus, the Gospel of Philip and the Gospel of Mary lend no support whatsoever to William Phipps’s and Dan Brown’s independent suggestions that Jesus married Mary Magdalene. The Gospel of
Mary underscores her role vis-à-vis Jesus’ male disciples as an authoritative source for his esoteric teaching, but there is nothing in it to support the notion that Jesus and Mary were man and wife. While a sexual relationship between Mary and Jesus cannot be completely ruled out in the Gospel of Philip’s treatment of Mary, their relationship is more likely to be seen as a spiritual one. Completely absent from the Gospel of Philip is the notion that Jesus and Mary were man and wife.
As for Phipps’s suggestion that Jesus must have married because that’s what young Jewish men did in his day—no certainty can be achieved on this point. Nothing at all in our meager sources, biblical or extrabiblical, suggests that Jesus ever did get married. But there is something in the New Testament that suggests Jesus probably didn’t: Jesus’ own attitude toward marriage.

It is not really possible to know, for lack of evidence, how Jesus felt about marriage in his formative years. It is possible to determine, based on his teachings in the Gospels, what he thought during his later years as a public prophet. From his teachings, we can extrapolate what his marital state was at the time.

Interestingly, Jesus’ attitude toward marriage and procreation relates directly to Jesus’ most basic and central message: that the kingdom of God was at hand. The “kingdom” or “rule” of God was another term for the Age to Come, when evil would finally be abolished, and God’s reign established on earth for all time. According to some apocalyptic thinkers of the day—including Jesus—the dead would be resurrected at this time.

The nearness in time of the kingdom of God was a concept well known to Jews of Jesus’ day. It was regularly given expression in an Aramaic prayer, the Kaddish, which originated as a prayer said at the dismissal of people from synagogue services or from study of Torah at a school:

Magnified and sanctified be his great name in the world that he has created according to his will. May he establish his kingdom during your lifetime and during your days, and during the life of all the house of Israel, ever speedily and at a near time. And say, Amen.18

In Mark, Jesus begins his ministry with the proclamation, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent, and believe in the gospel” (Mark 1:15).19 And he taught his disciples to pray likewise: “Sanctified be your name. Your kingdom come, your will be done, as in heaven so also on earth” (Matthew 6:9–10; cf. Luke 11:2).20 In accordance with Jewish eschatological hopes and an apocalyptic worldview, Jesus emphasized the imminence of the absolute rule of God, for which pious Jews of Jesus’ day prayed. That’s why he solemnly told the crowds who gathered around him, “Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death before they see that the kingdom of God has come with power” (Mark 9:1).

Not all Jews of Jesus’ day believed in the resurrection, however. One day, some Sadducees, who didn’t believe in resurrection, taunted Jesus with a hypothetical case (Matthew 22:23–33; Mark 12:18–27; Luke 20:27–40). Moses had commanded that, in the case of a man who died childless, his brother should marry the widow (Deuteronomy 25:5). Suppose there were seven brothers who all died childless. In the
resurrection, whose wife would she be? Jesus’ answer is simple: “In the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven” (Matthew 22:30).

Elsewhere, Jesus challenges his followers to live in the present as though the kingdom had already come. In the Sermon on the Mount, he explains that love for one’s neighbor was a common enough command, but that his ethical norm was much stricter: People should even love their enemies (Matthew
5:43–47; Luke 6:27–28, 32–36). His teaching on marriage and divorce was also very strict: Divorce was forbidden (Matthew 5:27–32, 19:9; Mark 10:11–12; Luke 16:18).21 When his disciples suggested that such a strict teaching would discourage people from getting married at all, Jesus replied,

There are eunuchs who have been so from birth, and there are eunuchs who have been made eunuchs by men, and there are eunuchs who have made themselves eunuchs for the sake of the kingdom of heaven. He who is able to receive this, let him receive it.

(Matthew 19:11)

While some people in the early Church took Jesus’ saying literally,22 we should understand it as a case of deliberate hyperbole, such as is found in other of his injunctions (see, for example, Matthew 5:27–
30 on adultery: “… If your right eye causes you to sin, pluck it out and throw it away; it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell.”).

The point Jesus is making about the eunuch is that it is possible for a man to live on earth as he would in God’s kingdom, where there is neither marriage nor procreation. Jesus is challenging people who are “able to receive it” to live a life of celibacy for the sake of the kingdom, and thus to live now as
though the future kingdom had already come. It would be absurd to think that Jesus placed this challenge before others without accepting it for himself.

Was Jesus married? Despite what we might read in the popular press, we have no evidence in the New Testament or the apocryphal gospels that Jesus ever married. Further, Jesus’ own teachings from his days as a prophet of the kingdom of God rule out the possibility that he could have been married to Mary Magdalene—or to any other woman—at that time

From Saint to Sinner By Birger A. Pearson Sidebar to: Did Jesus Marry?

Private Collection / Bridgeman Art Library / Courtesy of IAP Fine Art

Dan Brown, William Phipps, Martin Scorsese—when looking for a lover or wife for Jesus, they all chose Mary Magdalene. It’s not surprising. Mary Magdalene has long been recognized as one of the New Testament’s more alluring women. Most people think of her as a prostitute who repented after encountering Jesus. In contemporary British artist Chris Gollon’s painting of The Pre-penitent Magdalene (at right), Mary appears as a defiant femme fatal adorned with jewelry and make-up.

Yet, the New Testament says no such thing. Rather, in three of the four canonical Gospels, Mary Magdalene is mentioned by name only in connection with the death and resurrection of Jesus. She is a witness to his crucifixion (Matthew 27:55–56; Mark 15:40–41; John 19:25) and burial (Matthew 27:61; Mark 15:47).1 She is one of the first (the first, according to John) to arrive at the empty tomb (Matthew
28:1–8; Mark 16:1–8; Luke 24:1–12; John 20:1–10). And she is one of the first (again, the first, according

to John) to witness the risen Christ (Matthew 28:9; John 20:14–18).

Only the Gospel of Luke names Mary Magdalene in connection with Jesus’ daily life and public ministry. There, Mary is listed as someone who followed Jesus as he went from village to village, bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. “And the twelve were with him, and also some women who had
been healed of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their means” (Luke 8:1–3).

The epithet “Magdalene,” used in all the Gospels, indicates that Mary came from the mercantile town of Migdal (Taricheae) on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.2 She must have been a woman of some means, if Luke’s account can be trusted, for she helped provide Jesus and the twelve with material support. She had also experienced Jesus’ healing power, presumably involving an exorcism of some
sort.3 It should be noted, though, that the author of the Gospel of Luke has a tendency to diminish Mary Magdalene’s role, in comparison with her treatment in the other three canonical Gospels. For example, Luke is alone among the canonical Gospels in claiming that the risen Lord appeared exclusively to Peter (Luke 24:34; cf. 1 Corinthians 15:5). No appearance to Mary is recorded in Luke.4 Accordingly, his reference to seven demons may be tendentious.5

So how did Mary become a repentant whore in Christian legend?

Critical scholarship has provided the answer to this question: It happened as a conscious attempt on the part of later interpreters of the Gospels to diminish her.a They did this by identifying her with other women mentioned in the Gospels, most notably the unnamed sinful woman who anoints Jesus’ feet with ointment and whose sins he forgives (Luke 7:36–50) and the unnamed woman taken in adultery (John
7:53–8:11).6 This conflation of texts was given sanction in the sixth century by Pope Gregory the Great (540–604) in a famous homily in which he holds Mary up as a model of penitence. Pope Gregory positively identified the unnamed anointer and adulteress as Mary, and suggested that the ointment used on Jesus’ feet was once used to scent Mary’s body. The seven demons Jesus cast out of Mary were, according to Gregory, the seven cardinal sins, which include lust. But, wrote Gregory, when Mary threw herself at Jesus’ feet, “she turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance.”7

Thus was invented the original hooker with a heart of gold.

Interestingly, the legend of Mary the penitent whore is found only in the Western church; in the Eastern church she is honored for what she was, a witness to the resurrection. Another Gregory, Gregory of Antioch (also sixth century), in one of his homilies, has Jesus say to the women at the tomb: “Proclaim to my disciples the mysteries which you have seen. Become the first teacher of the teachers. Peter, who has denied me, must learn that I can also choose women as apostles.”8
Mary’s historical role as an apostle is clearly tied to her experience of an appearance of the risen Christ. As noted above, in the Gospel of John, Mary Magdalene goes alone to the tomb, where she is the first to see the risen Jesus. He tells her to tell his “brethren” that he is ascending to God the Father. She then goes to the disciples and tells them what she has seen and heard (John 20:1, 11–19).9 Later that same day Jesus appears to the disciples gathered behind closed doors. He thus confirms in person the message Mary had given them. In contrast to Luke’s picture of Mary, in John she emerges as an “apostle to the apostles.”10

The positive role played by Mary Magdalene in the Gospel of John was considerably enhanced in Christian circles that honored her memory. The Gospel of Mary, quoted in the accompanying article, is the product of one such early Christian community. In her recent book The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene, Jane Schaberg presents the following nine-point “profile” of Mary:

(1) Mary is prominent among the followers of Jesus; (2) she exists as a character, as a memory, in a textual world of androcentric language and patriarchal ideology; (3) she speaks boldly; (4) she plays a leadership role vis-à-vis the male disciples; (5) she is a visionary; (6) she is praised for her superior understanding; (7) she is identified as the intimate companion of Jesus; (8) she is opposed by or in open conflict with one or more of the male disciples; (9) she is defended by Jesus.11

All nine characteristics are prominent in the Gospel of Mary, although many of these nine points are found in other noncanonical texts.

But does this portrait of Mary Magdalene as an early Church leader reflect historical reality? Perhaps. One scholar has suggested that Mary may even be mentioned along with a few other female leaders whom Paul sends greetings to in Romans 16:6, where he writes: “Greet Mary, who has worked very hard among you.”12 But this must remain speculative. It is true that we have no reason to suspect Mary was a prostitute or lover or wife of Jesus. But it is also true that if she was an apostle to the apostles, the evidence for her role has successfully been suppressed—at least until now. As a result of the recent work of a number of scholars, Mary Magdalene’s apostolic role in early Christianity is getting a new hearing.

That, in my view, is more important than viewing her as Jesus’ wife.

Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?

By Jonathan Klawans

Christie’s Images/Superstock

With his disciples gathered around him, Jesus partakes of his Last Supper. The meal, in this late-15th- century painting (now in a private collection) by the Spanish artist known only as the Master of Perea, consists of lamb, unleavened bread and wine—all elements of the Seder feast celebrated on the first night of the Jewish Passover festival. The Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke appear to present Jesus’ Last Supper as a Seder. In John, however, the seven-day Passover festival does not begin until after Jesus is crucified; thus, the Last Supper, which John never mentions, could not have been a Seder.

In the accompanying article, Jonathan Klawans suggests that the Passover Seder as we know it developed only after the time of Jesus, and after the Romans destroyed the Jerusalem Temple.

Many people assume that Jesus’ Last Supper was a Seder, a ritual meal held in celebration of the Jewish holiday of Passover. And indeed, according to the Gospel of Mark 14:12, Jesus prepared for the Last Supper on the “first day of Unleavened Bread, when they sacrificed the Passover lamb.” If Jesus and his disciples gathered together to eat soon after the Passover lamb was sacrificed, what else could they possibly have eaten if not the Passover meal? And if they ate the Passover sacrifice, they must have held a Seder.

Three out of four of the canonical Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) agree that the Last Supper was held only after the Jewish holiday had begun. Moreover, one of the best known and painstakingly detailed studies of the Last Supper—Joachim Jeremias’s book The Eucharistic Words of Jesus—lists no fewer than 14 distinct parallels between the Last Supper tradition and the Passover Seder.1

Photo by Rodger Ressmeyer, San Francisco/Corbis

A San Francisco seder. California Rabbi Jack Frankel and his family lift the first glass of wine during a Seder meal, held on the first night of Passover (and the second night in the Diaspora). The Seder commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. Throughout the meal, the biblical story is retold; the food is linked symbolically with the Exodus.

In front of each diner is a copy of the Haggadah, the book of prayers, hymns, biblical passages and rabbinic texts read aloud during the Seder. An elaborate, four-tiered Seder plate stands before the rabbi. The bottom three levels hold matzah (a fourth piece of matzah appears on a separate plate in the foreground), the unleavened bread that recalls the rapidity of the Israelites’ flight from Egypt; they were in such a
rush, Exodus 12:39 relates, they could not even wait for the dough to rise.

The top plate holds a roasted egg, which is variously interpreted as a symbol of life, spring, the circle of life, or sacrifice; a green vegetable (probably parsley), which represents the leaves used to spread blood on the doors’ of the Israelites in Egypt; charoset, a mixture of apples and walnuts with wine and cinnamon, which recalls the mortar the Israelites used for building in Egypt; horseradish, which represents the bitterness of suffering in Egypt; and a lamb’s shank bone, which represents the Passover sacrifice (see photo of sacrifice of the Passover lamb).

The Jewish holiday of Passover commemorates the Exodus from Egypt. The roots of the festival are found in Exodus 12, in which God instructs the Israelites to sacrifice a lamb at twilight on the 14th day of the Jewish month of Nisan, before the sun sets (Exodus 12:18). That night the Israelites are to eat the lamb with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The lamb’s blood should be swabbed on their doorposts as a sign. God, seeing the sign, will then “pass over” the houses of the Israelites (Exodus 12:13), while smiting the Egyptians with the tenth plague, the killing of the first-born sons.

Exodus 12 commands the Israelites to repeat this practice every year, performing the sacrifice during the day and then consuming it after the sun has set. (According to Jewish tradition, the new day begins with the setting of the sun, so the sacrifice is made on the 14th but the beginning of Passover and the
meal are actually on the 15th, although this sequence of dates is not specified in Exodus.) Exodus 12 further speaks of a seven-day festival, which begins when the sacrifice is consumed (Exodus 12:15).

Once the Israelites were settled in Israel, and once a Temple was built in Jerusalem, the original sacrifice described in Exodus 12 changed dramatically. Passover became one of the Jewish Pilgrimage festivals, and Israelites were expected to travel to Jerusalem to sacrifice a Passover lamb at the Temple during the afternoon of the 14th day, and then consume the Passover sacrifice once the sun had set, and the festival had formally begun on the 15th. This kind of celebration is described as having taken place during the reigns of Kings Hezekiah and Josiah (2 Chronicles 30 and 35).

As time passed, the practice continued to evolve. Eventually, a number of customs, recorded in rabbinic literature, began to accumulate around the meal, which became so highly ritualized that it was called the Seder, from the Hebrew for “order”: Unleavened bread was broken, wine was served, the
diners reclined and hymns were sung. Furthermore, during the meal, the Exodus story was retold and the significance of the unleavened bread, bitter herbs and wine was explained.

David Harris

The sacrifice of the Passover lamb is conducted annually on Mt. Gerizim, in Nablus (ancient Shechem), in the West Bank, by the Samaritans, a religious group that split from Judaism by the second century B.C.E. The Samaritans retained the Torah (the Five Books of Moses) as their Scripture, although with some alterations. The Samaritan Bible refers to Mt. Gerizim, not Jerusalem, as the center of worship. The text also includes an 11th commandment in which the Israelites are instructed to build an altar on Mt. Gerizim.

In both Jewish and Samaritan traditions, the roots of the Passover sacrifice lie in Exodus 12, in which God instructs the Israelites in Egypt to sacrifice a lamb at twilight, before the sun sets. In the evening, the Israelites are to eat the lamb with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The lamb’s blood should be swabbed on their doors: “For that night I [the Lord] will go through the land of Egypt and strike down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast…And the blood on the houses where you are staying shall be a sign for you: when I see the blood I will pass over you, so that no plagues will destroy you when I strike the land of Egypt.

“This day shall be to you one of remembrance: you shall celebrate it as a festival to the Lord throughout the ages; you shall celebrate it as an institution for all time. Seven days you shall eat unleavened bread” (Exodus 12:12–15).

The bread and wine, the hymn, the reclining diners—many of these characteristic elements are shared by the Last Supper, as Jeremias pointed out. (Jeremias’s 14 parallels are given in full in endnote
1.) What is more, just as Jews at the Seder discuss the symbolism of the Passover meal, Jesus at his

Last Supper discussed the symbolism of the wine and bread in light of his own coming death.

It is not only Jeremias’s long list of parallels that leads many modern Christians and Jews to describe the Last Supper as a Passover Seder. The recent popularity of interfaith Seders (where Christians and Jews celebrate aspects of Passover and the Last Supper together) points to an emotional impulse that is also at work here. The Christian celebration of the Eucharist (Communion)—the Last Supper—is the fundamental ritual for many Christians. And among Jews the Passover Seder is one of the most widely practiced of all observances. In these times of ecumenicism and general good feeling between Christians and Jews, many people seem to find it reassuring to think that Communion (the Eucharist) and the Passover Seder are historically related.

History, however, is often more complex and perhaps a little less comforting than we might hope. Although I welcome the current ecumenical climate, I believe we must be careful not to let our emotions get the better of us when we are searching for history. Indeed, even though the association of the Last Supper with a Passover Seder remains entrenched in the popular mind, a growing number of scholars are beginning to express serious doubts about this claim.

Of course a number of New Testament scholars—the Jesus Seminar comes to mind—tend to doubt that the Gospels accurately record very much at all about Jesus, with the exception of some of his sayings. Obviously if the Gospels cannot be trusted, then we have no reason to assume that there ever was a Last Supper at all. And if there was no Last Supper, then it could not have taken place on Passover.2

Furthermore, several Judaic studies scholars—Jacob Neusner is a leading example—very much doubt that rabbinic texts can be used in historical reconstructions of the time of Jesus. But rabbinic literature is our main source of information about what Jews might have done during their Seder meal in ancient times. For reasons that are not entirely clear, other ancient Jewish sources, such as Josephus and Philo, focus on what Jews did in the Temple when the Passover sacrifice was offered, rather than on what they did afterward, when they actually ate the sacrifice. Again, if we cannot know how Jews celebrated Passover at the time of Jesus, then we have to plead ignorance, and we would therefore be unable to answer our question.

There is something to be said for these skeptical positions, but I am not such a skeptic. I want to operate here under the opposite assumptions: that the Gospels can tell us about the historical
Jesus,3 and that rabbinic sources can be used—with caution—to reconstruct what Jews at the time of

Jesus might have believed and practiced.4 Even so, I do not think the Last Supper was a Passover Seder.
While three of the four canonical Gospels strongly suggest that the Last Supper did occur on Passover, we should not get too comfortable based on that. The three Gospels that support this view are the three synoptic Gospels—Matthew, Mark and Luke. As anyone who has studied these three Gospels knows, they are closely related. In fact, the name synoptic refers to the fact that these three texts can be studied most effectively when “seen together” (as implied in the Greek etymology of synoptic). Thus, in fact we don’t really have three independent sources here at all. What we have, rather, is one testimony (probably Mark), which was then copied twice (by Matthew and Luke).

Against the “single” testimony of the synoptics that the Last Supper was a Passover meal stands the lone Gospel of John, which dates the crucifixion to the “day of Preparation for the Passover” (John 19:14). According to John, Jesus died just when the Passover sacrifice was being offered and before the festival began at sundown (see the sidebar to this article). Any last meal—which John does not record—would have taken place the night before, or even earlier than that. But it certainly could not have been a Passover meal, for Jesus died before the holiday had formally begun.

So are we to follow John or the synoptics?5 There are a number of problems with the synoptic account. First, if the Last Supper had been a Seder held on the first night of Passover, then that would mean Jesus’ trial and crucifixion took place during the week-long holiday. If indeed Jewish authorities were at all involved in Jesus’ trial and death, then according to the synoptics those authorities would have engaged in activities—holding trials and carrying out executions—that were either forbidden or certainly unseemly to perform on the holiday. This is not the place to consider whether Jewish authorities were involved in Jesus’ death.6 Nor is it the place to consider whether such authorities would have been devout practitioners of Jewish law. But this is the place to point out that if ancient Jewish authorities had been involved in something that could possibly be construed as a violation of Jewish law, the Gospels—with their hatred of the Jewish authorities—would probably have made the most of it. The synoptic account stretches credulity, not just because it depicts something unlikely, but because it fails to recognize the unlikely and problematic nature of what it depicts. It is almost as if the synoptic tradition has lost all familiarity with contemporary Jewish practice. And if they have lost familiarity with that, they have
probably lost familiarity with reliable historical information as well.

There are, of course, some reasons to doubt John’s account too. He may well have had theological motivations for claiming that Jesus was executed on the day of preparation when the Passover sacrifice was being offered but before Passover began at sundown. John’s timing of events supports the Christian claim that Jesus himself was a sacrifice and that his death heralds a new redemption, just as the Passover offering recalls an old one. Even so, John’s claim that Jesus was killed just before Passover began is more plausible than the synoptics’ claim that Jesus was killed on Passover. And if Jesus wasn’t
killed on Passover, but before it (as John claims), then the Last Supper could not in fact have been a

Passover Seder.

What then of Jeremias’s long list of parallels? It turns out that under greater scrutiny the parallels are too general to be decisive. That Jesus ate a meal in Jerusalem, at night, with his disciples is not so surprising. It is also no great coincidence that during this meal the disciples reclined, ate both bread and wine, and sang a hymn. While such behavior may have been characteristic of the Passover meal, it is equally characteristic of practically any Jewish meal.

A number of scholars now believe that the ritual context for the Last Supper was not a Seder but a standard Jewish meal. That Christians celebrated the Eucharist on a daily or weekly basis (see Acts
2:46–47) underscores the fact that it was not viewed exclusively in a Passover context (otherwise, it would have been performed, like the Passover meal, on an annual basis).

An ancient Christian church manual called the Didache also suggests that the Last Supper may have been an ordinary Jewish meal. In Chapters 9 and 10 of the Didache, the eucharistic prayers are remarkably close to the Jewish Grace After Meals (Birkat ha-Mazon).7 While these prayers are recited after the Passover meal, they would in fact be recited at any meal at which bread was eaten, holiday or not. Thus, this too underscores the likelihood that the Last Supper was an everyday Jewish meal.

Moreover, while the narrative in the synoptics situates the Last Supper during Passover, the fact remains that the only foods we are told the disciples ate are bread and wine—the basic elements of any formal Jewish meal. If this was a Passover meal, where is the Passover lamb? Where are the bitter herbs? Where are the four cups of wine?a

We are left with only one important parallel (Jeremias’s 14th) that can be explained in terms of a Seder: the surprising fact that Jesus at his Last Supper engaged in symbolic explanation of the bread and wine, just as Jews at the Seder engage in symbolic explanations, interpreting aspects of the Passover meal in light of the Exodus from Egypt: “Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, ‘Take, eat; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when
he had given thanks he gave it to them, saying, ‘Drink of it, all of you, for this is my blood of the covenant’” (Matthew 26:26–28=Mark 14:22; see also Luke 22:19–20). Is this not a striking parallel to the ways in which Jews celebrating the Seder interpret, for example, the bitter herbs eaten with the Passover sacrifice as representing the bitter life the Israelites experienced as slaves in Egypt?

However, this last parallel between the Last Supper and the Passover Seder assumes that the Seder ritual we know today was celebrated in Jesus’ day. But this is hardly the case.
When Jews today sit down to celebrate the Passover Seder, they use a book known as the Haggadah. The Hebrew word haggadah literally means “telling”; the title refers to the book’s purpose: to provide the ordered framework through which the story of Passover is told at the Seder. Telling the story of Passover is, of course, one of the fundamental purposes of the celebration, as stated in Exodus 13:8: “And you shall tell your child on that day, ‘It is because of what the Lord did for me when I went forth from Egypt.’”

From the Raban Haggadah/Courtesy of Mali Doron

“He went down to Egypt—impelled by God’s word.” Thus begins the Hebrew text on this page from an illuminated Haggadah created by Zeev Raban (1890–1970), a leader of Israel’s Zionist Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts. The frieze-like imagery at top depicts the Exodus. At left Jacob wrestles with the angel; at right he dreams of a stairway to heaven.

The name Haggadah, from the Hebrew for “telling,” refers to the retelling of the Exodus story at Passover. The book includes biblical quotations, rabbinic commentary, songs and prayers, and detailed instructions on how to conduct a Seder.

The text on this particular page provides rabbinic commentary on a biblical passage relating to Israel’s sojourn in Egypt. After discussing Jacob’s journey to Egypt, the text continues, “‘And he lived there’—this teaches that our father Jacob did not go to Egypt to settle there permanently, just temporarily, as it is written: ‘And the sons of Jacob said to Pharaoh: “We have come to live in this land temporarily, for there is no pasture for the flocks that belong to your servants, for the famine is harsh in the land of Canaan”’” (quoting Genesis 47:4).

The traditional text of the Haggadah as it exists today incorporates a variety of material, starting with the Bible, and running through medieval songs and poems. For many Jews (especially non-Orthodox Jews), the process of development continues, and many modern editions of the Haggadah contain contemporary readings of one sort or another. Even many traditional Jews have, for instance, adapted
the Haggadah so that mention can be made of the Holocaust.8

How much of the Haggadah goes back to ancient times? In the 1930s and 1940s, the American Talmud scholar Louis Finkelstein (1895–1991) famously claimed that various parts of the Passover Haggadah were very early, stemming in part from the third century B.C.E.9 In 1960, Israeli scholar Daniel Goldschmidt (1895–1972) effectively rebutted practically all of Finkelstein’s claims. It is unfortunate that Goldschmidt’s Hebrew article has not been translated, because it remains, to my mind, the classic work
on the early history of the Passover Haggadah.10 Fortunately, a number of brief and up-to-date treatments of the history of the Haggadah are now available.11 A full generation later, the Goldschmidt-Finkelstein debate seems to have been settled, and in Goldschmidt’s favor. Almost everyone doing serious work on the early history of Passover traditions, including Joseph Tabory, Israel Yuval, Lawrence Hoffman, and
the father-son team of Shmuel and Ze’ev Safrai, has rejected Finkelstein’s claims for the great antiquity of the bulk of the Passover Haggadah. What is particularly significant about this consensus is that these scholars are not radical skeptics. These scholars believe that, generally speaking, we can extract historically reliable information from rabbinic sources. But as demonstrated by the late Baruch Bokser in his book The Origins of the Seder, practically everything preserved in the early rabbinic traditions concerning the Passover Seder brings us back to the time immediately following the Roman destruction
of the Temple in 70 C.E.12 It’s not that rabbinic literature cannot be trusted to tell us about history in the first century of the Common Era. It’s that rabbinic literature—in the case of the Seder—does not even claim to be telling us how the Seder was performed before the destruction of the Temple.b

Let me elaborate on this proposition by examining the Haggadah’s requirement of explaining the

Passover symbols:

Rabban Gamaliel used to say: Whoever does not make mention of the following three things on Passover has not fulfilled his obligation: namely, the Passover sacrifice, unleavened bread (matzah) and bitter herbs.

(1) The Passover sacrifice, which our ancestors used to eat at the time when the Holy Temple stood—what is the reason? Because the Holy One, blessed be He, passed over the houses of our ancestors in Egypt. As it is said, “It is the sacrifice of the Lord’s Passover…” (Exodus 12:27).

(2) The unleavened bread, which we eat—what is the reason? Because the dough of our ancestors had not yet leavened when the King of Kings, the Holy One Blessed be He revealed Himself to them and redeemed them. As it is said, “And they baked unleavened cakes…” (Exodus 12:39).

(3) These bitter herbs, which we eat—what is the reason? Because the Egyptians made the lives of our ancestors bitter in Egypt. As it is said, “And they made their lives bitter…” (Exodus 1:14).

Sarajevo National Museum

Rabban Gamaliel, master of the rabbinic academy, instructs his students in this illumination from the Sarajevo Haggadah. The Haggadah credits Gamaliel with introducing the requirement that the symbolic significance of the food served during the Seder be explained during the meal. Some scholars who assume the Last Supper was a Seder have suggested that Jesus deliberately explained the significance of the bread and wine in fulfillment of this requirement.

But the requirement may not have even been in place in the time of Jesus. There were two leaders of the rabbinic academy called Gamaliel: One lived around the time of Jesus; the other, after the Temple was destroyed in 70 C.E. The Gamaliel of the Haggadah appears to be the latter figure, for he talks about the time when the Temple stood in the past tense. If this latter Gamaliel instituted the Seder meal requirements, then Jesus’ symbolic explanation of the bread and wine cannot be connected with them.

Produced in Spain in the 14th century, the Sarajevo Haggadah was brought to Italy after the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492. The manuscript had traveled to Sarajevo by 1894, when a young Jewish boy brought it with him to school. His father had died, leaving the family destitute, and he hoped to sell the manuscript. It was purchased by the Sarajevo National Museum. During World War II, when the Nazis demanded the manuscript be turned over to them, the museum’s Muslim curator secretly passed the manuscript to a local Muslim preacher, who stashed it under the doorstep of a village mosque until the war ended. When civil war broke out in Sarajevo in 1992, the manuscript was again hidden away, in a vault beneath the National Bank. It remains there today, awaiting the rebuilding of the Sarajevo National Museum.

On first reading, Jeremias might appear to be correct: Jesus’ explanation of the bread and the wine does seem similar to Rabban Gamaliel’s explanation of the Passover symbols. Might not Jesus be presenting a competing interpretation of these symbols? Possibly. But it really depends on when this Rabban Gamaliel lived. If he lived later than Jesus, then it would make no sense to view Jesus’ words as based on Rabban Gamaliel’s.

Unfortunately for the contemporary historian, there were two rabbis named Gamaliel, both of whom bore the title “rabban” (which means “our master” and was usually applied to the head of the rabbinic academy). The first lived decades before the destruction of the Temple, according to rabbinic tradition.13 It is this Gamaliel who is referred to in Acts 22:3, in which Paul is said to have claimed that he was

educated “at the feet of Gamaliel.” The second Rabban Gamaliel was, according to rabbinic tradition, the grandson of the elder Gamaliel. This Gamaliel served as head of the rabbinic academy sometime after the destruction of the Temple. Virtually all scholars working today believe that the Haggadah tradition attributing the words quoted above to Gamaliel refers to the grandson, Rabban Gamaliel the Younger, who lived long after Jesus had died.14 One piece of evidence for this appears in the text quoted above, in which Rabban Gamaliel is said to have spoken of the time “when the Temple was still standing”—as if that time had already passed. Furthermore, as Baruch Bokser has shown, the bulk of early rabbinic material pertaining to the Passover Haggadah is attributed in the Haggadah itself to figures who lived immediately following the destruction of the Temple (and were therefore contemporaries of Gamaliel the Younger). Finally, a tradition preserved in the Tosefta (a rabbinic companion volume to the earliest rabbinic lawbook, the Mishnah, edited perhaps in the third or fourth century) suggests that Gamaliel the Younger played some role in Passover celebrations soon after the Temple was destroyed, when animal sacrifices could for this reason no longer be offered.15

Thus, the Passover Seder as we know it developed after 70 C.E. I wish we could know more about how the Passover meal was celebrated before the Temple was destroyed. But unfortunately, our sources do not answer this question with any certainty. Presumably, Jesus and his disciples would have visited the Temple to slaughter their Passover sacrifice. Then they would have consumed it along with unleavened bread and bitter herbs, as required by the Book of Exodus. And presumably they would have engaged in conversation pertinent to the occasion. But we cannot know for sure.

Having determined that the Last Supper was not a Seder and that it probably did not take place on Passover, I must try to account for why the synoptic Gospels portray the Last Supper as a Passover meal. Of course, the temporal proximity of Jesus’ crucifixion (and with it, the Last Supper) to the Jewish Passover provides one motive: Surely this historical coincidence could not be dismissed as just that.

Another motive relates to a rather practical question: Within a few years after Jesus’ death, Christian communities (which at first consisted primarily of Jews) began to ask when, how and even whether they should celebrate or commemorate the Jewish Passover.16 This was a question not only early on, but throughout the time of the so-called Quartodeciman controversy. The Quartodecimans (the 14-ers) were Christians who believed that the date of Easter should be calculated so as to coincide with the Jewish celebration of Passover, whether or not that date fell on a Sunday. The Jewish calendar was (and is) lunar, and therefore there is always a full moon on the night of the Passover Seder, that is, the night following the 14th of Nisan. But that night is not always a Saturday night. The Quartodeciman custom of celebrating Easter beginning on the evening following the 14th day apparently began relatively early in Christian history and persisted at least into the fifth century C.E. The alternate view—that Easter must be
on a Sunday, regardless of the day on which the Jewish Passover falls—ultimately prevailed. Possibly the

Gospels’ disagreements about the timing of the Last Supper were the result of these early Christian disputes about when Easter should be celebrated. After all, if you wanted to encourage Christians to celebrate Easter on Passover, would it not make sense to emphasize the fact that Jesus celebrated Passover with his disciples just before he died?

Related to the question of when Christians should recall Jesus’ last days was a question of how they should be recalled. Early on, a number of Christians—Quartodecimans and others—felt that the appropriate way to mark the Jewish Passover was not with celebration, but with fasting. On the one hand, this custom reflected an ancient Jewish tradition of fasting during the time immediately preceding the Passover meal (as related in Mishnah Pesachim 10:1). On the other hand, distinctively Christian motives for this fast can also be identified, from recalling Jesus’ suffering on the cross to praying for the eventual conversion of the Jews.17

The German New Testament scholar Karl Georg Kuhn has argued that the Gospel of Luke places the Last Supper in a Passover context in order to convince Christians not to celebrate Passover. He notes that the synoptic Last Supper tradition attributes to Jesus a rather curious statement of abstinence: “I have earnestly desired to eat this Paschal lamb with you before I suffer, for I tell you that I shall not eat
it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God…[and] I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes” (Luke 22:15–18; cf. Mark 14:25 [“I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God”]=Matthew 26:29). The synoptics’ placement of the Last Supper in a Passover context should be read along with Jesus’ statement on abstinence; in this view, the tradition that the Last Supper was a Passover meal argues that Christians should mark the Passover not by celebrating, but by fasting, because Jesus has already celebrated his last Passover.18 Thus, until Jesus’ kingdom is fulfilled, Christians should not celebrate at all during Passover.

New Testament scholar Bruce Chilton recently presented an alternate theory. He argues that the identification of the Last Supper with a Passover Seder originated among Jewish Christians who were attempting to maintain the Jewish character of early Easter celebrations.19 By calling the Last Supper a Passover meal, these Jewish-Christians were trying to limit Christian practice in three ways. Like the Passover sacrifice, the recollection of the Last Supper could only be celebrated in Jerusalem, at Passover time, and by Jews.c

Without deciding between these two contradictory alternatives (though Kuhn’s is in my mind more convincing), we can at least agree that there are various reasons why the early church would have tried to “Passoverize” the Last Supper tradition.20Placing the Last Supper in the context of Passover was a literary tool in early Christian debates about whether or not and how Christians should celebrate Passover.

Other examples of Passoverization can be identified. The Gospel of John, as previously noted, and Paul (1 Corinthians 5:7–8) equate Jesus’ crucifixion with the Passover sacrifice: “Our Paschal lamb, Christ has been sacrificed. Therefore let us celebrate the festival, not with the old yeast, the yeast of malice and evil, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.” This too is a Passoverization of the Jesus tradition, but it is one that contradicts the identification of the Last Supper with the Seder or Passover meal.

Both of these Passoverizations can be placed in the broader context of Exodus typology in general. W.D. Davies and N.T. Wright have argued that various New Testament sources depict the events of Jesus’ life as a new Exodus. Early Christians interpreted Jesus’ life and death in light of the ancient
Jewish narrative of redemption par excellence, the story of the Exodus from Egypt. Surely the depiction of the Last Supper as a Passover observance could play a part in this larger effort of arguing that Jesus’ death echoes the Exodus from Egypt.21

This process of Passoverization did not end with the New Testament. The second-century bishop Melito of Sardis (in Asia Minor) once delivered a widely popular Paschal sermon, which could well be called a “Christian Haggadah,” reflecting at great length on the various connections between the Exodus story and the life of Jesus.22

Passoverization can even be found in the Middle Ages. Contrary to popular belief, the Catholic custom of using unleavened wafers in the Mass is medieval in origin. The Orthodox churches preserve the earlier custom of using leavened bread.23 Is it not possible to see the switch from using leavened to unleavened bread as a “Passoverization” of sorts?

Was the Last Supper a Passover Seder? Most likely, it was not.

Authors

Lawrence Mykytiuk is Associate Professor of Library Science and the History Librarian at Purdue University. He holds a Ph.D. in Hebrew and Semitic Studies and is the author of the book Identifying Biblical Persons in Northwest Semitic Inscriptions of 1200–539 B.C.E.

Philip J. King is Professor Emeritus of Biblical Studies at Boston College and is the only person to have served as President of the three major scholarly societies: the American Schools of Oriental Research, the Catholic Biblical Association of America and the Society of Biblical Literature. His latest book is Biblical Guideposts on the Road of Life (Washington, DC: Biblical Archaeology Society, 2014).

Ken Dark received his Ph.D. in Archaeology and History from the University of Cambridge. Having taught at Cambridge, Oxford and Reading, he currently serves as Director of the Research Centre for Late Antiquity and Byzantine Studies at the University of Reading. Dark has excavated in Nazareth, Istanbul and various sites in Britain.

Birger A. Pearson is Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and Professor and Interim Director of the Religious Studies Program at the University of California, Berkeley. He was one of the original translators of the Nag Hammadi Library. His research focuses on the roots of Gnosticism and Christianity and he is author of numerous books and articles on the subject, including Ancient Gnosticism: Traditions and Literature (Fortress Press, 2007).

Jonathan Klawans is Professor of Religion at Boston University. Having written extensively on ancient Jewish rituals of purity and sacrifice, his latest book is Josephus and the Theologies of Ancient Judaism (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012).

Notes

Did Jesus Exist? Searching for Evidence Beyond the Bible

Originally published in the January/February 2015 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review

a. Lawrence Mykytiuk, “Archaeology Confirms 50 Real People in the Bible,” BAR 40:02.

b. See biblicalarchaeology.org/50.

c. John P. Meier, “The Testimonium,” Bible Review 07:03.

d. See André Lemaire, “Burial Box of James the Brother of Jesus,” BAR 28:06; Hershel Shanks, “‘Brother of Jesus’ Inscription Is
Authentic!” BAR 38:04.

For extensive endnotes, visit biblicalarchaeology.org/didjesusexist.

Jesus’ Birthplace and Jesus’ Home

Originally published in the November/December 2014 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review

a. See Steve Mason, “Where Was Jesus Born? O Little Town of … Nazareth?” Bible Review 16:01.
b. See Morten Hørning Jensen, “Antipas—The Herod Jesus Knew,” BAR 38:05; Mark Chancey, “How Jewish Was Jesus’ Galilee?” BAR 33:04; Mark Chancey and Eric M. Meyers, “Spotlight on Sepphoris: How Jewish Was Sepphoris in Jesus’ Time?” BAR 26:04; Richard A. Batey, “Sepphoris—An Urban Portrait of Jesus,” BAR 18:03.

Has Jesus’ Nazareth House Been Found?

Originally published in the March/April 2015 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review

a. Eric M. Meyers, “The Pools of Sepphoris: Ritual Baths or Bathtubs? Yes, They Are,” BAR, 26:04; Mark Chancey and Eric M. Meyers, “Spotlight on Sepphoris: How Jewish Was Sepphoris in Jesus’ Time?” BAR 26:04; Zeev Weiss, “The Sepphoris Synagogue Mosaic,” BAR 26:05.

1. The Nazareth Archaeological Project is a British archaeological project, sponsored by the Palestine Exploration Fund and the

Late Antiquity Research Group. The project is directed by the author.
2. D. Adan-Bayewitz, “On the Chronology of the Common Pottery of Northern Roman Judaea/Palestine,” in G.C. Bottini, L. di Segni and L.D. Chrupcala, eds., One Land—Many Cultures: Archaeological Studies in Honour of Stanislao Loffreda OFM (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 2003).
3. For further details, see Ken Dark, “Early Roman-Period Nazareth and the Sisters of Nazareth Convent,” The Antiquaries Journal
92 (2012), p. 1.
4. Y. Alexandre, Mary’s Well, Nazareth: The Late Hellenistic to the Ottoman Periods (Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority Report

49, 2012).
5. G. Schumacher, “Recent Discoveries in Galilee,’’ Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement 21 (1889), p. 68.
6. The present Franciscan Church of St. Joseph (the “Church of St. Joseph’s Workshop’’) within the Church of the Annunciation compound is a Crusader foundation with no evidence of an earlier church on its site.

Did Jesus Marry?

Originally published in the Spring 2005 issue of Bible Review

a. Gnostic Christianity teaches that knowledge, rather than faith or observance, is the basis for salvation. “Knowledge” in this tradition is basically knowledge of the human self as divine, and salvation involves the soul’s escape from the body and its return to its transcendent origins. This teaching is rejected in the later writings of the New Testament (1 Timothy 6:20–21). Valentinus, who taught in Alexandria and Rome, was the greatest of the second-century Gnostic Christian teachers. The Valentinian “heresy” persisted into the seventh century.

1. Dan Brown, The Da Vinci Code: A Novel (New York: Doubleday, 2003).
2. William E. Phipps, Was Jesus Married? The Distortion of Sexuality in the Christian Tradition (New York: Harper & Row, 1970;
repr. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986).
3. Phipps, Was Jesus Married? p. 67.
4. Phipps, The Sexuality of Jesus (Cleveland: Pilgrim Press, 1996), pp. 122–142, 174.
5. The Gospel of Philip is the third tractate in Nag Hammadi Codex II (hereafter, NHC II), and the Gospel of Mary is the first tractate in the closely related Berlin Gnostic Codex (BG). See James M. Robinson and Richard Smith, eds., The Nag Hammadi Library in English, 3rd rev. ed. (Leiden: E.J. Brill; New York: Harper & Row, 1988), pp. 139–160 and 523–527 respectively. The translations given here are from that volume. The translations given in Dan Brown’s novel are rather free.
6. Phipps (Sexuality, p. 137, cf. p. 173) also suggests that the Gospel of Philip may preserve authentic tradition to that effect.
7. NHC II 63, 33–64, 5.
8. Angular brackets indicate an emendation to the text. Here the manuscript reads “her,” but one should emend the text to read

“his.” Otherwise the second Mary would be Jesus’ aunt.
9. NHC II 59, 6–11.
10. For an excellent discussion see Antti Marjanen, The Woman Jesus Loved: Mary Magdalene in the Nag Hammadi Library and
Related Documents (Leiden: Brill, 1996).
11. The Coptic language, the latest form of the language of the pharaohs, is written in a modified Greek alphabet and has incorporated into its vocabulary numerous Greek words.
12. In the Second Apocalypse of James (NHC V,4), Jesus kisses his brother James on the mouth (56, 14–15). It would be absurd to

conclude from this that Jesus was a bisexual.
13. NHC II 64, 5–9.
14. For a recent translation, with extensive discussion, see Karen L. King, The Gospel of Mary of Magdala: Jesus and the First
Woman Apostle (Santa Rosa, CA: Polebridge, 2003).
15. Mary is the only follower of Jesus named in the Gospel of Mary, and it should be noted that she is simply called Mary—not Mary Magdalene. It is usually taken for granted that Mary Magdalene is meant, but that is by no means certain. Although I continue to be persuaded by this majority opinion, Stephen J. Shoemaker (“Rethinking the ‘Gnostic Mary’: Mary of Nazareth and Mary of Magdala in Early Christian Tradition,” Journal of Early Christian Studies 9 [2001], pp. 555–595, esp. 581–589) has made a strong case for identifying the Mary of the gospel with Jesus’ mother, Mary of Nazareth, rather than Mary Magdalene.
16. BG 17, 16–18, 15.
17. BG 10, 1–6.
18. Translation (slightly modified) in Abraham E. Millgram, Jewish Worship (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1971), p. 154. Nowadays the Kaddish is normally used in connection with intercession on behalf of a deceased person.
19. New Testament quotations are from the Revised Standard Version, unless otherwise specified.
20. My translation. There can be no question that Jesus modeled his own prayer (“the Lord’s Prayer”) on the Kaddish.
21. The prohibition is absolute in Mark and Luke, while Matthew adds a loophole: “except for unchastity.” Matthew’s version is probably secondary, and reflects the Pharisaic teaching of the “School of Shammai.”
22. For example, Origen, a third-century Alexandrian.

Sidebar: “From Saint to Sinner”

a. See Jane Schaberg, “How Mary Magdalene Became a Whore,” BR, October 1992.

1. Luke 23:55 refers to “the women who had come with him from Galilee” without naming any of them.
2. On that town, see esp. Jane Schaberg, The Resurrection of Mary Magdalene: Legends, Apocrypha, and the Christian
Testament (New York: Continuum, 2002), pp. 47–64.
3. Reference to seven demons may mean that she was totally possessed. On the seven demons see Esther de Boer, Mary
Magdalene: Beyond the Myth (Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 1997), pp. 48–55.
4. See esp. Ann Graham Brock, Mary Magdalene, the First Apostle: The Struggle for Authority (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Press, 2003), pp. 19–40.
5. In a secondary ending to the Gospel of Mark, it is said that Jesus “appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons” (Mark 16:9). The secondary ending is probably dependent upon the Gospel of Luke. As the best manuscripts attest, the earliest versions of Mark end at 16:8.
6. Mel Gibson makes that identification in his movie, The Passion of the Christ. On the tendentious conflation of traditions, see esp.
Schaberg, Resurrection of Mary Magdalene, pp. 65–77, 82.
7. Quoted in Schaberg, Resurrection of Mary Magdalene, p. 82.
8. Quoted in de Boer, Mary Magdalene, p. 12.
9. Vv. 2–10 are probably a later interpolation into a more original account and interrupt the flow of the narrative.
10. On this term see Brock, Mary Magdalene, the First Apostle, p. 1. Brock’s book is a valuable discussion of the apostolate in early
Christianity and Mary’s role in it.
11. Schaberg, Resurrection of Mary Magdalene, p. 129.
12. de Boer, Mary Magdalene, pp. 59–60.

Was Jesus’ Last Supper a Seder?

Originally published in the October 2001 issue of Bible Review

a. Some may also ask, where is the unleavened bread? The Gospels do not specify that Jesus fed his disciples unleavened bread, which is what Jews would eat at Passover. This however does not preclude the possibility that Jesus used unleavened bread at the Last Supper, as Jews commonly refer to unleavened bread (called in Hebrew, matzah) as simply “bread.” See, for
example, Deuteronomy 16:3 and Nahum N. Glatzer, The Passover Haggadah (New York: Schocken Books, 1981), pp. 24, 64.
b. See Baruch Bokser, “Was the Last Supper a Passover Seder?” BR 03:02.
c. See Bruce Chilton, “The Eucharist—Exploring Its Origins,” BR 10:06.

1. The book first appeared in 1935 and was revised and translated various times after that. The 14 parallels are listed in the 1960 third edition, which was translated into English in 1966. See Joachim Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, 3rd ed. (London: SCM Press, 1966), esp. pp. 42–61. His 14 parallels may be summarized as follows: (1) The Last Supper took place in Jerusalem,
(2) in a room made available to pilgrims for that purpose, and (3) it was held during the night. (4) Jesus celebrated that meal with his “family” of disciples; and (5) while they ate, they reclined. (6) This meal was eaten in a state of ritual purity. (7) Bread was broken during the meal and not just at the beginning. (8) Wine was consumed and (9) this wine was red. (10) There were last-minute preparations for the meal, after which (11) alms were given, and (12) a hymn was sung. (13) Jesus and his disciples then remained in Jerusalem. Finally, (14) Jesus discussed the symbolic significance of the meal, just as Jews do during the Passover Seder. For brief surveys summarizing the question see Robert F. O’Toole, “Last Supper,” in The Anchor Bible Dictionary, 6 vols. (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1992), vol. 4, pp. 235–236 and Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, The Historical Jesus: A Comprehensive
Guide (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996), pp. 423–427.

2. For a representative statement denying the historicity of the Last Supper traditions, see Robert W. Funk and The Jesus
Seminar, The Acts of Jesus: The Search for the Authentic Deeds of Jesus (New York: HarperCollins, 1998), p. 139.
3. For an excellent treatment of what we can and cannot know of the historical Jesus, see the recent book by my colleague Paula
Fredriksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews: A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity (New York: Alfred A. Knopf,
1999).
4. For an excellent summary of Judaism in Jesus’ time—one which makes judicious use of rabbinic evidence—see E.P.
Sanders, Judaism: Practice and Belief 63 B.C.E.–66 C.E. (London: SCM Press, 1992). For more on the use of rabbinic sources, see
Sanders’s Paul and Palestinian Judaism: A Comparison of Patterns of Religion (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1977), esp. pp. 59–84.
5. There are those who attempt to harmonize John and the synoptics by supposing that they disagreed not about when the Last Supper occurred, but about whether the date of Passover was supposed to be calculated by following a solar calendar or a lunar one. Annie Jaubert presents this theory in her book, The Date of the Last Supper (Staten Island: Alba House, 1965). This view cannot be accepted, however. It is too difficult to conceive of Passover having been celebrated twice in the same place without any contemporary or even later writer referring to such an event. Surely it would have been remarkable if two Passovers were held in the same week! Moreover, while we do know of solar calendars from the Book of Jubilees and the Temple Scroll, we do not know how any of these calendars really worked. Jubilees’s calendar, for instance, explicitly prohibits any form of intercalation (the adding of extra days in a leap year). And without intercalation, by Jesus’ time, Jubilees’s 364-day solar calendar would be off not just by days, but by months. It is only by hypothesizing some manner of intercalation that we can even come up with the possibility that in Jesus’ time the two calendars were both functioning, but off by just a few days. Thus in the end, Jaubert’s book presents a good theory, but it remains just that, a theory. For more on these questions, see James C. VanderKam, Calendars in the Dead Sea Scrolls:
Measuring Time (London: Routledge, 1998).
6. On the question of Jewish authorities and their role in Jesus’ death, see John Dominic Crossan, Who Killed Jesus? Exposing the
Roots of Anti-Semitism in the Gospel Story of the Death of Jesus (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1995).
7. For more on the parallels between the Didache and the Jewish Birkat ha-Mazon, see Enrico Mazza, The Celebration of the Eucharist: The Origin of the Rite and the Development of Its Interpretation (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1999), esp. pp. 19–26 (where he discusses these parallels) and pp. 307–309 (where he provides translations of the texts).
8. A useful version of the traditional text of the Haggadah, with introduction and translation, can be found in the widely available
edition of Nahum N. Glatzer, The Passover Haggadah (New York: Schocken Books, 1981). Those interested in appreciating how the Haggadah brings together material from various historical periods might look at Jacob Freedman,Polychrome Historical Haggadah for Passover (Springfield, MA: Jacob Freedman Liturgy Research Foundation, 1974).
9. Finkelstein published his theories in three articles: “The Oldest Midrash: Pre-Rabbinic Ideals and Teachings in the Passover
Haggadah,” Harvard Theological Review (HTR) 31 (1938), pp. 291–317; “Pre-Maccabean Documents in the Passover Haggadah
(Part 1),” HTR 35 (1942), pp. 291–332; and “Pre-Maccabean Documents in the Passover Haggadah (Part 2),” HTR 36 (1943), pp.
1–38. Glatzer summarizes some of Finkelstein’s claims in The Passover Haggadah, pp. 39–42.
10. Goldschmidt, The Passover Haggadah: Its Sources and History (in Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Bialik Institute, 1960). Glatzer’s edition of the Haggadah (cited above) is based in part on Goldschmidt’s research, but the first edition of Glatzer’s Haggadah was published in 1953, years before Goldschmidt’s final 1960 version of his article.
11. See especially the collection of essays, Passover and Easter: Origin and History to Modern Times, ed. Paul F. Bradshaw and

Lawrence A. Hoffman (Notre Dame, IN: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1999). Those who read Hebrew will want to consult Shmuel
Safrai and Ze’ev Safrai, Haggadah of the Sages: The Passover Haggadah (in Hebrew) (Jerusalem: Carta, 1998).
12. Baruch Bokser, The Origins of the Seder (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1984).
13. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sabbath, 15a.
14. This view can be traced back well into the middle ages—it is advocated in a 14th-century Haggadah commentary by Rabbi Simeon ben Zemach Duran. This view has also been advocated more recently by, among others, Daniel Goldschmidt, Joseph Tabory, Israel Yuval and Baruch Bokser. Bokser, Origins of the Seder, pp. 41–43, 79–80, and 119 n. 13; Goldschmidt, Passover Haggadah, pp. 51–53. See also the articles by Joseph Tabory and Israel Yuval in Passover and Easter, esp. pp. 68–69 (Tabory) and pp. 106–107 (Yuval). Goldschmidt, Tabory and Yuval go even one step further, suggesting that Jeremias had it backwards. It

was not that Jesus was reinterpreting a prior Jewish tradition. Rather, Rabban Gamaliel the Younger required the explanation of the
Passover symbols as a way of countering Christian manipulation of these symbols.
15. Tosefta Pesahim 10:12; see Bokser, Origins of the Seder, pp. 41–43, 79–80.
16. Jeremias, Eucharistic Words, pp. 66 and 122–125.
17. On the Quartodecimans and on fasting before Easter, see Bradshaw, “The Origins of Easter” in Bradshaw and
Hoffman,Passover and Easter, pp. 81–97.
18. See Karl Georg Kuhn, “The Lord’s Supper and the Communal Meal at Qumran,” in The Scrolls and the New Testament, Krister Stendahl, ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1957), pp. 65–93. Kuhn builds here on work of B. Lohse, published in German (and cited in his article). See also Jeremias, Eucharistic Words, pp. 216–218.
19. Bruce Chilton, A Feast of Meanings: Eucharistic Theologies from Jesus Through Johannine Circles (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1994),

esp. pp. 93–108.
20. The term “Passoverize” is used by Mazza, in his brief treatment of the issue; see Celebration of the Eucharist, pp. 24–26.
21. See especially W.D. Davies, Setting of the Sermon on the Mount (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1964), pp. 25–92.
22. Commonly entitled “On the Passover,” the sermon survives in numerous copies and fragments in Coptic, Greek, Syriac, Latin and Georgian. The oldest copy, from the third or early fourth century, is in Coptic. See James E. Goehring and William W. Willis,
“On the Passover by Melito of Sardis,” in The Crosby-Schoyen Codex MS 193, James E. Goehring, ed. (Leuven [Louvain]: Peeters,
1999).
23. On the medieval debate between the Catholic and Orthodox churches on this matter, see Jaroslav Pelikan, The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, vol. 2, The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600–1700) (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1971), pp. 177–178. On the archaeological evidence pertaining to this dispute, see George Galavaris, Bread and the Liturgy: The Symbolism of Early Christian and Byzantine Bread Stamps (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press, 1970).

http://www.holybooks.com/ante-nicene-fathers-vol-i-ix/

https://bible.org/language/id

Antichrist

The Papacy Not the Antichrist
“I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if another shall come in his
own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). These words were spoken by the Lord Jesus
Christ, and the occasion on which they were uttered and the connection in which they are
found, invest them with peculiar solemnity. The chapter opens by depicting the Saviour
healing the impotent man who lay by the pool of Bethesda. This occurred on the Sabbath
day, and the enemies of Christ made it the occasion for a vicious attack upon Him:
“Therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay Him, because He had done these
things on the Sabbath day” (v. 16). In vindicating His performance of this miracle on the
Sabbath, the Lord Jesus began by saying, “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work” (v. 17).
But this only served to intensify their enmity against Him, for we read, “Therefore the Jews
sought the more to kill Him, because He not only had broken the Sabbath, but said also that
God was His Father, making Himself equal with God” (v. 18). In response, Christ then made
a detailed declaration of His divine glories. In conclusion He appealed to the varied witnesses
which bore testimony to His Deity: — the Father Himself (v. 32); John the Baptist (v. 33);
His own works (v. 36); and the Scriptures (v. 39). Then He turned to those who were opposing
Him and said, “And ye will not come to Me, that ye might have life. But I know you, that
ye have not the love of God in you. I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not:
if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (vv. 40, 42, 43). And this was
immediately followed by this searching question — “How can ye believe which receive
honor (glory) one of another, and seek not the honor (glory) that cometh from God only?”
(v. 44).
Here is the key to the solemn statement which begins this article. These Jews received
glory from one another; they did not seek it from God, for they had not the love of God in
them. Therefore it was that the One who had come to them in the Father’s name, and who
“received not glory from men” (v. 41) was rejected by them. And just as Eve’s rejection of
the word of God’s truth laid her open to accept the serpent’s lie, so Israel’s rejection of the
true Messiah, has prepared them, morally, to receive the false Messiah, for he will come in
his own name, doing his own pleasure, and will “receive glory from men.” Thus will he
thoroughly appeal to the corrupt heart of the natural man.
The future appearing of this one who shall “come in his own name” was announced,
then, by the Lord Himself. The Antichrist will be “received,” not only by the Jews, but also
by the whole world; received as their acknowledged Head and Ruler; and all the modern
pleas for and movements to bring about a federation of the churches and a union of
Christendom, together with the present-day efforts to establish a League of Nations — a
great United States of the World — are but preparing the way for just such a character as is
portrayed both in the Old and New Testaments.
11
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
There will be many remarkable correspondences between the true and the false Christ,
but more numerous and more striking will be the contrasts between the Son of God and
the Son of perdition. The Lord Jesus came down from Heaven, whereas the Antichrist shall
ascent from the bottomless Pit (Rev. 11:7). The Lord Jesus came in His Father’s name,
emptied Himself of His glory, lived in absolute dependence upon God, and refused to receive
honor from men; but the Man of Sin will come in his own name, embodying all the pride
of the Devil, opposing and exalting himself not only against the true God, but against
everything that bears His name, and his deepest craving will be to receive honor and homage
from men.
Now since this parallel, with its pointed contrasts, was drawn by our Lord Himself in
John 5:43, how conclusive is the proof which it affords that the Antichrist will be a single
individual being as surely as Christ was! In further proof of this 1 John 2:18 may be cited:
“Little children, it is the last hour: and as ye heard that Antichrist cometh, even now hath
there arisen many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last hour” (R.V.). Here the
Antichrist is plainly distinguished from the many who prepare his way. The verb “cometh”
here is a remarkable one, for it is the very same that is used of the Lord Jesus Christ in reference
to
His
first
and
second
Advents.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
is

also “the coming one,”
or “he that cometh.” This defines his relation to the world, — which has long been expecting
some Conquering Hero — as “the Coming One” defines the relation of the Christ of God
to His Churches, whose Divinely-inspired hope is the return of the Lord from Heaven.
Nor does this by any means exhaust the proof that the coming Antichrist will be a single
individual being. The expressions used by the apostle Paul in 2 Thess. 2 — “that Man of
Sin,” “The Son of Perdition,” “he that opposeth and exalteth himself,” “the Wicked One
whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth,” “he whose coming is after the
working of Satan” — all these point as distinctly to a single individual as did the Messianic
predictions of the Old Testament point to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Now, in accordance with these texts, and many others which might be quoted, we find
that all the Christian writers of the first six centuries (that is all who make reference to the
subject) regarded the Antichrist as a real person, a specific individual. We might fill many
pages by giving extracts from their works, but three must suffice. The first is taken from a
very ancient document, entitled “The Teaching of the Apostles,” which probably dates back
to the beginning of the second century:—
“For in the last days the false prophets and the destroyers shall be multiplied, and the
sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate. For when lawlessness
increases, they shall hate and persecute and deliver up one another; and then shall appear
the world-deceiver as Son of God, who shall do signs and wonders, and the earth shall be
delivered into his hands, and he shall do lawless deeds such as have never yet been done
since the beginning of the world. Then shall the race of men come into the fire of trial, and
12
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
many shall be offended and shall perish, but they who have endured in their faith shall be
saved under the very curse itself.”
Our second quotation is taken from the writings of Cyril, who was Bishop of Jerusalem
in the fourth century:
“This aforementioned Antichrist comes when the times of the sovereignty of the Romans
shall be fulfilled, and the concluding events of the world draw nigh. Ten kings of the Romans
arise at the same time in different places, perhaps; but reigning at the same period. But after
these, the antichrist is the eleventh, having, by his magic and evil skill, violently possessed
himself of the Roman power. Three of those who have reigned before him, he will subdue;
the other seven he will hold in subjection to himself. At first he assumes a character of gentleness
(as
if
a
wise
and
understanding
person),
pretending
both
to
moderation
and
philanthropy;
deceiving,
both
by
lying
miracles
and
prodigies
which
come
from
his
magical
deceptions,
the
Jews,
as
if
he
were
the
expected
Messiah.
Afterwards
he
will
addict
himself
to
every
kind
of
evil,
cruelty,
and
excess,
so
as
to
surpass
all
who
have
been
unjust
and
impious
before
him;
having
a

bloody and relentless and pitiless mind, and full of wily devices against all,
and especially against believers. But having dared such things three years and six months,
he will be destroyed by the second glorious coming from heaven of the truly begotten Son
of God, who is our Lord and Saviour, Jesus the true Messiah; who, having destroyed Antichrist
by
the
Spirit
of
His
mouth,
will
deliver
him
to
the
fire
Gehenna.”
Our last quotation is made from the writings of Gregory of Tours, who wrote at the end
of the sixth century A.D.:—
“Concerning the end of the world, I believe what I have learnt from those who have
gone before me. Antichrist will assume circumcision, asserting himself to be the Christ. He
will then place a statue to be worshipped in the Temple at Jerusalem, as we read that the
Lord has said, ‘Ye shall see the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place’.”
Our purpose in making these quotations is not because we regard the voice of antiquity
as being in any degree authoritative: far from it; the only authority for us is “What saith the
Scriptures?.” Nor have we presented these views as curious relics of antiquity — though it
is interesting to discover the thoughts which occupied some of the leading minds of past
ages. No: our purpose has been simply to show that the early Christian writers uniformly
held that the Antichrist would be a real person, a Jew, one who should both simulate and
oppose the true Christ. Such continued to be the generally received doctrine until what is
known as the Dark Ages were far advanced.
It is not until we reach the fourteenth century (so far as the writer is aware) that we find
the first marked deviation from the uniform belief of the early Christians. It was the
Waldenses, — so remarkably sound in the faith on almost all point of doctrine — who,
thoroughly worn out by centuries of the most relentless and merciless persecutions, published
about the year 1350 a treatise designed to prove that the system of Popery was the Antichrist.
13
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
It should however be said in honor of this people, whose memory is blessed, that in one of
their earliest books entitled “The Noble Lesson,” published about 1100 A.D., they taught
that the Antichrist was an individual rather than a system.
Following the new view espoused by the Waldenses it was not long before the Hussites,
the Wycliffites and the Lollards — other companies of Christians who were fiercely persecuted
by Rome — eagerly caught up the idea, and proclaimed that the Pope was the Man of Sin
and the papacy the Beast. From them it was handed on to the leaders of the Reformation
who soon made an earnest attempt to systematize this new scheme of eschatology. But rarely
has there been a more forceable example of the tendency of men’s belief to be mouled by
the events and signs of their own lifetime. In order to adapt the prophecies of the Antichrist
to the Papal hierarchy, or the line of the Popes, they had to be so wrested that scarcely anything
was
left
of
their
original
meaning.
“The coming Man of Sin had to be changed into a long succession of men. The time of
his continuance, which God had stated with precision and clearness as forty-two months”
(Rev. 13:5), or three years and a half, being far too short for the line of Popes, had to be
lengthened by an ingenious, but most unwarrantable, process of first resolving it into days,
and then turning these days into years.
“The fact that, in the 13th chapter of the Apocalypse, the first Beast or secular power,
is supreme while the second Beast or ecclesiastical power is subordinate, had to be ignored;
since such an arrangement is opposed to all the traditions of the Roman system. Also the
circumstances that the second Beast is a prophet and not a priest, had to be kept in the
background; for the Roman church exalts the priest, and has little care for the prophet.
Then, again, the awful words pronouncing sentence of death upon every one who worshipped
the Beast and his image, and receives his mark in his forehead or in his hand (Rev. 13),
seemed — and no wonder — too terrible to be applied to every Roman Catholic, and,
therefore, had to be explained away or suppressed” (G. H. Pember).
Nevertheless, by common consent the Reformers applied the prophecies which treat of
the character, career, and doom of the Antichrist, to Popery, and regarded those of his titles
which referred to him as “that Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition,” the “King of Babylon” and
“the Beast,” as only so many names for the head of the Roman hierarchy. But this view,
which was upheld by most of the Puritans too, must be brought to the test of the one infallible
standard of Truth which our gracious God has placed in our hands. We must search the
Scriptures to see whether these things be so or not.
Now we shall hold no brief for the pope, nor have we anything good to say of that pernicious
system
of
which
he
is
the
head.
On
the
contrary,
we
have
no
hesitation
in
denouncing
as
rank
blasphemy
the
blatant
assumption
of
the
pope
as
being
the
infallible
vicar
of
Christ.
Nor
do
we
hesitate
to
declare
that
the
Papacy
has
been
marked,
all
through
its
long
history,
by
impious
arrogance,
awful
idolatry,
and
unspeakable
cruelty.
But,
nevertheless,
there
are
14
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
many scriptures which prevent us from believing that the Papacy and the Antichrist are
identical. The Son of Perdition will eclipse any monstrosities that have sprung from the
waves of the Tiber. The Bible plainly teaches us to look for a more terrible personage than
any Hildebrand or Leo.
Undoubtedly there are many points of analogy between Antichrist and the popes, and
without doubt the Papal system has foreshadowed to a remarkable degree the character and
career of the coming Man of Sin. Some of the parallelisms between them were pointed out
by us in the previous chapter, and to these many more might be added. Not only is it evident
that Roman Catholicism is a most striking type and harbinger of that one yet to come, but
the cause of truth requires us to affirm that the Papacy is an antichrist, doubtless, the most
devilish of them all. Yet, we say again, that Romanism is not the Antichrist. As it is likely
that many of our readers have been educated in the belief that the pope and the Antichrist
are identical, we shall proceed to produce some of the numerous proofs which go to show
that such is not the case. That the Papacy cannot possibly be the Antichrist appears from
the following considerations:—
1. The term “Antichrist” whether employed in the singular or the plural, denotes a
person or persons, and never a system. We may speak correctly of an anti-Christ-ian system,
just as we may refer to a Christian organization; but it is just as inadmissible and erroneous
to refer to any system or organization as “the Antichrist” or “an antichrist,” as it would be
to denominate any Christian system or organization “the Christ,” or “a Christ.” Just as truly
as the Christ is the title of a single person the Son of God, so the Antichrist will be a single
person, the son of Satan.
2. The Antichrist will be a lineal descendant of Abraham, a Jew. We shall not stop to
submit the proof for this, as that will be given in our next chapter; suffice it now to say that
none but a full-blooded Jew could ever expect to palm himself off on the Jewish people as
their long-expected Messiah. Here is an argument that has never been met by those who
believe that the pope is the Man of Sin. So far as we are aware no Israelite has ever occupied
the Papal See — certainly none has done so since the seventh century.
3. In line with the last argument, we read in Zech. 11:16, 17, “For, lo, I will raise up a
Shepherd in the land which shall not visit those that be cut off, neither shall seek the young
ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth still: but he shall eat the flesh
of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd that leaveth the flock!
The sword (of Divine judgment) shall be upon his arm (his power), and upon his right eye
(intelligence): his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened.”
“The land” here is, of course, Palestine, as is ever the case in Scripture with this expression.
This could not possibly apply to the line of the Popes.
4. In 2 Thess. 2:4 we learn that the Man of Sin shall sit “in the Temple of God,” and St.
Peter’s at Rome cannot possibly be called that. The “Temple” in which the Antichrist shall
15
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
sit will be the rebuilt temple of the Jews, and that will be located not in Italy but in Jerusalem.
In later chapters it will be shown that the Mosque of Omar shall yet be replaced by a Jewish
Temple before our Lord returns to earth.
5. The Antichrist will be received by the Jews. This is clear from the passage which heads
the first paragraph of this chapter. “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive me not;
if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive;” but the Jews have never yet
owned allegiance to any pope.
6. The Antichrist will make a Covenant with the Jews. In Dan. 9:27 we read, “And he
shall confirm the covenant with many for a week.” The one referred to here as making this
seven-year Covenant is “the Prince that shall come” of the previous verse, namely, the Antichrist,

who will be the Head of the ten-kingdomed Empire. The nation with whom the
Prince will make this covenant is the people of Daniel, as is clear from the context — see v.
24. But we know of no record upon the scroll of history of any pope having ever made a
seven-year Covenant with the Jews!
7. In Dan. 11:45 we read, “And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the
seas, in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”
The person referred to here is, again, the Antichrist, as will be seen by going back to v. 36
where this section of the chapter begins. There we are told, “The king shall do according to
his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak
marvelous things against he God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished;
for
that
that
is
determined
shall
be
done.”
This
is
more
than
sufficient
to
identify
with
certainty
the
one
spoken
of
in
the
last
verse
of
Dan.
11.
The
Antichrist,
then,
will
plant
the
tabernacles
of
his
palace
“between
the
seas,”
that
is,
between
the
Mediterranean
and
the
Red
Sea.

By no species of ingenuity can this be made to apply to the pope, for his palace,
the Vatican, is located in the capital city of Italy.
8. The Antichrist cannot be revealed until the mystic Body of Christ and the Holy
Spirit have been removed from the earth. This is made clear by what we read in 2 Thess. 2.
In verse three of that chapter the apostle refers to the revelation of the Man of Sin. In verse
four he describes his awful impiety. In verse five he reminds the Thessalonians how that he
had taught them these things by word of mouth when he was with them. And then, in verse
six he declares “And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time.”
And again he said, “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only He who now letteth
(hindereth) will let until He be taken out of the way.” There are two agencies, then, which
are hindering, or preventing the manifestation of the Antichrist, until “his time” shall have
come. The former agency is covered by the pronoun “what,” the latter by the word “He.”
The former, we are satisfied, is the mystical Body of Christ; the latter being the Holy Spirit
of God. At the Rapture both shall be “taken out of the way,” and then shall the Man of Sin
be revealed. If, then, the Antichrist cannot appear before the Rapture of the saints and the
16
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
taking away of the Holy Spirit, then, here is proof positive that the Antichrist has not yet
appeared.
9. Closely akin to the last argument is the fact that quite a number of definite scriptures
place the appearing of the Antichrist at that season known as the End-Time. Dan. 7 and 8
make it plain that the Antichrist will run his career at the very end of this age (we do not
say this “dispensation” for that will end at the Rapture), that is, during the great Tribulation,
the time of “Jacob’s trouble.” Dan. 7:21-23 declares, “I beheld, and the same horn made war
with the saints, and prevailed against them; Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment
was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the
kingdom.” Dan. 8:19 places his course (see 8:23-25) at “the last end of the indignation,” i.e.
of God’s wrath against Israel and the Gentiles. Dan. 9 shows that he will make his sevenyears’
Covenant
with
the
Jews
at
the
beginning
of
the
last
of
the
seventy
“weeks”
which
is
to
bring
in
“the
end”
of
Israel’s
sins
and
“finish
the
transgression”
(Dan.
9:24).
If
the
time
of
the
Antichrist’s
manifestation
is
yet
future
then
it
necessarily
follows
that
Rome
cannot
be
the
Antichrist.
10. The Antichrist will deny both the Father and the Son: “He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This scripture does not speak of virtual, but of actual
and formal denial. But Rome has always maintained in her councils and creeds, her symbols
of faith and worship, that there are three persons in the Godhead. Numerous and grievous
have been her departures from the teaching of Holy Scripture, yet since the time of the
Council of Trent (1563 A.D.) every Roman Catholic has had to confess “I believe in God
the Father[hellip]and in the Lord Jesus Christ[hellip].and in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and
Giver of life, which proceedeth from the Father and the Son.”
As a system Romanism is a go-between. The “priest” stands between the sinner and
God; the ‘confessional’ between him and the throne of grace; ‘penance’ between him and
godly sorrow; the ‘mass’ between him and Christ; and ‘purgatory’ between him and Heaven.
The pope acknowledges both the Father and the Son: he confesses himself to be both the
servant of God and His worshipper; he blesses the people not in his own name, but in that
of the Holy Trinity.
11. The Antichrist is described as the one “who opposeth and exalteth himself above all
that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the Temple of God,
showing himself that he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This is what the popes have never done. Not
even Leo ventured to deify himself or supersede God. The popes have made many false and
impious claims for themselves; nevertheless, their decrees have been sent forth as from the
“vice-gerent” of God, the “vicar” of Christ — thus acknowledging a Divine power above
himself.
12. In Rev. 13:2, 4 we read, “And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his
feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave
17
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
him his power, and his seat, and great authority[hellip]and they worshipped the dragon
which gave power unto the beast.” By comparing these verses with Rev. 12:9 we learn that
the Dragon is none other than Satan himself. Now by almost common consent this first
beast of Rev. 13 is the Antichrist. If, then, Romanism be the Antichrist, where, we may ask,
shall we turn to find anything answering to what we read of here in Rev. 13:4 — “And they
worshipped the dragon, which gave power unto the beast.”
13. This same 13th chapter of Revelation informs us that the Antichrist (the first Beast)
shall be aided by a second Beast who is denominated “the False Prophet” (Rev. 19:20). The
False Prophet, we are told “exerciseth all the power of the First Beast before him, and causeth
the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the First Beast” (Rev. 13:12). If the First
Beast be the Papacy, then who is the False Prophet who “causeth the earth and them which
dwell therein to worship” her?
14. Again; we are told that this False Prophet shall say to them that dwell on the earth
“that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by a sword and did
live” (Rev. 13:14). Further, we are told, “And he had power to give life unto the image of the
Beast, that the image of the Beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not
worship the image of the Beast should be killed” (Rev 13:15). Where do we find anything
in Popery which in anywise resembles this?
15. In Dan. 9:27 we are told that the Antichrist “shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation
to cease.” And again in 8:11 we read, “Yea, he magnified himself even against the Prince of
the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away.” If Romanism is the Antichrist how
can these scriptures be made to square with the oft repeated “Sacrifice of the Mass?”
16. The dominion of the Antichrist shall be world-wide. The coming Man of Sin will
assert a supremacy which shall be unchallenged and universal. “And all the world wondered
after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). “And power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and
nations” (13:7). It hardly needs to be pointed out that half of Christendom, to say nothing
of Heathendom, is outside the pale of Rome, and is antagonistic to the claims of the Papacy.
Again; in 13:17 we read “No man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name
of the Beast, or the number of his name”: and when, we ask, has any pope exercised such
commercial supremacy that none could buy or sell without his permission?
17. The duration of Antichrist’s career, after he comes out in his true character, will be
limited to forty-two months. There are no less than six scriptures which, with a variety of
expression, affirm this time restriction. In Dan. 7:25 we learn that this one who shall “think
to change times and laws,” will have these “given into his hand until a time, and times, and
the dividing of time”: that is, for three years and a half — cf. Rev. 12:14 with 12:6. And again
in Rev. 13:5 we are told, “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months” (Rev. 13:5).
18
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
Now it is utterly impossible to make this harmonize with the protracted history of Romanism
by any honest method of computation.
18. In Rev. 13:7, 8 we read, “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and
to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
And all that dwell upon the face of the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written
in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.” Here we are expressly
told that the only ones who will not “worship the Beast,” i.e. the Antichrist, are they whose
names are written in the Lamb’s book of life. If then the pope is the Antichrist, all who do
not worship him must have their names written in the Lamb’s book of life — an absurdity
on the face of it, for this would be tantamount to saying that all the infidels, atheists, and
unbelievers of the last thousand years who were outside of the pale of Roman Catholicism
are saved.
19. In 2 Thess. 2:11, 12 we are told, “For this cause God shall send them strong delusion,
that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but
had pleasure in unrighteousness.” The context here shows that “believing a lie” means accepting
the
claims
of
the
Antichrist.
Those
who
believe
his
claims
will
“receive
him”
(John
5:43),
and
not
only
so,
they
will
“worship”
him
(Rev.
13:8);
and
2
Thess.
2:12
declares that
“all who do this will be damned.” If, then, the pope is the Antichrist, then it necessarily follows
that all who have believed his lying claims, that all who have received him as the vicar of
Christ, that all who have worshipped him, will be eternally lost. But the writer would not
for a moment make any such sweeping assertion. He, together with thousands of others,
believes firmly that during the centuries there have been many Roman Catholics who, despite
much ignorance and superstition, have been among that number that have exercised faith
in the blood of Christ, and that lived and died resting on the finished work of Christ as the
alone ground of their acceptance before God, and who because of this shall be forever with
the Lord.
20. That the Antichrist and the Papacy are totally distinct is unequivocally established
by the teaching of Rev. 17. Here we learn that there shall be ten kings who will reign “with
the Beast” (v. 12), and act in concert with him (vv. 13, 16). Then we are told “these shall
hate the Whore (the papacy), and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh,
and burn her with fire” (v. 16). Instead of the Antichrist and the Papacy being identical, the
former shall destroy the latter; whereas, the Antichrist shall be destroyed by Christ Himself,
see 2 Thess. 2:8.
Perhaps a word of explanation is called for as to why we have entered into such lengthy
details in presenting some of the many proofs that the Papacy is not the Antichrist. Our
chief reason for doing so was because we expect that many who will read this paper are
among the number who have been brought up in the belief which was commonly taught
by the Reformers and which has prevailed generally since their day. For those readers who
19
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
had already been established on this point, we would ask them to please bear with us for
having sought to help those less fortunate. Our next chapter will be one of more general
interest, for in it we shall discuss the person of the Antichrist — who he will be, from whence
he will spring, and what marks will serve to identify him.
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
The Antichrist will be a Jew, though his connections, his governmental position, his
sphere of dominion, will by no means confine him to the Israelitish people. It should,
however, be pointed out that there is no express declaration of Scripture which says in so
many words that this daring Rebel will be “a Jew;” nevertheless, the hints given are so plain,
the conclusions which must be drawn from certain statements of Holy Writ are so obvious,
and the requirements of the case are so inevitable, that we are forced to believe he must be
a Jew. To these ‘hints’, ‘conclusions’ and ‘requirements’ we now turn.
1. In Ezek. 21:25-27 we read: “and thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is
come, when iniquity shall have an end, Thus saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, and
take off the crown: this shall not be the same: exalt him that is low, and abase him that is
high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it: and it shall be no more until he comes whose
right it is, and I will give it him.” The dispensational place and scope of this passage, is not
hard to determine. The time-mark is given in v. 25: it is “when iniquity shall have an end.”
It is the End-Time which is in view, then, the End of the Age, when “the transgressors are
come to the full” (Dan. 8:23 and cf. 11:36 — “Till the indignation be accomplished”). At
that time Israel shall have a Prince, a Prince who is crowned (v. 26), and a Prince whose day
is said to be come when “iniquity shall have an end.” Now, as to who this Prince is, there is
surely no room for doubt. The only Prince whom Israel will have in that day, is the Son of
Perdition, here termed their Prince because he will be masquerading as Messiah the Prince
(see Dan. 9:25)! Another unmistakable mark of identification is here given, in that he is expressly
denominated
“thou,
profane
wicked
Prince” — assuredly, it is the Man of Sin who
is here in view, that impious one who shall “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called
God.” But what should be noted particularly, is, that this profane and wicked character is
here named “Prince of Israel.” He must, therefore, be of the Abrahamic stock, a Jew!
2. In Ezek. 28:2-10 a remarkable description is given us of the Antichrist under the figure
of “the Prince of Tyrus,” just as in vv.12-19 we have another most striking delineation of
Satan under the figure of “the king of Tyrus.” In a later chapter we hope to show that, beyond
a doubt, it is the Antichrist who is in view in the first section of this chapter. There is only
one thing that we would now point out from this passage: in v.10 it is said of him “Thou
shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised,” which is a very strong hint that he ought not to
die the deaths of the “uncircumcised” because he belonged to the Circumcision! Should it
be said that this verse cannot apply to the Antichrist because he will be destroyed by Christ
Himself at His coming, the objection is very easily disposed of by a reference to Rev. 13:14,
which tells of the Antichrist being wounded to death by a sword and rising from the dead
— which is prior to his ultimate destruction at the hands of the Saviour.
22
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
3. In Dan. 11:36, 37 we are told, “And the king shall do according to his will; and he
shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things
against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that
is determined shall be done. Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers.” This passage,
it is evident, refers to and describes none other than the coming Antichrist. But what we
wish to call special attention to is the last sentence quoted — “The God of his fathers.” What
are we to understand by this expression? Why, surely, that he is a Jew, an Israelite, and that
his fathers after the flesh were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob — for such is the invariable
meaning of “the fathers” throughout the Old Testament Scriptures.
4. In Matt. 12:43-45 we have another remarkable scripture which will be considered
briefly, in a later section of this chapter, when we shall endeavor to show that “The Unclean
Spirit” here is none other than the Son of Perdition, and that the “house” from which he
goes out and into which he returns, is the Nation of Israel. If this can be established, then
we have another proof that he will be a Jew, for this “house,” which is Israel, is here termed
by Antichrist “my house.” Just as Solomon was of “the House of David,” so Antichrist shall
be of the House of Israel.
5. In John 5:43 we have a further word which helps us to fix the nationality of this
coming One. In speaking of the false messiah, the Lord Jesus referred to him as follows,
“Another shall come in his own name.” In the Greek there are four different words all
translated “Another” in our English versions. One of them is employed but once, and a
second but five times, so these need not detain us now. The remaining two are used frequently,
and
with
a
clear
distinction
between
them.
The
first
“allos”
signifies
“another”
of
the
same
kind
or
genus
— see Matt. 10:23; 13:24; 26:71, etc. The second, “heteros,” means
“another” of a totally different kind, — see Mark 16:12; Luke 14:31; Acts 7:18; Rom. 7:23.
Now the striking thing is that the word used by our Lord in John 5:43 is “allos,” another of
the same genus, not “heteros,” another of a different order. Christ, the Son of Abraham, the
Son of David, had presented Himself to Israel, and they rejected Him; but “another” of the
same Abrahamic stock should come to them, and him they would “receive.” If the coming
Antichrist were to be a Gentile, the Lord would have employed the word “heteros;” the fact
that He used “allos” shows that he will be a Jew.
6. The very name “Antichrist” argues strongly his Jewish nationality. This title “Antichrist”

has a double significance. It means that he will be one who shall be “opposed” to
Christ, one who will be His enemy. But it also purports that he will be a mock Christ, an
imitation Christ, a pro-Christ, a pseudo Christ. It intimates that he will ape Christ. He will
pose as the real Messiah of Israel. In such case he must be a Jew.
7. This mock Christ will be “received” by Israel. The Jews will be deceived by Him. They
will believe that he is indeed their long-expected Messiah. They will accept him as such.
Proofs of this will be furnished in a later chapter. But if this pseudo Christ succeeds in
23
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
palming himself off on the Jews as their true Messiah he must be a Jew, for it is unthinkable
that they would be deceived by any Gentile.
Ere passing to the next point, we may add, that it was the common belief among
Christians during the first four centuries A.D., that the Antichrist would come from the
tribe of Dan. Whether this will be the case or no, we do not know. Gen. 49:17, 18 may have
ultimate reference to this Son of Perdition. Certainly Dan is the most mysterious of all the
twelve tribes.
24
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
That Satan will have a son ought not to surprise us. The Devil is a consummate imitator
and much of his success in deceiving men is due to his marvelous skill in counterfeiting the
things of God. Below we give a list of some of his imitations: —
Do we read of Christ going forth to sow the “good seed” (Matt. 13:24), then we also
read of the enemy going forth to sow his “tares” — an imitation wheat (Matt. 13:25). Do we
read of “the children of God,” then we also read of “the children of the wicked one” (Matt.
13:38). Do we read of God working in His children “both to will and to do of His good
pleasure” (Phil. 2:13), then we are also told that the Prince of the power of the air is “the
spirit that now woreth in the children of disobedience” (Eph. 2:2). Do we read of the Gospel
of God, then we also read that Satan has a gospel — “Another gospel, which is not another”
(Gal. 1:6, 7). Did Christ appoint “apostles,” then Satan has his apostles too (2 Cor. 11:13).
Are we told that “the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God” (1 Cor. 2:10),
then Satan also provides his “deep things” (see Greek of Rev. 2:24). Are we told that God,
by His angel, will “seal” His servants in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3), so also we read that Satan,
by his angels, will set a mark in the foreheads of his devotees (Re. 13:16). Does the Father
seek “worshippers” (John 4:23), so also does Satan (Rev. 13:4). Did Christ quote scripture,
so also did Satan (Matt. 4:6). Is Christ the Light of the world, then Satan also is transformed
as an “angel of light” (2 Cor. 11:14). Is Christ denominated “the Lion of the tribe of Judah”
(Rev. 5:5), then the Devil is also referred to as “a roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:6). Do we read of
Christ and “His angels” (Matt. 24:31), then we also read of the Devil and “his angels” (Matt.
25:41). Did Christ work miracles, so also will Satan (2 Thess. 2:9). Is Christ seated upon a
“Throne,” so also will Satan be (Rev. 2:13, Gk.). Has Christ a Church, then Satan has his
“synagogue” (Rev. 2:9). Has Christ a “bride,” then Satan has his “whore” (Rev. 17:16). Has
God His “Vine,” so has Satan (Rev. 14:19). Does God have a city, the new Jerusalem, then
Satan has a city, Babylon (Rev. 17:5; 18:2). Is there a “mystery of godliness” (1 Tim 3:16),
so also there is a “mystery of iniquity” (2 Thess. 2:7). Does God have an only-begotten Son,
so we read of “the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). Is Christ called “the Seed of the woman,”
then the Antichrist will be “the seed of the serpent” (Gen. 3:15). Is the Son of God also the
Son of Man, then the son of Satan will also be the “Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
Is there a Holy Trinity, then there is also an Evil Trinity (Rev. 20:10). In this Trinity of
Evil Satan himself is supreme, just as in the Blessed Trinity the Father is (governmentally)
supreme: note that Satan is several times referred to as a father (John 8:44, etc.). Unto his
son, the Antichrist, Satan gives his authority and power to represent and act for him (Rev.
13:4) just as God the Son received “all power in heaven and earth” from His Father, and
uses it for His glory. The Dragon (Satan) and the Beast (Antichrist) are accompanied by a
third, the False Prophet, and just as the third person in the Holy Trinity, the Spirit, bears
25
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
witness to the person and work of Christ and glorifies Him, so shall the third person in the
Evil Trinity bear witness to the person and work of the Antichrist and glorify him (see Rev.
13:11-14).
Now the Antichrist will be a man, and yet more than man, just as Christ was Man and
yet more than man. The Antichrist will be the ‘Superman’ of whom the world, even now,
is talking, and for whom it is looking. The Wicked One who is to be revealed shortly, will
be a supernatural character, he will be the Son of Satan. His twofold nature is plainly declared
in 2 Thess. 2:3 — “That man of Sin, the Son of Perdition.” In proof of these assertions we
ask for a careful attention to what follows.
1. “And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy Seed and her
Seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15). It is to be noted
that there is here a double “enmity” spoken of: God says, “I will put enmity between thee
and the woman,” that is, between Satan and Israel, for Israel was the woman that bore Christ
(Rev. 12); “And between thy seed and her seed.” Observe particularly that two “seeds” are
here spoken of; “Thy seed” (the antecedent is plainly the Serpent) and “her seed,” the woman’s
Seed. The woman’s Seed was Christ, the Serpent’s seed will be the Antichrist. The Antichrist
then, will be more than a man, he will be the actual and literal Seed of that old Serpent, the
Devil; as Christ was, according to the flesh, the actual and literal Seed of the woman. “Thy
seed,” Satan’s seed, refers to a s specific individual, just as “her seed” refers to a specific Individual.
2. “In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and he shall slay the Dragon that
is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). To appreciate the force of this we need to attend to the context,
which is unfortunately broken by the chapter division. In the closing verses of Isa. 26 we
hear God saying, “Come, My people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about
thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be over past” (26:20).
These words are addressed to the elect remnant of Israel. Their ultimate application will be
to those on earth at the end of this Age, for it is the time of God’s “indignation” (cf. Dan.
8:19 and 11:36). It is the time when “the Lord cometh out of His place to punish the inhabitants

of the earth, for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no
more cover her slain” (26:21) — notice “iniquity,” singular number, not “iniquities.” It is
their worshipping of Satan’s Man which is specifically referred to. Then, immediately following
we
read,
“In
that
day
the Lord[hellip]shall punish Leviathan the piercing Serpent.”
The connection, then, makes it plain that it is just before the Millennium when God shall
punish the Crooked Serpent, the Antichrist. Now the very fact that the Wicked One is here
denominated “the piercing and crooked Serpent” hints strongly that he will be the son of
“that old Serpent, the Devil.”
26
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
3. In the first two sections of Ezek. 28 two remarkable characters are brought before us.
The second who is described in vv. 12-19 has received considerable attention from Bible
students of the last two generations, and since the late Mr. G. H. Pember pointed out that
what is there said of “the king of Tyrus” could be true of no earthly king or mere human
being, and must outline a character that none but Satan himself (before his fall) could fill
this view has been adopted by most of the leading Bible teachers. But little attention has
been paid to the character described in the first ten verses of this chapter.
Now just as what is said in Ezek. 28 of “the king of Tyrus” can only apply fully to Satan
himself, so, what is said of “the prince of Tyrus” manifestly has reference to the Antichrist.
The parallelisms between what is said here and what we find in other scriptures which describe
the
Son
of
Perdition
are
so
numerous
and
so
evident,
that
we
are
obliged
to
conclude
that

it is the same person which is here contemplated. We cannot now attempt anything
like a complete exposition of the whole passage (though we hope to give one later) but will
just call attention to some of the outstanding marks of identification:
First, the Lord God says to this personage, “Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou
hast said I am a god, I sit in the seat of God” — cf. 2 Thess. 2:4. Second, “Behold thou art
wiser than Daniel” — cf. Dan 8:23, and 7:8, “Behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of
men, and a mouth speaking great things,” which intimates that the Antichrist will be possessed

of extraordinary intelligence. Third, it is said of this character, “With thy wisdom
and with thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver
into thy treasures” (v. 4- cf. Psa. 52:7; Dan. 11:38).
Sufficient has been said, we trust, to show that under the figure of this “prince of Tyrus”
we may discern clearly the unmistakable features of the coming Antichrist. But the particular
point we would make here, is this, that as Satan is termed “the king of Tyre,” in the second
section of this chapter the Antichrist is referred to as “the prince of Tyre.” Antichrist, then,
is related to Satan as “prince” is to “king,” that is, as son is to the father.
4. In Matt. 12:43 the Antichrist is called “The Unclean Spirit,” not merely an unclean
spirit, but “the Unclean Spirit.” We cannot now stop and submit the evidence that it is the
Antichrist who is here in view, for this is another passage which we will consider carefully
in a later chapter. But in the writer’s mind there is no doubt whatever that none other than
the Beast is here in view. If this be the case, then we have further evidence that the coming
One will be no mere man indwelt by Satan, but a fallen angel, an evil spirit, the incarnation
of the Devil.
5. “Ye are of your father the Devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a
murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.
1 See also the chapter on Satan’s Origin in the writer’s “Satan and his Gospel” obtainable from the Bible Truth
Depot, Swengel, Pa. at 20 cents.
1
27
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of this own; for he is a liar, and the father of it” (John
8:44). Here is still another proof that the Antichrist will be superhuman, the offspring of
Satan. In the Greek there is the definite article before the word “lie” — the lie, “the Lie.”
There is another passage in the New Testament where “the Lie” is mentioned, namely in 2
Thess. 2:11, where again the definite article is found in the Greek, and there the reference
is unmistakable.
A threefold reason may be suggested as to why the Antichrist should be termed “the
Lie.” First, because his fraudulent claim to be the real Christ will be the greatest falsehood
palmed off upon humanity. Second, because he is the direct antithesis of the real Christ,
who is “the Truth” (John 14:6). Third, because he is the son of Satan who is the arch liar.
But to return to John 8:44; “When he (the Devil) speaketh (concerning) the Lie, he speaketh
of his own.” His “own” what? His “own” son — the remainder of the verse makes this very
plain — “for he (the Devil) is a liar and the father of it,” i.e. of “the Lie.” The Lie then, is
“Satan’s Son!”
6. “That day shall not come, except there come a falling away (the Apostasy) first, and
that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). Nothing could be plainer
than this. Here the Antichrist is expressly declared to be superhuman — “the Son of Perdition.”
Just
as
the
Christ
if
the
Son
of
God,
so
Antichrist
will
be
the
son
of
Satan.
Just
as
the
Christ
dwelt
all
the
fulness
of
the
Godhead
bodily,
and
just
as
Christ
could
say
“He
that
hath
seen
Me,
hath
seen
the
Father,”
so
the
Antichrist
will
be
the
full
and
final
embodiment
of
the

Devil. He will not only be the incarnation of the Devil, but the consummation of his
wickedness and power.
7. In Rev. 13:1 (R. V.) we read, “And he (the Dragon — see context) stood upon the
sand of the sea” — symbolic of taking possession of the Nations: “And I saw a Beast coming
up out of the sea, having ten diadems, and upon his heads names of blasphemy.” It is deeply
significant to mark how these things are here linked together as cause and effect. The coming
forth of the Beast (the Antichrist) is immediately connected with the Dragon! But this is
not all. Notice the description that is here given of him: “he has ten horns (fulness of power)
and seven heads (complete wisdom)” and this is exactly how Satan himself is described in
Rev. 12:3 — “And behold, a great red Dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon
his heads names of blasphemy!” Does not a linking of these scriptures prove beyond all
doubt that the Antichrist will be an exact replica of Satan himself!
But one other thing, even more startling, remains to be considered, and that is[hellip]
28
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
1. In Psalm 55 much is said of the Antichrist in his relation to Israel. Among other things
we read there, “The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart:
his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords” (v. 21). The occasion for this
sad plaint is given in the previous verse — “He had put forth his hands against such as be
at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant.” The reference is to Antichrist breaking his
seven-year Covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27; 11:21-24). Now if the entire Psalm be
read through with these things in mind, it will be seen that it sets forth the sorrows of Israel
and the sighings of the godly remnant during the End-Time. But the remarkable thing is
that when we come to vv. 11-14 we find that which has a double application and fulfillment
— “wickedness is in the midst thereof: deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it
was not an enemy that reproached me; then I could have borne it: neither was it he that
hated me that did magnify himself against me; then I would have hid myself from him: But
it was thou, a man mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance. We took sweet counsel
together, and walked unto the house of God in company.” These verses describe not only
the base treachery of Judas toward Christ, but they also announce how he shall yet, when
reincarnated in the Antichrist, betray and desert Israel. The relation of Antichrist to Israel
will be precisely the same as that of Judas to Christ of old. He will pose as the friend of the
Jews, but later he will come out in his true character. In the Tribulation period, the Nation
of Israel shall taste the bitterness of betrayal and desertion by one who masqueraded as a
“familiar friend.” Hence, we have here the first hint that the Antichrist will be Judas reincarnated.
2. “And your covenant with Death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell
shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden
down by it” (Isa. 28:18). The “Covenant” referred to is that seven-year one which is mentioned
in Dan. 9:27. But here the one with whom this Covenant is made is termed “Death and
Hell.” This is a title of the Antichrist, as “the Resurrection and the Life” is of the true Christ.
Nor is this verse in Isa. 28 the only one where the Son of Perdition is so denominated. In
Rev. 6 a four-fold picture of him is given — the antithesis of the four-fold portrayal of the
Lord Jesus in the Gospels. Here he is seen as the rider on differently colored horses, which
bring before us four stages in his awful career, and when we come to the last of them the
Holy Spirit exposes his true identity by telling us, “and his name that sat on him was Death
and Hell followed with him” (Rev. 6:8). Now “Hell” or “hades” is the place which receives
the souls of the dead, and the fact that this awful name is here applied to Antichrist intimates
that he has come from there.
3. Above, we referred to Matt. 12:41-43 to prove that Antichrist will be a super-human
being, a fallen and unclean spirit; we turn to it again in order to show that this coming in-
29
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
carnation of Satan has previously been upon earth. The history of this “Unclean Spirit” is
divided into three stages. First, as having dwelt in “a man;” second, as having gone out of a
man, and walking through dry places, seeking rest and finding none — this has reference
to his present condition during the interval between his two appearances on earth. Third,
he says, “I will return to my house.” This Unclean Spirit, then, who has already been here,
who is now away in a place where rest is not to be found, is to come back again!
4. In John 17:12 we have a word which, more plainly still, shows that the Antichrist will
be Judas reincarnated, for here he is termed by Christ “The Son of Perdition.” But first, let
us consider the teaching of Scripture concerning Judas Iscariot. Who was he? He was a
“man” (Matt. 26:24). But was he more than a man? Let Scripture make answer. In John 6:70
we read, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a Devil?” It is hardly necessary
to say that in the Greek there are two different words for “Devil” and “demon.” There are
many demons, but only one Devil. Further, in no other passage is the word “devil” applied
to any one but to Satan himself. Judas then was the Devil incarnate, just as the Lord Jesus
was God incarnate. Christ Himself said so, and we dare not doubt His word.
As we have seen, in John 17:12 Christ termed Judas “the Son of Perdition,” and 2 Thess.
2:3 we find that the Antichrist is similarly designated — “That Man of Sin be revealed, the
Son of Perdition.” These are the only two places in all the Bible where his name occurs, and
the fact that Judas was termed by Christ not a “son of perdition,” but “the Son of Perdition,”
and the fact that the Man of Sin is so named prove that they are one and the same person.
What other conclusion can a simple and unprejudiced reader of the Bible come to?
5. In Rev. 11:7 we have the first reference to “the Beast” in the Apocalypse: “The Beast
that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit.” Here the Antichrist is seen issuing forth from the
Abyss. What is the Abyss? It is the abode of lost spirits, the place of their incarceration and
torment — see Rev. 20:1-3, and Luke 8:31, “deep” is the “abyss” and cf. Matt. 9:28. The
question naturally arises, How did he get there? and when was he sent there? We answer,
When Judas Iscariot died! The Antichrist will be Judas Iscariot reincarnated. In proof of this
we appeal to Acts 1:25 where we are told, “that he may take part of this ministry and
apostleship from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.” Of
no one else in all the Bible is it said that at death he went “to his own place.” Put these two
scriptures together: Judas went “to his own place,” the Beast ascends out of the Abyss.
6. In Rev. 17:8 we read, “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend
out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into perdition.” This verse is generally understood to refer
to the revived Roman Empire, and while allowing that such an application is warrantable,
yet we are persuaded it is a mistake to limit it to this. In the Apocalypse, the Roman Empire
and its final and satanic Head are very closely connected, so much so, that at times it is difficult
to
distinguish
between
them.
But
in
Rev.
17
they are distinguishable.
30
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
In v. 8 we are told that the Beast “shall ascend out of the Bottomless Pit,” and that he
“shall go into perdition.” In v. 11 we are told, “And the Beast that was, and is not, even he
is the eighth, and is of the seventh, and goeth into perdition.” Now nearly all expositors are
agreed that the Beast of v. 11 — the “eighth” (head, and form of government of the Roman
Empire) — is the Antichrist himself; then why not admit the same of v.8? In both, the designation
is
the
same

“the
Beast;”
and
in
both,
we
are
told
he
“goeth
into
perdition.”
We take it, then, that what is predicted of “the Beast” in 17:8 is true of both the Roman
Empire and its last head, the Antichrist: of the former, in the sense that it is infernal in its
character. Viewing it now as a declaration of the Antichrist, what does it tell us about him?
Four things. First, he “was.” Second, he “is not.” Third, he shall “ascend out of the Bottomless
Pit.” Fourth, he shall “go into perdition.” The various time-marks here concern the Beast
in his relation to the earth. First, he “was,” i.e. on the earth. Second, he “is not,” i.e. now on
the earth (cf. Gen. 5:24, “Enoch was not for God took him;” that is, “was not” any longer
on earth). Third, he shall “ascend out of the Bottomless Pit,” where he is now, which agrees
with 11:7. Fourth, he shall “go into perdition.” We learn then from this scripture that at the
time the Apocalypse was written the Beast “was not” then on the earth, but that he had been
on it formerly. Further, we learn that in John’s day the Beast was then in the Bottomless Pit
but should yet ascend out of it. Here then is further evidence that the Antichrist who is yet
to appear has been on earth before.
7. “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone.”
(Rev.
19:20).
This
gives
the
last
word
concerning
the
Antichrist.
It
makes
known
the
terrible
fate
which
awaits
him.
He,
together
with
his
ally,
will
be
cast
alive
into
the
Lake
of
Fire.
This
is
very
striking,
and
confirms
what
has
been
said
above,
namely,
that
the
Antichrist
will
be
one
who
has
already
appeared
on
earth,
and
has
been
in
“the
Abyss”
during
the
interval
which
precedes
his
return
to
the
earth.
And
how
remarkable
Rev.
19:20
corroborates
this. The Antichrist will not be cast, eventually into the Abyss, as Satan will be at the end of
the Millennium (Rev. 20:1-3), but into the Lake of Fire which is the final abode of the
damned. Why is it that he shall not be cast into the Abyss at the return of Christ? It must
be because he has already been there. Hence, the judgment meted out to him is final and
irrevocable, as will be that of the Devil a thousand years later, see Rev. 20:10.
Our next chapter will be devoted to an examination and consideration of the many
Names and Titles which are given to the Antichrist in the Word of God, and we would urge
the student to diligently search the Scriptures for himself to see how many of these he can
find — there are over twenty.
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
There is a distinct science of nomenclature, a system of names, in the Word of God.
Probably every name in Scripture has either a historic, a symbolic, or a spiritual significance.
The names are inseparably bound up with the narrative, and it frequently happens that the
meaning of a proper noun is a key to an important passage. Names are not employed by
the Holy Spirit in a loose and careless manner — of course not! — but with definite design.
A variety of names for the same individual are not given in order to prevent monotonous
repetition, but because the significance of each separate appellation is best fitted to express
what is recorded in any given instance. “Devil” and “Satan” are not synonyms, nor are they
used at haphazard, but with Divine discrimination. Upon the meaning of names found in
Holy Writ rests a whole scheme of interpretation; even the order in which names occur is
not fortuitous but designed, and constitutes a part of each lesson taught, or each truth
presented.
There is here a wide field opened for study, a field which few have made serious effort
to explore. It is strange that it has been so neglected, for again and again the Holy Spirit calls
attention to the importane and meaning of names. In the first book of the Bible we find that
children and places were given meaningful names, which called to remembrance incidents,
experiences, characteristics of interest and importance. Examples are given where names
changed to harmonize with a change in the person, place, experience, or situation where it
occurred. Abram and Sarai will at once occur to mind. For a place, take Luz, which was
changed to Bethel! — “House of God” — because by reason of a vision he received there it
became that to Jacob. Jacob’s name is changed to Israel; and in the New Testament an example
is
furnished
in
Simeon
being
re-named
Peter.
In
Heb.
7:1,
2
the Holy Spirit calls attention
to
the
significance
of
the
names
Melchizedik
and
Salem
(Jerusalem).
These
are
sufficient
to
show
the
importance
of
this
line
of
study.
Names are used in Scripture with marvelous discrimination, and it was this fact which
first demonstrated to the writer, the verbal inspiration of Scripture. The precision with
which names are used in the Bible is especially noticeable in connection with the Divine
titles. The names Elohim and Jehovah are found on the pages of the Old Testament several
thousand times, but they are never used loosely or interchangeably. Over three hundred
names and titles are given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and each has its own distinctive significance
and
to
substitute
any
other
for
the
one
used
would
destroy
the
beauty
and
perfections
of
every
passage
where
they
are
found.
Names are employed to express character; titles are used to denote relationships. It is
only as we make a careful study of the various and numerous names and titles of the Lord
Jesus Christ, that we are in a position to appreciate His infinite excellencies and the manifold
relationships which He sustains. From an opposite standpoint the same is equally true of
32
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
the Antichrist. As we pay careful attention to the different names and titles which are given
to him, we then discover what a marvelously complete delineation the Holy Spirit has furnished
us
with
of
the
person,
the
character,
and
career
of
this
monster
of
wickedness.
It
is
unfortunate
that
the
great
variety
of
names
bestowed
upon
him
has
led
some
brethren
to
the
conclusion
that
they
must
belong
to
separate
persons,
and
has
caused
them
to
apportion
these

out to different individuals; only confusion can result from this. There is almost as
much ground to make the Devil and Satan different persons, as there is to regard (as some
do) the Beast and the Antichrist as separate entities. That the Devil and Satan are names
belonging to the same person, and that the Beast and the Antichrist is the selfsame individual,
is proven by the fact that identically the same characteristics under each is found belonging
to the one as to the other. Instead of apportioning these names to different persons, we must
see that they denominate the same individual, only in different relationships, or as giving
us various phases of his character.
An old writer has said the name Devil is most suggestive of his character. If “d” is taken
away, evil is left. If “e” is taken away vile is left. If “v” is taken away ill is left. And if “i” is
taken away and the next letter be aspirated, it tells of hell. It is equally true of the Antichrist:
his names reveal his character, expose his vileness, and forecast his career and doom.
The names and titles given to the Antichrist are far more numerous than is commonly
supposed. We propose to give as complete a list as possible, and offer a few comments on
their significations. We shall not expatiate on them at equal length, for that is not necessary;
instead, we shall say the most on those cognomens which are of the greater importance, or,
which because of their ambiguity call for a more detailed elucidation.
33
1. The Antichrist
1. The Antichrist
“Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This name introduces to us one of the most solemn
and foreboding subjects in the Word of God. It brings before us one of the persons in the
Trinity of Evil. At every point he is the antithesis of Christ. The word “Antichrist” has a
double significance. Its primary meaning is one who is opposed to Christ; but its secondary
meaning is one who is instead of Christ. Let not this be thought strange, for it accords with
the two stages in his career. At first he will pose as the true Christ, masquerading in the livery
of religion. But, later, he will throw off his disguise, stand forth in his true character, and
set himself up as one who is against God and His Christ.
Not only does anti-christ denote the antagonist of Christ, but it tells of one who is instead
of Christ. The word signifies another Christ, a pro-Christ, an alter christus, a pretender to
the name of Christ. He will seem to be and will set himself up as the true Christ. He will be
the Devil’s counterfeit. Just as the Devil is an Anti-theos — not only the adversary of God,
but the usurper of the place and prerogatives of God, demanding worship; so the Son of
Perdition will be anti-christ — not only the antagonist and opponent of Christ, but His reval:
assuming
the
very
position
and
prerogatives
of
Christ;
passing
himself
off
as
the
rightful
claimant
to
all
the
rights
and
honors
of
the
Son
of
God.
1. The Antichrist
34
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come
a falling away first, and that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). This
double appellation is probably the most awful, the most important, and the most revealing
title given to the Antichrist in all the Bible. It diagnoses his personality and exposes his awful
character. It tells us he will be possessed of a twofold nature: he will be a man, and yet more
than a man. He will be Satan’s parody of the God-Man. He will be an incarnation of the
Devil. The world today is talking of and looking for the Super-man. This is exactly what the
Antichrist will be. He will be the Serpent’s masterpiece.
“That Man of Sin.” What a frightful name! The sin of man will culminate in the Man
of Sin. The Christ of God was sinless; the Christ of Satan will not only be sinful, but the Man
of Sin. “Man of Sin” intimates that he will be the living and active embodiment of every
form and character of evil. “Man of Sin” signifies that he will be sin itself personified. “Man
of Sin” denotes there will be no lengths of wickedness to which he will not go, no forms of
evil to which he will be a stranger, no depths of corruption that he will not bottom.
“The Son of Perdition.” And again we are forced to exclaim, what a frightful name! Not
only a human degenerate, but the offspring of the Dragon. Not only the worst of human
kind, but the incarnation of the Devil. Not only the most depraved of all sinners, but an
emanation from the Pit itself. “Son of Perdition” denotes that he will be the culmination
and consummation of satanic craft and power. All the evil, malignity, cunning, and power
of the Serpent will be embodied in this terrible monster.
35
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
“And then shall be revealed the Lawless One, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the
breath of His mouth, and bring to nought by the manifestation of His coming” (2 Thess.
2:8 R. V.). This is another name of the Antichrist which makes manifest his awful character.
Each of his names exhibits him as the antithesis of the true Christ. The Lord Jesus was the
Righteous One; the Man of Sin will be the Lawless One. The Lord Jesus was “made under
the law” (Gal. 4:4); the Antichrist will oppose all law, being a law unto himself. When the
Saviour entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9);
but of the Antichrist it is written “And the king shall do according to his will” (Dan. 11:36).
The Antichrist will set himself up in direct opposition to all authority, both Divine and human.
36
4. The Beast
4. The Beast
“And when they shall have finished their testimony the Beast that ascendeth out of the
bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them” (Rev.
11:7). This is another name which reveals the terrible nature and character of the Antichrist
and which places him in sharp antithesis from the true Christ. “The Beast” is the title by
which he is most frequently designated in the Revelation: there are at least thirty references
to him under this name in the last book of the Bible. The Greek word signifies a wild beast.
This name “the Beast” contrasts the Antichrist from the true Christ as “the Lamb;” and it
is a significant fact that by far the great majority of passages where the Lord Jesus is so designated

are also found here in the Apocalypse. The “Lamb” is the Saviour of sinners; the
“Beast” is the persecutor and slayer of the saints. The “Lamb” calls attention to the gentleness
of Christ; the “Beast” tells of the ferocity of the Antichrist. The “Lamb” reveals Christ as the
“harmless” One (Heb. 7:26); the “Beast” manifests the Antichrist as the cruel and heartless
one. Under the Law lambs were ceremonially clean and used in sacrifice, but beasts were
unclean and unfit for sacrifices.
It is a point of interest to note that there is one other very striking contrast between the
persons in the Holy Trinity, and the persons in the trinity of evil. At our Lord’s baptism the
Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove, and the first mention of the Holy
Spirit in Scripture represents Him as “brooding” like a dove over the waters which covered
the pre-Adamic earth (Gen. 1:2). How remarkable are those symbols — a “Lamb” and a
“Dove!” A Dove, not a hawk or an eagle. The gentle, harmless, cooing “dove.” Over against
this the Devil is termed “the Dragon.” What a contrast — the Dove and the Lamb, the Dragon
and the Beast!
4. The Beast
37
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
“Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful
Man” (Psa. 5:6). The Psalm from which this verse is quoted contains a prayer of the godly
Jewish remnant, offered during the Tribulation period. In proof of this assertion observe
that in v. 2 God is owned and addressed as “King.” In v. 7 intimation is given that the Temple
has been rebuilt in Jerusalem, for turning away from it when it has been defiled by “the
Abomination of Desolation,” the remnant say, “But as for me I will come into Thy house
in the multitude of Thy mercy: and in Thy fear will I worship toward Thy Holy Temple.”
While in v. 10 we find them praying for the destruction of their enemies, which is parallel
with Rev. 6:10. It is during that time the faithful remnant will exclaim, “Thou shalt destroy
them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful Man.”
The Bloody and Deceitful Man views the Antichrist in relation to the Jews. In the
earlier stages of his public career he poses as their friend and benefactor. He recognizes their
rights as a separate State and appears anxious to protect their autonomy. He makes a
formal covenant with them (Dan. 9:27) and their peace and security seem assured. But a
few years later he comes out in his true character. His fair speeches and professions of
friendship are seen to be false. He breaks his covenant (Psa. 55:20) and turns upon the Jews
in fury. Their benefactor is now their worst enemy. The protector of their interests now
aims to cut them off from being a nation in the earth (Psa. 83:4). Thus is he rightfully denominated
by
them
“the
Bloody
and
Deceitful
Man.”
38
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
“The Wicked (One) in his pride doth persecute the poor: the Wicked (One), through
the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God” (Psa. 10:2, 4). This entire Psalm is
about the Wicked One. The opening verse gives the key to its dispensational scope. It contains
the cry of the Jewish remnant during the Tribulation period, here denominated “Times of
Trouble” (cf. Jer. 30:7). So desperate is the situation of the true Israel, it seems as though
Jehovah must have deserted them — “Why standeth Thou afar off, O Lord? Why hidest
Thou Thyself in times of trouble?” (v. 1). Then follows a remarkably full description of their
arch-enemy, the Wicked One. His pride (v. 2), his depravity: “He abhorreth the Lord” (v.
3 margin); his blasphemy: “All his thoughts are, There is no God” (v. 4 margin); his grievous
ways, (v. 5); his consuming egotism, (v. 6); his deceitfulness, (v. 7); his treachery, (v. 8); his
cruelty, (vv. 9, 10); his complacent pride, (v. 11), is each described. Then the Remnant cry,
“Arise, O Lord; O God, lift up Thine hand: forget not the humble. Break Thou the arm of
the Wicked and Evil One” (vv. 12 and 15). The whole Psalm should be carefully studied.
39
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
“To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the Man of the Earth may no more oppress”
(Psa.
10:18).
The
“Wicked
One”
describes
his
character;
the
“Man
of
the
Earth”
defines
his
position.
The
one
speaks
of
his
awful
depths
of
depravity;
the
other
of
his
vast
dominions.
The
sphere
of
his
operations
will
be
no
mere
local
one,
He
will
become
World-emperor.
He
will
be
a
king
of
kings
and
lord
of
lords,
(Rev.
13:7).
When
the
true
Christ
appeared
on
earth
Satan
offered
Him
“all
the
kingdoms
of
the
world
and
the
glory
of
them”
if

He would fall
down and worship him. When the false Christ appears, this offer will be repeated, the conditions
will
be
met,
and
the
tempting
gift
will
be
bestowed
(Rev.
13:2).

In consequence of
this he shall be “the Man of the Earth;” just as later, Christ shall be “King over all the earth”
(Zech. 14:7).
40
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
“Why boasteth thou thyself in mischief, O Mighty Man” (Psa. 52:1). This is another
Psalm which is devoted to a description of this fearful character. Here again we have mention
of his boastfulness (v. 1), his deceitfulness (v. 2), his depravity (v. 3), his egotism (v. 4), his
riches (v. 7). His doom is also announced (v. 5). This title, the Mighty Man, refers to his
immense wealth and possessions, and the power which they confer upon their possessor.
It also points a striking contrast: Christ was the Lowly Man, not having where to lay His
head; the Antichrist will be the Mighty Man, of whom it is said, “Lo, this is the man that
made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened
himself in his substance” (Psa. 52:7).
41
9. The Enemy
9. The Enemy
“Because of the voice of the Enemy, because of the oppression of the Wicked: for they
cast iniquity upon me, and in wrath they hate me” (Psa. 55:3). This is another title used of
the Antichrist in connection with Israel, a title which recurs several times both in the Psalms
and the Prophets. It points a designed contrast from that Friend that “sticketh closer than
a brother.” This Enemy of Israel oppresses them sorely. His duplicity and treachery are here
referred to. Concerning him Israel shall exclaim, “The words of his mouth were smoother
than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn
swords” (Psa. 55:21). Let the student be on the lookout for passages in the Old Testament
which make mention of the Enemy.
9. The Enemy
42
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
“They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned up all the
synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit: neither is
there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary reproach?
Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (Psa. 74:8-10). This title occurs in several
important passages. In Isa. 59:19 we read, “So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the
west, and His glory from the rising of the sun. When the Adversary shall come in like a
flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him.” Lam. 4:11, 12 is another
scripture which obviously speaks of the End-time. “The Lord hath accomplished His fury;
He hath poured out His fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured
the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would
not have believed that the Adversary and the Enemy should have entered into the gates of
Jerusalem.” In Amos 3:11 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God; an Adversary there
shall be even round about the land; and he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy
palaces shall be spoiled.” This is a title which intimates his satanic origin, for the Greek word
for Devil means adversary.
43
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
“He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall
wound the Head over many countries” (Psa. 110:6). The context here shows that it must be
the Antichrist which is in view. The Psalm opens by the Father inviting the Son to sit at His
right hand until His enemies shall be made His footstool. Then follows the affirmation that
Jehovah will display His strength out of Jerusalem, and make His people Israel willing in
the day of His power. Then, following Jehovah’s oath that Christ is a Priest forever after the
order of Melchizedek (which contemplates the exercise of His millennial and royal priesthood),

we read, “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of His
wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill the places with the dead bodies; He
shall wound the Head over many countries.” The “Day of His wrath” is the closing portion
of the Tribulation period, and in the Day of His wrath. He wounds this Head over many
countries. The Head over many countries refers to the Man of Sin as the Caesar of the last
world-empire, prior to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom.
44
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
“Deliver me, O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man” (Ps. 140:1).
This is another Psalm which expresses the plaintive supplications of the godly remnant in
the “time of Jacob’s trouble.” Three times over the Antichrist is denominated the Violent
Man. In v. 1 the remnant pray to be delivered from him. In v. 4 the petition is repeated. In
v. 11 his doom is foretold. Cry is made for God to take vengeance upon this bloody persecutor:
“Let
the
burning
coals
fall

upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits,
that they rise not up again. Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt
the Violent Man to overthrow him” (Psa. 140:10, 11). The Violent Man is a name which
fully accords with his Beast-like character. It tells of his ferocity and rapacity.
45
13. The Assyrian
13. The Assyrian
“O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand in Mine indignation[hellip]Wherefore
it
shall
come
to
pass,
that
when
the
Lord
hath
performed
His
whole
work
upon
mount
Zion
and
on
Jerusalem,
I

will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the
King of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks” (Isa. 10:5, 12). We cannot here attempt an
exposition of the important passage in which these verses occur — that, in subsequent
chapters, we shall treat in detail of the Antichrist in the Psalms, and the Antichrist in the
Prophets — suffice it now to point out that it treats of the End-time (see vv. 12, 20), and
that the leading characteristics of the Man of Sin can be clearly discerned in what is here
said of the Assyrian. Almost all pre-millennial students of prophecy are agreed that the
“King” of Isa. 30:33 is the Antichrist, and yet in the two verses which precede, this “King”
is identified with “the Assyrian.”
13. The Assyrian
46
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
“Thou shalt take up this proverb against the King of Babylon, and say, How hath the
oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” (Isa. 14:4). We do not wish to anticipate what we
shall discuss at length in our future studies, enough now to state it is our firm conviction
that Scripture plainly teaches that there will be another Babylon which will eclipse the importance
and
glories
of
the
one
of
the
past,
and
that
Babylon
will
be
one
of
the
headquarters
of
the
Antichrist.
He
will
have
three:
Jerusalem
will
be
his
religious
headquarters, Rome his
political, and Babylon his commercial. For those who desire to anticipate our future expositions,
we
recommend
them
to
make
a
minute
study
of
Isa.
10,
11,
13,
14;
Jer.
49:51;
Zech.
5,
and
Rev.
18.
47
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
“How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, son of the Morning! How art thou cut down
to the ground, which didst weaken the nations” (Isa. 14:12). “Lucifer” is a Latin word which
signifies the “morning star.” “All the ancient versions and all the Rabbins make the word a
noun denoting the bright one, or, more specifically, bright star, or according to the ancients
more specifically still, the Morning Star or harbinger of daylight” (Dr. J. A. Alexander). This
term “Lucifer” has been commonly regarded as one of the names of Satan, and what is here
said of the Morning Star is viewed as describing his apostasy. Against this interpretation we
have nothing to say, except to remark that we are satisfied it does not exhaust this remarkable
scripture. A detailed exposition must be reserved for a later chapter. Sufficient now to point
out that however Isa. 14 may look back to the distant past when, through pride, Satan fell
from his original estate, it most evidently looks forward to a coming day and gives another
picture of the Antichrist. In this same passage “Lucifer” is termed “the Man that did make
the earth to tremble” (v. 16), and in his blasphemous boast “I will be like the Most High”
(v. 14), we have no difficulty in identifying him with the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4. The
force of this particular title “Morning Star” is seen by comparing it with Rev. 22:16, where
we learn that this is one of the titles of the God-man. The “Morning Star” speaks of Christ
coming to usher in the great Day of rest for the earth. In blasphemous travesty of this Satan
will send forth the mock messiah to usher in a false millennium.
48
16. The Spoiler
16. The Spoiler
“Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them from the face of the
Spoiler: for the Extortioner is at an end, the Spoiler ceaseth, the oppressors are consumed
out of the land. And in mercy shall the throne be established: and He shall sit upon it in
truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness”
(Isa. 16:4, 5). It will be observed that the verse in which the Antichrist is spoken of as the
Spoiler comes immediately before the one where we read of the throne being established, a
reference, of course, to the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom. These two things synchronize:
the
destruction
of
Antichrist,
and
the
beginning
of
the
real
Messiah’s
reign;
hence
we
read
here
“the
Spoiler
ceaseth.”
A
further
reference
to
the
Man
of
Sin
under
this
title
of
the
Spoiler
is
found
in
Jer.
6:26:
“O
daughter
of
My
people,
gird
thee
with
sackcloth,
and
wallow
thyself
in
ashes:
make
thee
mournings,
as
for
an
only
son,
most
bitter
lamentation:
for
the
Spoiler
shall suddenly come upon thee.” This is another title which views the Antichrist in
connection with Israel. After the return of many of the Jews to Palestine, and after their
rights have been owned by the Powers, and their security and success seem assured; their
enemy, filled with satanic malice, will seek their extermination. “The Spoiler” contrasts him
with the Lord Jesus who is the great Restorer (see Psa. 69:4).
16. The Spoiler
49
17. The Nail
17. The Nail
“In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall the Nail that is fastened in the sure place be
removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the
Lord hath spoken it” (Isa. 22:25). The last ten verses of this chapter should be read carefully.
They furnish a striking foreshadowment of the End-time. Shebna was holding some office
over (note “government” in v. 21) Israel. Apparently he was a usurper. God announced that
he should be set aside in shame, and the man of His choice — Eliakim — should take his
place. These historical figures merge into prophetic characters. In v. 22 we read that God
says, “And the key of the house of David will lay upon His shoulder, so He shall open, and
none shall shut; and He shall shut, and none shall open.” As we know from Rev. 3:7 this
refers to none other than the Lord Jesus, and of Him it is here said, “And I will fasten Him
as a Nail in a sure place; and He shall be for a glorious throne to His father’s house” (v. 23).
Then, in the closing verse of the chapter we read, “In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall
the Nail that is fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall.” Just as
Eliakim foreshadowed Christ, so Shebna pointed forward to the Antichrist; and just as in
v.23 we have a prophecy announcing the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom, so in v. 25
we have foretold the overthrow of the false messiah’s kingdom.
17. The Nail
50
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
“Thou shalt bring down the noise of strangers, as the heat in a dry place; even the heat
with the shadow of a cloud; the Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low” (Isa. 25:5).
The first five verses of this chapter contemplate the Enemy’s stronghold — Babylon — and
the remainder of the chapter pictures the blessedness of the millennial era. In the fifth verse
the Antichrist’s overthrow is announced: “The Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought
low.” With this should be compared Isa. 14:19, where of Lucifer it is said, “Thou art cast out
of thy grave like an abominable Branch.” This points another contrast. The “Branch” is one
of the Messianic names: “Behold, I will bring forth My Servant, the Branch” (Zech. 3:8);
“Behold the man whose name is the Branch” (Zech. 6:12). By placing together Isa. 4:2 and
Isa. 14:19 the antithesis will be more evident. Of Christ it is said, “The Branch of the Lord
shall be beautiful and glorious.” Antichrist is called “an abominable Branch”: Christ is “the
Branch of the Lord;” Antichrist is “the Branch ofthe terrible ones.”
51
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
“And thou, profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have
an end, thus saith the Lord God; remove the diadem, and take off the crown; this shall not
be the same; exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn,
overturn it: and it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him”
(Ezek. 21:25-27). The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel here can be none other than the
Antichrist, for we are expressly told that “his day shall be when iniquity shall have an end.”
The reference is, of course, to Israel’s “iniquity,” and their iniquity shall end at the appearing
of the Messiah (see Dan. 9:24) when “He shall be a priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13).
Here in Ezekiel we see how the Son of Perdition shall ape the Christ of God, for he, too, will
be a priest-king: “Remove the diadem” refers to the insignia of his priesthood (in every
other place in the O. T. where this occurs the Hebrew word here translated “diadem” it is
rendered “mitre” — worn only by the high priest of Israel); “take off the crown” is the
symbol of his kingship.
52
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
“I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another Little Horn,
before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in
this Horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things” (Dan. 7:8).
For a full description of the Antichrist under this title see Dan. 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25.
We must reserve our comments on these verses till a later chapter. “Little Horn” refers to
the lowly political origin of the Antichrist, and describes him as he is before he attains governmental
supremacy.
53
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
“And after three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself: and
the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary” (Dan. 9:26).
This title connects the Antichrist with the Roman Empire in its final form, and presents
him as the last of the Ceasars.
54
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
“And in his estate shall stand up a Vile Person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries” (Dan.
11:21). This contrasts the Antichrist from “the Holy One of Israel.” His identity is established
by noting what is predicted of him.
55
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
“And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(Dan. 11:36). The Antichrist will not only be the High Priest of the world’s religion, but he
will be King supreme at the head of its government.
56
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
“For, lo, I will raise up a Shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off,
neither shall seek the young ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth
still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd
that leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall
be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened” (Zech. 11:16, 17). This is in
evident contrast from the Good Shepherd who gave His life for His sheep. The Idol Shepherd
of deluded Israel will prove himself the monster Desolator, who shall bring upon that people
the severest tribulations ever experiences by that race.
57
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
“And they had a king over them, which is the Angel of the bottomless pit, whose name
in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon” (Rev.
9:11). “Abaddon” and “Apollyon” mean Destroyer. It is the “Spoiler” of Isa. 16:4 rendered
“Destroyer” in Jer. 4:7. That his name is here given in the Hebrew and the Greek shows that
he will be connected with both the Jews and the Gentiles.
Other names of the Antichrist which the student may look up are, “The Rod of God’s
anger” (Isa. 10:12); “The Unclean Spirit” (Matt. 12:43); “The Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11); “A Star”
(Rev. 8:10 and 9:1); and “The Vine of the Earth” (Rev. 14:18).
In our next chapter we shall deal with the genius of the Antichrist, and point out the
many striking comparisons and contrasts between him and the Christ of God. Let the student
see how many points of resemblance and opposition he can find.
58
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
For six thousand years Satan has had full opportunity afforded him to study fallen human
nature to discover its weakest points and to learn how best to make men do his bidding.
The Devil knows full well how to dazzle men by the attraction of power, and how to make
them quail before its terrors. He knows how to gratify the craving for knowledge and how
to satisfy the taste for refinement and culture, he can delight the ear with melodious music
and the eye with entrancing beauty. If he could transport the Saviour from the wilderness
to a mountain, in a moment of time, and show Him all the kingdoms of the world and their
glory, he is no novice in the art of presenting alluring objects before his victims today. He
knows how to stimulate energy and direct inquiry, and how to appease the craving for the
occult. He knows how to exalt men to dizzy heights of worldly greatness and fame, and how
to control that greatness when attained, so that it may be employed against God and his
people.
It is true that up to now Satan’s power has been restrained, and his activities have been
checked and often counteracted by the Spirit of God. The brightest fires of the Devil’s
kindling can burn but dimly whilever God sheds around them the power of heavenly light.
They require the full darkness of night in order to shine in the full strength of their deceiving
brightness; and that time is coming. The Word of God reveals the fact that a day is not far
distant when Divine restraint will be removed; the light of God will be withdrawn; and then
shall “darkness cover the earth and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). Not only will that
which has hindered the full development of the Mystery of Iniquity be removed, but God
will “send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:13), and Satan
will take advantage of this; he will then make full use of all the knowledge which he has acquired
during
the
last
six
thousand
years.
Satan will become incarnate and appear on earth in human form. As we have shown in
previous chapters, the Antichrist will not only be the Man of Sin, but also “the Son of Perdition,”
the
Seed
of
the
Serpent.
The
Antichrist
will
be
the
Devil’s
masterpiece.
In
him
shall
dwell
all
the
fulness
of
the
Devil
bodily.
He
will
be
the
culmination
and
consummation
of
Satan’s
workings.
The
world
is
now
talking
of
and
looking
for
the
Superman;
and
the
Devil
is
soon
to
supply
him.
The
Antichrist
will
be
no
ordinary
person,
but
one
possessed
of
extraordinary
talents.
He
will
be
endowed
with
superhuman
powers.
With
the
one
exception
of
the
God-man
he
will
be
the
most
remarkable
personage
who
has
ever
appeared
upon
the
stage
of
human
history.
But
to
particularize:
59
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
He will be possessed of extraordinary intelligence. He will be the Devil’s imitation of
that blessed One “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Col. 2:3).
This Son of Perdition will surpass Solomon in wisdom. In Dan. 7:20 he is represented as “A
horn that had eyes.” It is a double symbol. The “horn” prefigures strength; “eyes” speak of
intelligence. Again, in Dan. 8:23 he is referred to as “A King of fierce countenance.” who
shall “understand dark sentences.” That which baffles others shall be simple to him. The
Hebrew word here translated “dark sentences” is the same as the one rendered “hard questions”
in
1
Kings
10:1,
where
we
read
of
the
Queen
of
Sheba
coming
to
Solomon
with
her
“hard

questions” in order to test his wisdom. It is also the word that is used in Samson’s
riddle in Judges 14. It indicates that the Antichrist will be master of all the secrets of occult
science. Ezek. 28:3 declares of him “Beholding, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret
that they can hide from thee.” This will be one of his most alluring attractions. His master
mind will captivate the educated world. His marvelous store of knowledge, his acquaintance
with the secrets of nature, his superhuman powers of perception, will stamp him as an intellectual
genius
of
the
first
magnitude.
60
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
In Dan. 7:20 we are told that he has “a mouth that spake very great things.” As a wizard
of words he will surpass Demosthenes. Here also will the Devil imitate that One “who spake
as never man spake.” The people were “astonished” at Christ’s doctrine (Matt. 7:28), and
said “Whence hath this man this wisdom?” (Matt. 13:54). So will it be with this daring
counterfeiter: he will have a mouth speaking very great things. He will have a perfect command
and
flow
of
language.
His
oratory
will
not
only
gain
attention
but
command
respect.
Rev.
13:2
declares that his mouth is “as the mouth of a lion” which is a symbolic expression
telling of the majesty and awe producing effects of his voice. The voice of the lion excels
that of any other beast. So the Antichrist will out rival orators ancient and modern.
61
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
He will emerge from obscurity, but by dint of his diplomatic skill he will win the admiration
and
compel
the
cooperation
of
the
political
world.
In
the
early
stages
of
his
career
he
appears
as
“a
little
horn”
(or
power),
but
it
is
not
long
before
he
climbs
the
ladder
of
fame,
and

by means of brilliant statesmanship, ascends its topmost rung. Like the majority of
politicians, he will not scruple to employ questionable methods; in fact it will be by diplomatic
chicanery
and
intrigue
that
he
will
win
his
early
successes.
Dan.
11:21
tells us that at
first they will not give to him the honor of the kingdom, but “he shall come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” Once he gains the ascendancy none will dare to
challenge his authority. Kings will be his pawns and princes his playthings.
62
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (Dan. 8:25).
Under his regime everything will be nationalized, and none will be able to buy or sell without
his permission (Rev. 13:17). All commerce will be under his personal control, and this will
be used for his own aggrandizement. The wealth of the world will be at his disposal. There
are several scriptures which call attention to this. For example in Psa. 52:7 we read, “Lo, this
is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches; and
strengthened himself in his substance.” Again, in Dan. 11:38 we are told, “But in his estate
shall he honor the god of forces (Satan): and a god whom his fathers knew not shall be
honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” Even plainer is
Dan. 11:43, “But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt.” In the last verse of Dan. 11 mention is made of his “palace.” He
will be wealthier than Croesus. Ezak. 28:4, 5 speaks of him thus, “With thy wisdom and with
thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy
treasures: By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thine
heart is lifted up because of thy riches.” Thus will he be able to wield the sceptre of financial
power and outdo Solomon in all his glory.
63
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
He will be endowed with the most extraordinary powers, so that “he shall destroy
wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy
people” (Dan. 8:24). Before his exploits the fame of Alexander and Napoleon will be forgotten.
None will be able to stand before him. He will go “forth conquering and to conquer” (Rev.
6:2). He will sweep everything before him so that the world will exclaim, “Who is like unto
the Beast? who is able to make war with him?” (Rev. 13:4). His military exploits will not be
confined to a corner, but carried out on a vast scale. He is spoken of as the man who will
“shake kingdoms” and “make the earth to tremble” (Isa. 14:16).
64
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
He will weld together opposing forces. He will unify conflicting agencies. Under the
compelling power of his skill the world Powers will be united. The dream of a League of
Nations will then be realized. The Orient and the Occident shall no longer be divided. A
marvelous symbolic picture of this is given us in Rev. 13:1, 2: “And I stood upon the sand
of the sea, and saw a Beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and
upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the Beast which
I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the
mouth of a lion: and the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
Here we find the forces of the Roman, the Grecian, the Medo-Persian, and the Babylonian
empires coalesced. He will be the personal embodiment of the world’s political authority in
its final form. So completely will the world be swayed by the hypnotic spell cast over it by
the Beast that the ten kings of the Roman empire in its ultimate form shall “give their kingdoms
unto
him”
(Rev.
17:17).
He
will
be
the
last
great
Caesar.
65
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
He will proclaim himself God, demanding that Divine honors should be rendered to
him and sitting in the Temple shall show himself forth that he is God (2 Thess. 2:4). Such
wonders will he perform, such prodigious marvels will he work, the very elect would be
deceived by him did not God directly protect them. The Man of Sin will combine in himself
all the varied genius of the human race, and what is more, he will be invested with all the
wisdom and power of Satan. He will be a master of science, acquainted with all of nature’s
forces, compelling her to give up for him her long held secrets. “In this master-piece of
Satan,” says one, “will be concentrated intellectual greatness, sovereign power and human
glory, combined with every species of iniquity, pride, tyranny, wilfulness, deceit, and blasphemy,
such
as

Antiochus Epiphanes, Mohammed, the whole line of popes, atheists, and
deists of every age of the world have failed to unite in any individual person.”
“All the world wondered after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). His final triumph shall be that,
wounded by a sword, he shall live again (Rev. 13:3). He shall raise himself from the dead,
and so wonder-struck will men be at this stupendous marvel they will readily pay him Divine
homage, yea, so great will be his dazzling power over men, they will worship his very image
(Rev. 13:14, 15).
Having contemplated something of the genius of Satan’s prodigy, let us now consider
his character. In doing so we shall view him in the light of the Character of the Lord Jesus.
Christ is the Divine plumb-line and standard of measurement by which all character must
be tested.
In our last chapter we pointed out how that the distinguishing title of the coming Superman

the
Antichrist
— has a double significance, inasmuch as it points to him as the imitator
of
Christ
and
the
opponent
of
Christ.
Hence,
in
studying
his
character,
we
find
a
series
of
comparisons
and
a
series
of
contrasts
drawn
between
the
false
christ
and
the
true
Christ;
and
these
we
now
propose
to
set
before
the
reader.
66
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Satan is the master-counterfeiter, and in nothing will this appear more conspicuously
than in his next great move. He is now preparing the stage for his climactic production,
which will issue in a blasphemous imitation of the Divine incarnation. When the Son of
Perdition appears he will pose as the Christ of God, and so perfect will be his disguise, the
very elect would be deceived, were it not that God will grant them special illumination. It
is this disguise, this simulation of the true Christ which we shall now examine, pointing out
the various parallelisms which Scripture furnishes:
1 Christ was the subject of Old Testament prophecy: so also is the Antichrist; many are
the predictions which describe this coming one, see especially Dan. 11:21-45.
2 The Lord Jesus was typified by many Old Testament characters such as Abel, Joseph,
Moses, David, etc. So also will the Antichrist be: such characters as Cain, Pharaoh,
Absolom, Saul, etc., foreshadow the Man of Sin. We shall devote a separate chapter to
this most fascinating and totally neglected branch of our subject.
3 Christ was revealed only at God’s appointed time: such will also be the case with the
Antichrist. Of the one we read, “But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth
His Son” (Gal. 4:4); of the other it is said, “And now we know what withholdeth that
he might be revealed in his time” (2 Thess. 2:6).
4 Christ was a Man, a real Man, “the Man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5); so also will the
Antichrist be — “that Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
5 But Christ was more than a man; He was the God-Man; so also will the Antichrist be
more than a man: the Super-man.
6 Christ was, according to the flesh, a Jew (Rom. 1:3); so also will the Antichrist be —
for proofs see chapter three, section one.
7 Christ will make a covenant with Israel (Heb. 8:8); so also will the Antichrist (Dan.
9:27).
8 Christ is our “Great High Priest;” so Antichrist will yet be Israel’s great high priest
(Ezek. 21:26).
9 Christ was and will be the King of the Jews (Matt. 2:1); so also will the Antichrist be
(Dan. 11:36).
10 Christ will be the King of kings (Rev. 17:14); so also will the Antichrist be (Rev. 17:12,
13).
67
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
11 Christ wrought miracles: of Him it is said “approved of God among you by miracles
and wonders and signs” (Acts 2:22); so also will the Antichrist, concerning whom it is
written, “whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9).
12 Christ’s public ministry was limited to three years and a half; so also will the Antichrist’s
final ministry be (Rev. 13:5).
13 Christ is shown to us riding a “white horse” (Rev. 19:11); so also is the Antichrist (Rev.
6:2).
14 Christ will return to the earth as Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6, 7); so also will the Antichrist
introduce an era of peace (Dan. 11:21); it is to this that 1 Thess. 5:3 directly refers.
15 Christ is entitled “the Morning Star” (Rev. 22:16); so also is the Antichrist (Isa. 14:12).
16 Christ is referred to as Him “which was, and is, and is to come” (Rev. 4:8); the Antichrist
is referred to as him that “was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit”
(Rev. 17:8).
17 Christ died and rose again; so also will the Antichrist (Rev. 13:3).
18 Christ will be the object of universal worship (Phil. 2:10); so also will the Antichrist
(Rev. 13:4).
19 The followers of the Lamb will be sealed in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3; 14:1); so also will
the followers of the Beast (Rev. 13:16, 17).
20 Christ has been followed by the Holy Spirit who causes men to worship Him; so the
Antichrist will be followed by the Anti-spirit — the False Prophet — who will cause
men to worship the Beast (Rev. 13:12).
There is no need for us to make any comments on these striking correspondences: they
speak for themselves. They show the incredible lengths to which God will permit Satan to
go in mimicking the Lord Jesus. We turn now to consider:
68
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
1 In their respective Designations
1 One is called the Christ (Matt. 16:16); the other the Antichrist (1 John 4:3).
2 One is called the Man of Sorrows (Isa. 53:3); the other the Man of Sin (2 Thess.
2:3).
3 One is called the Son of God (John 1:34); the other the Son of Perdition (2 Thess.
2:3).
4 One is called the Seed of woman (Gen. 3:15); the other the seed of the Serpent (Gen.
3:15).
5 One is called the Lamb (Isa. 53:7); the other the Beast (Rev. 11:7).
6 One is called the Holy One (Mark 1:24); the other the Wicked One (2 Thess. 2:8).
7 One is called the Truth (John 14:6); the other the Lie (John 8:44).
8 One is called the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6); the other the wicked, profane Prince
(Ezek. 21:25).
9 One is called the glorious Branch (Isa. 4:2); the other the abominable Branch (Isa.
14:19).
10 One is called the Mighty Angel (Rev. 10:1); the other is called the Angel of the
Bottomless Pit (Rev. 9:11).
11 One is called the Good Shepherd (John 10:11); the other is called the Idol Shepherd
(Zech. 11:17).
12 One has for the number of His name (the gematria of “Jesus”) 888; the other has
for the number of his name 666 (Rev. 13:18).
2 In their respective Careers
1 Christ came down from heaven (John 3:13); Antichrist comes up out of the bottom-
less pit (Rev. 11:7).
2 Christ came in Another’s Name (John 5:43); Antichrist will come in his own name
(John 5:43).
3 Christ came to do the Father’s will (John 6:38); Antichrist will do his own will (Dan.
11:36).
4 Christ was energized by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:14); Antichrist will be energized
by Satan (Rev. 13:4).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
69
5 Christ submitted Himself to God (John 5:30); Antichrist defies God (2 Thess. 2:4).
6 Christ humbled Himself (Phil. 2:8); Antichrist exalts himself (Dan. 11:37).
7 Christ honored the God of His fathers (Luke 4:16); Antichrist refuses to (Dan
11:37).
8 Christ cleansed the temple (John 2:14, 16); the Antichrist defiles the temple (Matt.
24:15).
9 Christ ministered to the needy (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist robs the poor (Psa. 10:8, 9).
10 Christ was rejected of men (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist will be accepted by men (Rev.
13:4).
11 Christ leadeth the flock (John 10:3); Antichrist leaveth the flock (Zech. 11:17).
12 Christ was slain for the people (John 11:51); Antichrist slays the people (Isa. 14:20).
13 Christ glorified God on earth (John 17:4), Antichrist blasphemes the name of God
in heaven (Rev. 13:6).
14 Christ was received up into heaven (Luke 24:51); Antichrist goes down into the
Lake of Fire (Rev. 19:20).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
70
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
We now come to the most interesting and yet the most difficult part of our subject.
When will the Antichrist be manifested? where will he appear? what will he do? are questions
which readily occur to all who have given any thought to the matter. It is not our purpose
to seek to satisfy the idly curious, still less is it to gratify those who love the sensational. We
are well aware that our present theme is one that appeals strongly to the curiously inclined,
and were it not for the importance of our inquiry we would leave it alone. But without due
regard to the person and place of the coming Superman, it is impossible to understand the
eschatology of either the Old or New Testaments.
The chief difficulty is to arrange in chronological sequence the many passages which
treat of the Antichrist. It is by no means easy to discover the precise order in which the
prophecies which deal with the Man of Sin will receive their fulfillment. There is great need
for much prayerful study along this line. We can only write according to the light we now
have, and our readers must examine for themselves what we say in the light of the Scriptures.
It ill becomes any one to be dogmatic where the Word itself does not plainly state the exact
time when certain prophecies are to be fulfilled.
In this chapter we are placed somewhat at a disadvantage, because we shall be obliged
to give brief expositions of many scriptures where it will be impossible for us to pause and
furnish proofs or reasons for each interpretation. For example, it is our firm conviction that
the Assyrian of Isa. 10, the king of Babylon of Isa. 14, the Little Horn of Dan. 7, the Little
Horn of Dan. 8, and the first Beast of Rev. 13, each and all view the Antichrist himself in
different relationships. There are some Bible students who may take issue with us on these
points, and complain because that in this chapter we make assertions without endeavoring
to prove them. We regret this, but would ask all to bear with us patiently. In the later chapters
of this book we shall devote separate studies to the Antichrist in the Psalms, in the Prophets,
in the Gospels and Epistles, and in the Apocalypse; when we shall endeavor to examine each
passage separately and attempt to give scriptural proofs for every interpretation adopted.
While it is admittedly difficult, and perhaps impossible, to fit each prophecy concerning
the Antichrist into its proper chronological place, we are able to determine the relative position

of most of them. The career of the Antichrist is divided into two distinct parts, and
there is a clearly defined dividing line between them. In previous chapters we have pointed
out how that the name “Antichrist;” has a double meaning, signifying one who imitates
Christ, and one who is opposed to Christ. This double meaning to his name corresponds
exactly with the two chief parts in his career. In the first, he poses as the true Christ, claiming
to be indeed the Messiah of Israel. This claim will be backed up with the most imposing
credentials, and all excepting God’s elect will be deceived. He will sit in the Temple (a rebuilt
temple in Jerusalem) showing himself forth to be God, and Divine honors will be paid him.
71
The Career of the Antichrist
But at a later stage he will throw off his mask, and appear in his true character as the opponent
of Christ and the defier of God. Then, instead of befriending the Jews, he will turn against
them and seek to exterminate them from the earth. Thus, with many of the scriptures which
describe the person and career of the Antichrist it is a comparatively easy matter to decide
whether they belong to the first or to the second stage of his history. But beyond this it is
difficult, with some scriptures at least to go.
We shall now consider, first the time of Antichrist’s appearing. It is hardly necessary
for us to enter into a lengthy argument to show that the Antichrist (as such) has not already
appeared. Many antichrists have already come and gone, and some are in the world even
now; the same is equally true of the many false prophets foretold in Scripture; but all of
these are but the forecasts and foreshadowings of the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who
are yet to be revealed, and who will receive their final overthrow by the Lord Jesus at His
return to the earth. Before the Antichrist can appear the Holy Spirit must be “taken out of
the way;” (2 Thess. 2:7); the old Roman Empire must be revived and assume its final form
— “divided under ten kings;” — before the “Little Horn;” comes into prominence (Dan.
7:24 — he rises “after them”): Israel must be restored to their land and the Temple be rebuilt,
etc., etc.
At the present time the ultimate development of “the Mystery of Iniquity” is being
hindered. God’s people are the salt of the earth, and their presence here stays the corruption
of the “carcass” (Matt. 24:28 — The “Carcass” is the antithesis of the “Body” of Christ). The
saints are the light of the world, and while they remain in it is impossible for darkness to
cover the earth and gross darkness the people (Isa. 60:2). The Spirit of God is here, indwelling
believers, and His holy presence checks the final outworking of Satan’s plans. But when all
believers of this dispensation have been “caught up to meet the Lord in the air” (1 Thess.
4:16), and the Holy Spirit has departed from the earth, all restraint will be removed, and
Satan will be allowed to bring forth his false christ, who will be “revealed in his time” (2
Thess. 2:6), and it would seem that even now signs are not wanting to show that God has
already given permission to Satan to prepare the stage of action for the ghastly consummation
of his evil efforts. There can be no doubt but that the Devil has desired to reveal the Son of
Perdition long before this, so that by means of him he may reduce the whole world to submission.
But
the
restraining
hand
of
God,
now
so
soon
to
be
removed,
has
held
him
back.
The time, then, when the Antichrist will be revealed is after this present Dispensation
of Grace has run its course; after the Mystical Body of Christ has been completed; after the
whole company of God’s people have been caught up to meet the Lord in the air; after the
Holy Spirit has departed from the world. How soon after we cannot say for certain. The
majority of prophetic students seems to think that the last great Caesar will come into
prominence almost immediately after the rapture of the saints. Personally, we believe there
will be an interval, long or short, between the two. As there was a period of thirty years after
72
The Career of the Antichrist
the birth of the Lord Jesus — a period of silence — before His public ministry commenced,
so there may be a similar interval between the Rapture and the Revelation of Antichrist.
The Antichrist will enter the arena of public affairs before the beginning of Daniel’s
seventieth week, for at the beginning of it he makes a seven-years covenant with the Jews,
then in their land. But at that point he will be the Dictator of the world’s policies, and as he
begins in comparative obscurity (at least from a governmental standpoint), some time —
probably years — must be allowed for his gradual rise to political supremacy. His meteoric
course will not be terminated until the Lord Himself descends to earth to usher in the Millennium.
Just
as
the
reign
of
Saul
preceded
that
of
David,
so
shall
that
of
Antichrist
antedate
that
of
the
true
Christ.
We turn now to consider the place of Antichrist’s appearing. So far as the writer is aware
there are only two scriptures which give direct information upon this point, and they are
each found in the prophecy of Daniel. We refer to the passages which speak of “the Little
Horn.” In Dan. 7:7, 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and, behold, a fourth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured
and break in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all
the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold,
there came up among them another little horn.” This fourth Beast is the last world-empire,
prior to the setting up of the Messianic kingdom. This empire will, at first, be ruled over by
ten kings — the “ten horns” of v.7 and defined as ten kings in v. 24. After them arises another,
the “Little Horn,” which signifies another “king,” see v. 24. He is termed “little” because at
that stage his kingdom is but small compared with that of the others, and the power he then
wields is insignificant when contrasted from the ten kings. But not for long will he remain
weak and insignificant. Soon the ten kings will themselves own allegiance to this eleventh
— see Rev. 17:12, 13. We reserve for a later chapter the proofs that this “Little Horn” is the
Antichrist, asking our readers to study carefully the description furnished of him in Dan.
7:8, 20-27; 8:9-12, 23-25.
Taking it for granted (at the moment) that the Little Horn of Dan. 7 is the Antichrist
let us see how what is there said of him helps us to determine the quarter from which he
will arise. In Dan. 7:7 the “fourth Beast” is described, and in 7:23 we are told, “the fourth
beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms,
and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” This
Kingdom will be divided into ten parts, over which will be the ten kings (7:24). This kingdom
will be, we believe, the old Roman Empire revived in its final form, and divided into two
great halves — the Eastern and the Western. This fourth kingdom will include within itself
all the territory and will perpetuate all the dominant characteristics of the other three which
have preceded it, i.e. the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Grecian. Turning now to Dan.
7:8 we are told, “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another
73
The Career of the Antichrist
little horn.” The Antichrist, then, will have his rise within the limits of the old Roman Empire.
This narrows considerably our circle of inquiry. The next question is, Can we determine
from which part of the empire he will arise — the Eastern or the Western? Dan. 8 furnishes
light upon this point.
In Dan. 8:8, 9 we read, “Therefore the he-goat waxed very great: and when he was strong,
the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of
heaven. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward
the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.” Now v. 21 of this same chapter
tells us, “The rough goat is the king (kingdom) of Grecia,” and v. 22 informs us “and the
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four
stood up for it, four kingdoms (or kings) shall stand up out of the nation.” This, of course,
refers to the act of Alexander the Great who divided his kingdom into four parts — Greece,
Egypt, Syria, and the rest of the domains of Turkey — under his four great generals: Ptolemy,
Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. This, again, very appreciably narrows our circle of
inquiry. Dan. 7 tells us the Little Horn is to arise in a part of the territory covered by the old
Roman Empire, which Empire gradually included within its domains that the the preceding
empires. Now here in Dan. 8 we learn that the Little Horn will spring from that part of the
revived Roman Empire which was included in the Grecian Empire. But this is not all that
Dan. 8 tells us. The Grecian Empire is here viewed as disintegrated into four parts or kingdoms,
from
which
of
these
parts,
then,
may
we
expect
him
to
issue

Macedonia,
Egypt,
Syria,
or
Thrace?
This
question,
we
believe,
receives
answer
in
Dan.
8:(
where
we
are
told,
that
the
Little
Horn
“waxed
exceeding
great
toward
the
south,
and
toward
the
east,
and
toward
the
pleasant
land.”
Practically
all
students
are
agreed
that
“the
south”
here
refers
to
Egypt,
the

“east” to Persia and Greece and “the pleasant land” to Palestine, hence it would seem
that the country from which Antichrist will first be manifested is Syria. It will be noted that
nothing is said in Dan. 8:9 about the Little Horn “waxing great” toward the north, and we
believe the reason for this is because that is the quarter from whence he shall arise. This is
confirmed by the fact that “the king of Assyria” in Isa. 10:12 is clearly none other than the
Antichrist. We may say this was the current view of Christian writers on prophecy through
the first ten centuries A.D. The late Mr. W. B. Newton in his splendid “Aids to the Study of
Prophetic Inquiry” has succinctly summarized the various arguments of the ancients in the
following language: —
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The Career of the Antichrist
“In the first place, as Nimrod — the founder of Babel, that is, the Tower
of Babylon — a savage tyrant and cruel oppressor of men, was the first person
who declared open war against God; so it is meet that there should arise from
the selfsame Babylon, the last and most atrocious persecutor of the saints —
the Antichrist. Moreover, seeing that Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus Epiphanes

— two monsters who bore down upon the people of God with an
overwhelming power of destruction, and who were the antichrists of the old
Testament and remarkable types of the Antichrist which is to come; seeing,
I say, that these monarchs reigned in Babylon, it is fitting that the true Antichrist
of
the
New
Testament
should
arise
from
the
same
Babylon.
Besides, no place can be pointed out more meet for the nativity of Antichrist

than Babylon, for it is the City of the Devil — always diametrically
opposed to Jerusalem, which is deemed the City of God; the former city, that
is, Babylon, being the mother and disseminator of every kind of confusion,
idolatry, impiety — a vast sink of every foul pollution, crime, and iniquity
— the first city in the world which cut itself off from the worship of the true
God — which reared the city of universal vice, — which perpetually (according
to
the
record
of
Holy
Writ)
carries
on
the
mystery
of
iniquity,
and
bears
imprinted

on her brow the inscription of blasphemy against the name of
God. The consummation, therefore, of impiety, which is to have its recapitulation
in

Antichrist, could not break forth from a more fitting place than
Babylon.”
Having dwelt at some length on the time and the place of the Antichrist’s appearing,
we shall attempt to give now a brief outline of the leading events in his career. We have seen
that the scriptures which help us to determine the direction from which he will arise, speak
of him under the title of the Little Horn. Now the first thing this title denotes is that he is a
king, king of Assyria. Some, no doubt, will wonder how a Jew will succeed in obtaining the
throne of Syria. Several answers might be suggested, such, for example, as heading a successful
rebellion — the spectacle of an obscure plebeian speedily rising to the rank of national
Dictator, has been forcibly exhibited before our own eyes in Russia. But on this point we
are not left to speculation. Dan. 11:21 tells us that the “Vile Person” will come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. With this agrees Rev. 6:2, where the Antichrist is seen
riding a white war-horse, and with bow in hand, but with no arrow fitted to it. The symbol
suggests bloodless victories.
As soon as this Jew acquires the crown of Syria he will speedily enlarge his dominions.
As Rev. 6:2 tells us, he will go forth “conquering and to conquer,” and as we are told further
in Hab. 2:5, “He is a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who enlarged his desire as hell,
and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations, and heapeth
75
The Career of the Antichrist
unto him all people.” The first thing which is predicted of him (as “the Little Horn”) is that
“he shall subdue three kings” (Dan. 7:24). As to what kings these may be, appears to be intimated

in Dan. 8:9 where we are told, “And out of one of them came forth a little horn,
which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant
land.” He waxes great first toward the south, that is, most probably, by a victorious expedition
into Egypt. Next, he is seen moving toward the east, reducing, to what extent we are not
told, the dominions of Persia and Greece; finally he turns his face toward the pleasant land,
which is Palestine. Without being dogmatic, we would suggest that the three kings he subdues
are those of Egypt, Persia, and Greece.
Having subdued the three kings by his military prowess a “league” is made with him
(see Dan. 11:23). Probably it is the remaining seven kings of the revived Roman Empire,
plus the three vassals of the Antichrist who take the place of the kings he had deposed, that
enter into this League with the Little horn, or king of Assyria; but he shall work deceitfully,
and shall become strong with a small people (Dan. 11:23). So strong does he become that
in a short time he rises to political supremacy, and the whole of the ten kings shall “give
their kingdom unto the Beast.” (Rev. 17:17), and he will then be recognized as the imperial
Emperor. Thus as King of kings he will dictate the policies of Europe and Asia.
“The Little Horn will revive in himself all the personified glory of Babylon, Medo-Persia,
Greece and Rome. And let not this be regarded as an event incredible. We are to remember
that Antichrist will be Satan’s masterpiece; furnished with every auxiliary of influence and
wealth, for wresting the sceptre from the hands of Him who won it by His humiliation of
the Cross. Thus it is said he will ‘resist the God of gods’. The accumulated and restored
honors of each royal successor are thus to crown the brow of this last and greatest of Gentile
monarchs. And so shall he stand in his unrivalled magnificence till the Stone shall smite
him and his power, and grind all to powder” (Mrs. G. Needham).
After the Antichrist has acquired the political sovereignty of the prophetic earth he will
then enter upon his religious role, claiming to be the Christ of God and demanding Divine
honors. At first sight it appears strange, if not incongruous, that a military despot should
be found filling the character of a religious impostor. But history shows that there is a point
at which one character readily merges into the other. Political ambition, intoxicated by
success, finds it an easy step from self-glorification to self-deification, and the popular infatuation
as
easily
passes
from
the
abject
adulation
of
the
tyrant
to
the
adoration
of
the
god.
Or

again; a religious impostor, encouraged by the ascendancy he has acquired over the
minds of men, grasps the sceptre of secular power and becomes the most arbitrary of despots.
Rev. 13:4 makes it plain that the military prowess of the Antichrist first induces men to
render him Divine homage: “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the
Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is able to
make war with him?” But no ordinary honors will suffice him. His religious ambitions are
76
The Career of the Antichrist
as insatiable as his political, for he will “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God,
or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that
he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This claim to be God Himself, incarnate, will be backed up by
imposing credentials, for his coming will be, “after the working of Satan, with all power and
signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). These miracles will be no mere pretenses, but
prodigies of power.
The Jews, previously returned to Palestine, and with temple in Jerusalem rebuilt, will
receive this Son of Perdition as their long-promised “Messiah” (John 5:43). In imitation of
the true Christ who will, at His return to the earth, “make a new covenant with the House
of Israel and with the House of Judah” (Heb. 8:8, compare Jer. 31 and Ezek. 36), the Antichrist
will make a covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27 and 11:22). Under a seven years’ treaty,
and in the guise of friendship, he will gain ascendancy in Jerusalem, only later to throw off
the mask and break the covenant.
About seven months after the Antichrist, the “Prince” (i.e. of the Roman Empire) of
Dan 9:27 has made the Covenant with the Jews he will begin to “practice” in Jerusalem (Dan.
8:24). This we believe is the explanation of the two thousand three hundred days of Dan.
8:14 which has puzzled so many of the commentators. This two thousand three hundred
days is the whole period during which the false messiah will practice in Jerusalem and have
power over the “sanctuary”: two thousand three hundred days is seven years less seven
months and ten days.
There, in Jerusalem, he will pose as the Christ of God, the Prince of Peace. The world
will suppose that the long looked- for Millennium has arrived. There will be every indication
that the eagerly desired Golden Age has, at last, dawned. The great Powers of Europe and
Asia will have been united under the ten-kingdomed Empire. It will be expected that the
League of Nations guarantees the peace of the earth. For a season quietness and amity will
prevail. None will dare to oppose the mighty Emperor. But not for long will the hideous
war-spectre hide himself. Soon will the “white horse” of Rev. 6 be found to change his hue.
A “red horse” will go forth, and then “peace shall be taken from the earth” (Rev. 6). At the
very time the world is congratulating itself that all is well, and the slogan of the hour is
“Peace and Safety,” then “sudden destruction cometh upon them” (1 Thess. 5:3).
In the midst of the seven years the Antichrist will throw off his mask, break his covenant
with Israel, and stand forth as the most daring idolater who has ever trodden this earth.
After he has “practiced” in Jerusalem for two years and five months, he will take away the
daily sacrifice (Dan. 8:11; 9:27) from the Temple, and in its place rear an image to himself
in the holy place, which is the “abomination of desolation” referred to by Christ (see Matt.
24:15).
This brings us to the great dividing line in his career, to which reference was made near
the beginning of this chapter. It is a point not only of interest but of considerable importance
77
The Career of the Antichrist
to ascertain what it is that causes this startling change of front, from posing as the true Christ
to that of the open defier of God. There are several scriptures which throw light on this
point. Satan will cause the Man of Sin to crown his daring imitation of the Christ of God
by being slain and rising again from the dead.
Both the Old and the New Testaments refer to the death of the Antichrist, and attribute
it to the sword. In Rev. 13:14 we read that the false Prophet shall say to them that dwell on
the earth that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by the sword
and did live. In harmony with this we read in Zech. 11:17, “Woe to the Idol Shepherd that
leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye.” It is to be noted
that before we read that “the sword shall be” upon him, we are told that he “leaveth the
flock,” and the previous verse tells us that he was raised up “in the land,” which can only
mean that he was ruling in Palestine. Hence it is clear that he leaves the Land before he receives
his
death
wound
by
the
sword.
In
perfect
accord
with
this
is
what
we
read
in
Isa.
37:6,
7
(in a later chapter we shall treat at length of the future Babylon, restored; the connection
of Antichrist with it, and the typical and prophetical significance of Isa. 37 and 38); “Behold,
I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land; and I
will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.”
Leaving Palestine, the Antichrist will “return to his own land,” that is, the land of his
nativity — Assyria — which confirms what we have said previously about Assyria being the
country where Antichrist will first be manifested. There, in his own land, he will fall by the
sword. Most probably he will be slain there by his political enemies, envious of his power
and chafing under his haughty autocracy. In death he will be hated and dishonored, and
burial will be refused him. It is to this that Isa. 14 (speaking of the King of Babylon, see v.4)
refers: “But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of
those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit. As
a carcass trodden under feed, thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou
hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people” (vv. 19, 20). But his enemies will suddenly be
filled with consternation and then admiration for to their amazement this one slain by the
sword shall rise from the dead, and his deadly wound will be healed — note how this is implied
in
Isa.
14,
for
v.
25
shows him once more in the land of the living, only to meet his final
doom at the hands of the Lord Himself. It is to this amazing resurrection of the Antichrist
that Rev. 13:3, 4 refers: “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his
deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast. And they worshipped
the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is
able to make war with him?” Details of his resurrection are supplied in Rev. 9, from which
we gather that just as Christ was raised from the dead by God the Father, so the Antichrist
will be raised from the dead by his father the Devil, see v. 1 where the fallen “Star,” which
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The Career of the Antichrist
refers to Satan, is given the “key to the bottomless pit,” and when this is happened there
comes out of it the mysterious “locusts” whose king is the Destroyer (v. 11), the Antichrist.
A further reference to the resurrection of the Antichrist, his coming forth from the
Bottomless Pit, is found in Rev. 17:8: “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall
ascend out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into Perdition: and they that dwell on the earth
shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the
world, when they behold the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is.” It is to be noted that the
earth-dwellers wonder when they behold the Beast that was (alive), and is not (now alive),
and yet is (raised again). The world will then be presented with the spectacle of a man raised
from the dead. All know him, for his career and amazing progress were eagerly watched;
his wonderful achievements and military campaigns were the subject of daily interest; his
transcendent genius elicited their admiration. They had witnessed his death. They stood
awe-struck, no doubt, at the downfall of this King of kings. And now he is made alive; his
wound of death is healed; and the whole world wonders, and worships him.
It is about this time, apparently, that the “False Prophet” (Rev. 13:11-16), the third
person in the Trinity of Evil will appear on the scene. From a number of scriptures it is
evident that the Antichrist will not spend all his time in Palestine during the last three and
a half years of his career. It seems that shortly after the middle of the “week” the Beast will
turn his face again toward Babylon, leaving the False Prophet to act as his viceregent, compelling
all
in
Jerusalem
to
worship
the
image
of
the
Beast
under
pain
of
death
(Rev.
13:15).
It
is
to
be
noted
that
Hab.
2:5
tells us that the Antichrist is “a proud man, neither keepeth at
home, who enlarged his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth
unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him all people.”
The reason for the Antichrist’s return to Babylon is not far to seek. Having thrown off
his mask of religious pretension, he now stands forth as the Defier of God. His first move
now will be to blot out from the earth everything that bears His name. To accomplish this
the Jewish race must be utterly exterminated, and to this end he will put forth all his power
to banish Israel from the earth. He will make war with the saints (the Jewish saints) and
prevail against them (Dan. 7:21; 8:24): this is the going forth of the “red horse” of Rev. 6:4.
Those of the godly remnant who are left will “flee to the mountains” (Matt. 24:16), and
there they will be hunted like partridges. It is then they will cry, “Keep not Thou silence, O
God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine enemies make a tumult:
and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against Thy
people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them
off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance” (Psa.
83:1-4). Then, because many of the Jews will be found in that day dwelling in Babylon (see
Jer. 50:8; 51:6, 45; Rev. 18:4) the Antichrist will go thither to wreak his vengeance upon
them. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his blasphemous and bloody course.
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The Career of the Antichrist
Soon will heaven respond to the cries of the faithful remnant of Israel, and terrible shall be
the punishment meted out on their last enemy. This, however, must be left for consideration
in our next chapter, when we shall treat of the last days and doom of the Antichrist.
80
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
If there is a measure of difficulty attending the placing and elucidation of some of the
prophecies which depict the various phases and stages of the Antichrist’s career, the cloud
lifts as the end is neared. And this is in full accord with many other things which pertain to
the closing days of the Age. The nearer we come to the blessed event of our Lord’s return
to this earth, the more light has God seemed to cast on those things which immediately
precede the Second Advent. It is as though, at first, God furnishes only a bare outline, but
ultimately He fills in the details for us. It is thus with the end of the Antichrist. The Holy
Spirit has been pleased to supply us with a most comprehensive and vivid description of
the closing scenes in the career of the Son of Perdition. It is with mingled feelings that we
turn and ponder what has thus been recorded for our learning.
The awful course which is followed by the Man of Sin cannot but shock us. The frightful
hypocrisy, the shocking duplicity and treachery, the terrible cruelty, and the amazing impiety
of this Monster of wickedness, make us marvel at the forbearance of God, who endures
“with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction.” But when we come to
the final scenes, and behold the Antichrist openly challenging heaven, publicly defying God,
and making a deliberate and determined effort to prevent the Lord Jesus returning to this
earth, we are well nigh rendered speechless by the unthinkable lengths to which sin will go.
On the other hand, as we learn that all of this is the ending of that long dismal night which
precedes the Day of Christ, the Millennium, we see that it is but the dark background to
bring into more vivid relief the glories of the God-Man. The destruction of the Antichrist
will be followed at once by the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom which shall bring peace
and blessing to all the earth. And the contemplation of this cannot but fill us with joy and
thanksgiving.
“The end of the Man of Sin marks an era of sublimest interest to the believing children
of God. It shall be the day of our triumphant manifestation, and the Jubilee of all creation.
The day, Oh, Hallelujah! when Satan’s crown of pride shall be smitten, and his glory trailed
in the dust; when his long-continued and persistent temptations shall have an end; and his
power receive the wounding from which it shall never recover itself. That blessed, blessed
day when He whose right it is, shall reign, and the kingdom of Israel be no more overturned
and dishonored. The sweet, sweet day, when the mockings, the scourgings, the bonds, the
imprisonments, the afflictions, and the torments of the great multitude of whom the world
was not worthy, shall cease to annoy forever, and the whole earth be at rest, and break forth
into gladness” (Mrs. E. Needham).
But before that blessed Day arrives, the last hour of the night of Christ’s absence has to
run its course, and as the darkest hour precedes the dawn, so the last hour of this “night”
shall be the most foreboding of all. The period which immediately precedes the return of
81
The Doom of the Antichrist
Christ to the earth will witness the most awful events ever chronicled. It was of this period
that Daniel spoke when he said, “There shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since
there was a nation even to that same time” (12:1). It was to this same time that Christ referred
when He declared, “For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning
of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. And except that the Lord
had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom He hath
chosen, He hath shortened the days” (Mark 13:19, 20). This is “the hour of temptation which
shall come upon all the world” (Rev. 3:10). It will be a time of unparalleled wickedness, and
a time of unprecedented suffering. It is the time when God shall avenge the murder of His
Son, when He shall take to task a world that has so long despised His Word, and trampled
His commandments under foot. The very Antichrist will be one of the instruments of His
vengeance — “the rod of His anger” (Isa. 10:5).
It is because men received not the love of God’s truth. He shall send them strong delusion
that they should believe the Devil’s lie. It is because men had “pleasure” in “unrighteousness”
they shall be deceived by the Lawless One. It is because Israel refused that blessed One who
came in His Father’s name that they shall receive the one who comes in his own name. This
is why the Antichrist will, for a season, be suffered to prosper, and apparently to defy God
with impugnity. But when God has used him to perform His own pleasure, then shall He
empty upon his kingdom and upon his subjects the vials of His wrath. Just as God has set
the bounds of the sea, saying thus far shalt thou go and no further, so has He fixed the limits
to which He will allow the Antichrist to go. And when that limit is reached the Son of Perdition
will
find
himself
as
helpless
to
pass
beyond
what
God
has
decreed
as
a
worm
would
be
beneath
the
foot
of
an
elephant.
This
will
be
made
evident
as
we
proceed.
At the close of our last chapter we followed the career of the Antichrist to the point
where he turns upon the Jewish people and seeks to cut them off from being a nation.
Fearful will be his assaults upon them, and bitter will be their wailings. It is at that time the
Remnant will cry, “O God; why hast Thou cast us off forever? why doth Thine anger smoke
against the sheep of Thy pasture? Remember Thy congregation, which Thou hast purchased
of old; the rod of Thine inheritance, which Thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein
Thou hast dwelt. Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations; even all that the Enemy
hath done wickedly in the sanctuary. Thine enemies roar in the midst of Thy congregations;
they set up their ensigns for signs. A man was famous according as he had lifted up axes
upon the thick trees. But now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes
and hammers. They have cast fire into Thy sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down
the dwelling-place of Thy name to the ground. They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them
together; they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs:
there is no more any profit neither is there any among us which knoweth how long. O God,
how long shall the Adversary reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?
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The Doom of the Antichrist
Why withdrawest Thou Thy hand, even Thy right hand? Pluck it out of Thy bosom” (Psa.
74:1-11).
It is at this time that the prophecy of Amos 8 will receive its final fulfillment: “The Lord
hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works. Shall
not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise
wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt. And it shall
come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon,
and I will darken the earth in the clear day: And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and
all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness
upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as
a bitter day. Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land,
not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but the hearing the words of the Lord: And
they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and
fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. In that day shall the fair virgins and
the young men faint for thirst” (Amos 8:7-13). How remarkably does Psa. 74 interpret this
prophecy of Amos! The reason why the godly Remnant shall run to and fro to seek the word
of the Lord and shall not find it, and the meaning of the famine of hearing the words of the
Lord is that all the synagogues in the land shall have been burned up.
But not for long will this frightful persecution continue: “Therefore thus saith the Lord
God of hosts, O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrain: he shall smite
thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For yet a
very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction” (Isa.
10:24, 25). Once the Antichrist turns upon Israel his days are numbered, for to touch that
nation is to touch the apple of God’s eye (Zech. 2:8). God shall “stir up a scourge for him”
(Isa. 10:26). What this scourge is we learn from Dan. 11:40: “And at the time of the end shall
the king of the south push at him; and the king of the north (the Antichrist) shall come
against him (i.e. the king of the south) like a whirlwind with chariots, and with horsemen,
and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow, and pass
over” (Dan. 11:40).
The king of the south who pushes it — assails — the Antichrist is the king of Egypt. The
Antichrist, here termed the king of the north, i.e. Assyrai, shall leave Babylon, and marshalling
his imperial forces, which he has ready for immediate action, shall lead them against him
(the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind. The rapidity of his movements and the immensity of
his armies, is intimated by the words, “He shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow
and pass over.” His progress will be as the rushing of an overwhelming torrent from the
mountains, that spreads over the land, and carries everything before it. “He shall enter also
into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown” (Dan. 11:41). His route
from Babylon to Egypt will take him through Palestine, the land which is soon to be the
83
The Doom of the Antichrist
glory of all lands; and, although we are not told here what he will do there at that time, his
hand will, no doubt, be heavy upon it, as also upon the many other countries which he will
overthrow. “But these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of
the children of Ammon” (Dan. 11:41). These three peoples will escape his fury. The reason
for their escape seems to be a double one. In Ps. 83, which describes an event at a little
earlier period, we are told, “they have taken crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted
against Thy hidden ones. They has said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation;
that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together
with one consent, they are confederate against Thee: the tabernacles of Edom and the Ishmaelites;
of
Moab,
and
the
Hagarenes;
Gebal,
and
Ammon,
and
Amalck;
the
Philistines
with
the
inhabitants
of
Tyre;
Assur
(the
Assyrian)
also
is
joined
with
them”
(Psa.
83:3-8).
Thus
we
see
that
these
three
peoples
acted
in
concert
with
the
Antichrist
when
a
determined
effort
was
made
to
utterly
exterminate
the
Jewish
people.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
spares
these
submissive
allies
of
his
when
he
goes
forth
to
overthrow
the
other
countries.
So much for the human side as to why “these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom,
and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.” But there is a Divine side, too. These
peoples are spared at that time in order that they may be dealt with later by God Himself.
Thus did Jehovah declare of old through Balaam the heathen prophet: “There shall come a
Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab,
and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a
possession for his enemies” (Num. 24:17, 18). This will be right at the beginning of the
Millennium. Israel, too, shall be used by God in this work of judgment upon their ancient
enemies: “But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall
spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the
children of Ammon shall obey them” (Isa. 11:14).
“He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not
escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” (Dan.
11:42, 43). The victorious King will then take possession of those countries which were
overthrown by him during his march from Babylon to Egypt. Having now reached this land
which dared to push at him — the land never completely subjugated by the previous kings
of the north referred to in the earlier part of Dan. 11 — its king and subjects must now bow
before his iron sceptre. He becomes master of its treasures of gold, silver, and precious
things. The Libyans and Ethiopians, who were the allies of Egypt, will be compelled to follow
in this train. Thus will he crush this Egyptian rebellion, and demonstrate once more his
military prowess. Yet not for long will he be permitted to defy Heaven with impugnity.
“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go
forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). What these
84
The Doom of the Antichrist
troublous tidings are we learn from Jer. 51. A serious attack will be made upon his Babylonian

headquarters, and during his absence from there, the kings of Ararat, Minni, and
Ashchenaz — no doubt emboldened by the insubordination of Egypt — will besiege and
capture one end of the Capital. The time is nigh at hand when God shall utterly destroy that
City of the Devil, and a preliminary warning of this is now given: “And I will render unto
Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in
your sight, saith the Lord. Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord,
which destroyeth all the earth: and I will stretch out Mine hand upon thee, and roll thee
down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. And they shall not take of thee
a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate forever, saith
the Lord” (Jer. 51:24-26).
As a beginning to this end, the Lord says, “Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the
trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the
kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz (all situated in the vicinity of Armenia); appoint
a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers. Prepare against
her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof,
and all the land of his dominion. And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose
of the Lord shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation
without an inhabitant. The mighty man of Babylon hath forborne to fight, they have remained
in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned their
dwelling places; her bars are broken” (Jer. 51:27-30).
It is this ominous news — the tidings which trouble him of Dan. 11:44 — which reaches
the ears of Babylon’s King, then absent in Egypt. The alarming tidings that part of the city
has already been destroyed arouses him to fierce anger, for we are told, “therefore he shall
go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). As he
nears the capital, “one post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another,
to show the King of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and that the passages are
stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted” (Jer.
51:31, 32). The end is not far distant: “For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
the daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while,
and the time of her harvest shall come” (Jer. 51:33). God now calls on the Jews who are
found dwelling within that city to leave at once, lest they be caught in the storm of His fierce
anger: “My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver you every man his soul from
the fierce anger of the Lord” (Jer. 51:45). A graphic description of Babylon’s destruction is
found at the end of Jer. 51 and also in Rev. 18.
The fury of the Antichrist at the destruction of Babylon will know no bounds. Enraged
at his loss, and incensed against God, he will now turn his face toward Palestine, and at the
head of his vast forces will bear down upon the glorious land. Even so, it is God who is dir-
85
The Doom of the Antichrist
ecting him and his blinded dupes — directing him to finish the work of judgment upon Israel,
and directing him to his awful doom. Habakkuk gives a fearful description of the spirit in
which the King of Babylon and his hosts shall fall upon the dwellers of Palestine: — “For,
lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the
breadth of the land, to possess the dwelling places that are not theirs. They are terrible and
dreadful: their judgment and their dignity shall proceed of themselves. Their horses also
are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen
shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle
that hasteth to eat. (How this verse anticipates the cruel aerial war-weapons!). They shall
come all for violence: their faces shall sup up as the east wind, and they shall gather the
captivity as the sand. And they shall heap dust, and take it. Then shall his mind change, and
he shall pass over, and offend, imputing this his power unto his god” (Note how this last
verse serves to identify the “Chaldean” with the “King” of Dan. 11:38, 39). So terrible will
be this onslaught that we are told, “And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the
Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein” (Zech.
13:8).
His course is vividly sketched by Isaiah in the tenth chapter of his prophecy: “He is come
to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Mickmash he hath laid up his carriages: They are gone
over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Galim: cause
it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth. Madmena is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim
gather themselves to flee. As yet shall he remain at Nob that day” (Isa. 10:28-32). Nob is his
camping-ground for that day, and it is there he will “plant the tabernacles of his palace
between the seas in the goodly holy mountain” (Dan. 11:45). Nob must be some elevation
commanding a distant view of Jerusalem from the west. As he stands on the hill that night
and looks at the Holy City, he “shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of
Zion, the hill of Jerusalem” (Isa. 10:32).
We now come to the closing scene. The following morning the Man of Sin leads his
forces to the famous Armageddon, there awaiting his final re-inforcements before attacking
Jerusalem. It is of this that Joel speaks: “Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war,
wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: Beat your
plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.
Assemble yourselves, and come all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about:
thither cause Thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord. Let the heathen be wakened, and
come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.
Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats
overflow; for their wickedness is great. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for
the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision” (Joel 3:9-14).
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The Doom of the Antichrist
It is to this that Micah refers: “Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that
say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion. But they know not the thoughts of
the Lord, neither understand they His counsel: for He shall gather them as the sheaves into
the floor” (4:10, 11). But it is not in the valley that the battle is fought, but around Jerusalem,
where the Beast and his armies deliver the final blow of God’s judgment on that city ere the
Deliverer appears. It is then that God will say, “O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the
staff in their hands is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and
against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the
prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither
doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. For he
saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? Is not Hamath as
Arpad? Is not Samaria as Damascus? As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols,
and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; Shall I not, as I have
done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Wherefore it shall come
to pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem,
I
will
punish
the
fruit
of
the
stout
heart
of
the
King
of
Assyria,
and
the
glory
of
his
high
looks”
(Isa.
5-12).
The
Antichrist
is
but
the
Lord’s
instrument
after
all.
Just
as
Moses
picked
up
and
held
in
his
hand
the
rod
which
became
a
serpent,
so
shall
this
offspring
of
the
Serpent
be
wielded
by
the
hand
of
God
to
accomplish
His
predetermined
counsels.
Once again, though, the Beast appears to be successful. Jerusalem falls before his onslaught
as
Jehovah
had
foretold
that
it
should

“For
I
will
gather
all
nations
against
Jerusalem
to
battle;
and
the
city
shall
be
taken,
and
the
houses
rifled,
and
the
women
ravished;
and
half
of
the
city
shall
go
forth
into
captivity,
and
the
residue
of
the
people
shall
not
be
cut
off
from
the
city”
(Zech.
14:2).
Intoxicated
by
their
success,
it
is
then
that
the
heathen
shall
rage
and
the
people
imagine
a
vain
thing:
“The
kings
of
the
earth
set
themselves,
and
the
rulers
take
counsel
together,
against
the
Lord,
and
against
His
anointed,
saying,
Let
us
brake
their
bands
asunder,
and
cast
away
their
cords
from
us”
(Psa.
2:2,
3).
And then comes the grand finale. The heaven will open and from it will descend the
King of kings and Lord of lords, seated on a white horse, with His eyes “as a flame of fire”
(Rev. 19:11, 12). Attending Him will be the armies of heaven, also seated on white horses
(Rev. 19:14). Far from being appalled at this awe-inspiring spectacle, the Beast and the kings
of the earth and their armies shall gather together to “make war against Him that sat on the
horse, and against His armies” (Rev. 19:19). “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against
those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle” (Zech. 14:3). At last the Christ of God
and the christ of Satan will confront each other. But the instant the conflict begins, it is
ended. The Foe will be paralyzed, and all resistance cease.
Scripture has solemnly recorded the end of various august evil personages. Some were
overwhelmed by waters; some devoured by flames; some engulfed in the jaws of the earth;
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The Doom of the Antichrist
some stricken by a loathsome disease; some ignominiously slaughtered; some hanged; some
eaten up of dogs; some consumed by worms. But to no sinful dweller on earth, save the Man
of Sin, “the Wicked One,” has been appointed the terrible distinction of being consumed
by the brightness of the personal appearing of the Lord Jesus Himself. Such shall be his unprecedented
doom,
an
end
that
shall
fittingly
climax
his
ignoble
origin,
his
amazing
career,
and
his
unparalleled
wickedness.
“Hitherto proud boastings have issued from the lips of Satan’s king; but now he falls
helplessly to the ground blasted by the lightening which streams from the King of kings;
and together with the False Prophet and in the full sight of his countless armies, he is seized
by the angels of the Lord, to be hurled alive into the lake which burneth with fire and
brimstone” (G. H. Pember).
The overthrow of the Antichrist is described as follows: — “But with righteousness shall
He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite
the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked”
(Isa. 11:14).
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall
magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many; he shall also stand up against
the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand” — an expression which always
refers to that which is supernatural (Dan. 8:25).
“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy
mountain; yet shall he come to his end, and none shall help him” (Dan. 11:45).
“And then shall that Wicked (One) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the
spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (2 Thess. 2:8).
“And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone”
(Rev. 19:20).
“For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; he hath made it deep and
large: the pile: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream
of brimstone, doth kindle it” (Isa. 30:33).
“And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where
the Beast and the False Prophet are, and (they) shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever” (Rev. 20:10).
Frightful, too, shall be the doom meted out to the followers of the Antichrist. Zech. 14
tells us, “And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have
fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet,
and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongues shall consume away in
their mouth. And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the Lord shall
88
The Doom of the Antichrist
be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hands of his neighbour, and his
hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour” (vv. 12, 13). So, also Rev. 19:21 declares,
“And the remnant were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which sword
proceeded out of His mouth; and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.”
89
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
The references to the Man of Sin in the book of Psalms are, for the most part, more or
less incidental ones. With rare exceptions he comes into view only as he is related to Israel,
or as he affects their fortunes. One cannot appreciate the force of what is there said of him
except as that is examined in the light of its prophetic setting. The time when the Antichrist
will be in full power is during the Tribulation period, and it is not until we discover, by
careful searching, which of the Psalms describe the Time of Jacob’s trouble, that we know
where to look for their last great Troubler.
Politically and ecclesiastically the Antichrist may be viewed in a threefold connection,
first, as he is related to the Gentile; second, as he is related to the apostate Jewish nation;
third, as he is related to the godly Jewish Remnant, who separate themselves from their
unbelieving brethren. More details are furnished us in the Psalms upon this third relationship
than upon the other two, though we have occasional allusions to Antichrist’s connections
with the Gentiles and the Jewish nation as a whole.
The second Psalm gives us a brief but vivid picture of that which will wind up the
Tribulation period, and while the Antichrist is not directly named, yet the light which other
scriptures throw upon it reveals the dreadful personality who heads the rebellion there described.

This second Psalm is prophetic in its character and has, like most (if not all)
prophecy, a double fulfillment.
“Why do the heathens rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth
set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His
anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us” (Psa.
2:1-3). A part of this passage is found quoted in Acts 4, but it is striking to note where the
quotation ceases. Peter and John had been arraigned before the religious authorities of Israel,
because that in the name of Jesus Christ they had healed an impotent man. The apostles
boldly and faithfully vindicated themselves, and after being admonished and threatened
were allowed to depart to their own company. Then it was that they “lifted up their voice
to God with one accord, and said, Lord, Thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth,
and the sea, and all that in them is: Who by the mouth of Thy servant David hath said, Why
did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up,
and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ” (Acts 4:24-26).
Notice they quoted only the first two verses of Psalm 2, and this they did not say was now
“fulfilled.” What they did say was, “For of a truth against Thy holy child Jesus, whom Thou
hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel,
were gathered together, for to do whatsoever Thy hand and Thy counsel determined before
to be done” (v. 28). In the apprehension of Christ and in His trials before the Jewish and
Gentilish authorities, this prophecy through David had received a partial fulfillment, but
90
Antichrist in the Psalms
its final one is yet future. The time when Psalm 2 is to receive its complete accomplishment
is intimated in the middle section — it is just prior to the time when Christ returns to the
earth as “King,” and receives the heathen for His inheritance and the uttermost parts of the
earth for His possession; in other words, it is just before the dawn of the Millennium, namely,
the end of the Tribulation period.
As we re-read this second Psalm in the light of Rev. 16:14 and 19:19 we find that it depicts
the final act in the blatant and defiant career of the last great Caesar. it is an act of insane
desperation. The Son of Perdition will gather his forces and make a concerted effort to
prevent the Christ of God entering into His earthly inheritance. This we believe is evident
from the terms of the Psalm itself.
The Psalm opens with an interrogation: “Why do the heathen (the Gentiles) rage (better,
‘tumultuously assemble’), and the people (Israel) imagine (meditate) a vain thing?” The fact
that this is put in the form of a question is to arrest more quickly the reader’s attention, and
to emphasize the unthinkable impiety of what follows. “The kings of the earth set themselves,
and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Anointed.” Notice
that this rebellion is staged not only against the Lord but also against His “Anointed,” that
is, His Christ. The madness of this effort (headed by Antichrist) is intimated in v. 4: “He
that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” The futility of
this movement is seen in v. 6: “Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Zion.” The “yet”
here has the force of “notwithstanding”: it shows the aim and the object which the insurrectionists
had
in
view,
namely,
an
attempt
to
prevent
Christ
returning
to
earth
to
set
up
His
millennial

kingdom. The response of heaven is noted in v. 5: “Then shall He speak unto
them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure.” This is enlarged upon in Rev.
19:20, 21. Psalm 2, then, brings us to the end of the Antichrist’s history and treats only of
the closing events in his awful career. In the other Psalms where he is in view earlier incidents
are noted and his dealings with the Jews are described.
The next Psalm in which the Antichrist appears is the fifth. This Psalm sets forth the
petitions which the faithful Remnant of Israel will make to God during the Tribulation
period. It would carry us beyond our present bounds to attempt anything like a complete
exposition of this Psalm in the light of its prophetic application. We shall do little more than
generalize.
The Tribulation period is the time when Satan is given the freest rein, when lawlessness
abounds, and when to the unbelieving heart it would seem that God had vacated His throne.
But the eye of faith recognizes the fact that Jehovah is still ruling amid the armies of the
heavens and among the inhabitants of the earth. Hence the force of the Divine title in v. 2
— the remnant address Jehovah as “My King and my God.” The most awful wickedness and
rebellion is going on around them, but they are fully assured that God is quite able to cope
with the situation. “The Wicked shall not stand in Thy sight: Thou hatest all workers of
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Antichrist in the Psalms
iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the bloody and
deceitful man” (vv. 5, 6).
The “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is plainly the Man of Sin. He is denominated “bloody”
by virtue of his military ferocity; he is called “deceitful” because of his political duplicity.
One after another of his opponents will fall before him: through a sea of blood will he advance
to his imperial throne. Utterly unreliable will be his word, worthless his promises. A manifest
incarnation of that one who is the father of the Lie will he be. Most completely will he deceive
the Jews. A first, posing as their friend; later, standing as their arch-enemy. All doubt as to
the identity of this “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is removed by what is said of his “mouth.”
From Psalm 5 we turn to Psalm 7 where we find the godly Jewish Remnant crying unto
the Lord against their persecutors, chief of which is the Antichrist. This is clear from the
first two verses, where the change from the plural to the singular number is very significant
— “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me,
and deliver me: Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to
deliver.” The Remnant plead their innocency before God and call down upon themselves
the Enemy’s curse if they have acted unjustly — “O Lord my God, If I have done this; if
there be iniquity in my hands; if I have requited him that did evil unto me, or spoiled mine
adversary unto emptiness; Let the Enemy pursue my soul, and overtake it” (vv. 4-6, Jewish
translation). This at once serves to identify the individual of v. 2 who would tear their souls
like a “lion” (not like a bear) — showing his kinship with that awful one who “goeth about
as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” Observe, too, the word he “was at peace,”
but now “without cause is mine enemy.” Clearly it is the Antichrist that is here in view, and,
as manifested in the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week, when he shall have thrown off
his mask and stood forth revealed in all his dreadfulness. The twelfth verse goes on to say,
“If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow and made it ready.” It is this
which causes the Remnant to cry, “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from
all them that persecute me, and deliver me” (v. 1). The fourteenth verse unmistakably
identifies this end-time Enemy of Israel, and again stamps him as a worthy son of the father
of the Lie — “Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought
forth falsehood.” In the sixteenth verse the Remnant express their assurance of the certain
fate of their Foe: “His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall
come down upon his own pate.”
The eighth Psalm is closely connected with the seventh. In the last verse of the seventh
we hear the Remnant saying, “I will praise the Lord according to His righteousness: and will
sing praise to the name of the Lord most high.” This anticipates the time when they shall
be delivered from their awful Enemy, and when the glorious Millennium shall have dawned
— “The Lord most high” is His distinctive millennial title. Psalm 8 follows this with a lovely
millennial picture, when Jehovah will be worshipped because His name is then “excellent
92
Antichrist in the Psalms
in all the earth.” Then shall the Remnant say, “Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast
Thou ordained strength because of Thine enemies, that Thou mightiest still the Enemy and
the Avenger” (v. 2). The Enemy and the Avenger, more literally “the Foe and the Revenger,”
are two of the many names of the Antichrist.
Much in the ninth Psalm also anticipates millennial conditions and celebrates the
overthrow of the Man of Sin. Sings the Remnant, “For Thou hast maintained my right and
my cause; Thou satest in the throne judging right. Thou has rebuked the heathen, Thou
hast destroyed the Wicked” (vv. 4, 5). That the Wicked, or Lawless One, is the Antichrist,
is clear from the next verse: “The destructions of the Enemy are come to a perpetual end:
and their cities hast Thou destroyed.” We hope to show in a later chapter that “their cities”
which God will destroy are the cities of Antichrist and the False Prophet, namely, Babylon
and Rome. Again; in vv. 15, 16 of this Psalm we read, “The heathen are sunk down in the
pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken. The Lord is known by
the judgment which He executeth: the Wicked is snared in the work of his own hands!”
This refers to the destruction of the Antichrist and his forces at Armageddon.
In the tenth Psalm we have the fullest description of the Antichrist found in any of the
Psalms. This Psalm is divided into four sections: first, the Cry of the Remnant (v. 1); second,
the Character of the Antichrist (vv. 2-11); third, the Cry of the Remnant renewed (vv. 12-15);
fourth, the Confidence of the Remnant (vv. 16-18). In its opening verse we discover its dispensational
key

the
“Times
of
Trouble”
(cf.
Jer.
30:7)
being
the
great
Tribulation.
Observe
now
what
is
here
said
of
the
Wicked
One.
In
v.
2
we read, “The Wicked in his pride doth
persecute (R. V. ‘hotly pursue’) the poor.” The “poor” (referred to in this Psalm seven times
— vv. 2, 8, 9, 9, 10, 14, and “humble” in v. 17 should be “poor” — emphasizing the completeness
of their poverty) are the faithful Remnant who have refused to receive the mark of the
Beast, and as the result are suffered to neither buy nor sell (see Rev. 13:17). In vv. 3, 4 we
are told, “For the Wicked (One) boasteth of his heart’s desire, and curseth, yea, abhorreth
the Lord (see Hebrew). The Wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek
after God: all his thoughts are — no God.” This tells of his frightful impiety and reveals his
satanic origin. In v. 6 his consuming egotism is depicted: “He hath said in his heart, I shall
not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.” Then follows a description of his awful
wickedness: “His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief
and vanity. He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder
the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.” Notice in this last verse the mention
of “the secret places.” It was to them our Lord referred in His Olivet Discourse, when He
said, “Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: Behold,
he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.” This whole Psalm will well repay the most minute
study.
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Antichrist in the Psalms
In the opening verse of the fourteenth Psalm we have what we doubt not is another
reference to the Antichrist, here called “The Fool.” He is the arch-fool, who, in his blatant
defiance, says in his heart — “no God.” The mark of identification is found in the marginal
reading of Psalm 10:4: All his thoughts are — “no God”. Does not this title point out another
contrast between Christ and the Antichrist: One is “the wonderful Counseller,” the other is
“the Fool!”
In the seventeenth Psalm, which contains the confession of the Remnant, (pleading
their innocency before God), reference is again made to the antichrist. “By the word of God’s
lips” will the believing Jews be “kept from the paths of the Destroyer.” This is another of his
titles which points a contrast: Christ is the Saviour; Antichrist the Destroyer. That it is the
Antichrist who is here in view is clear from what follows in vv. 12 and 13, where we read,
“Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.
Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the Wicked, by Thy
sword.” The “Wicked” is here in the singular number. Note again the reference to the “secret
places,” about which we shall have something to say, in our exposition of Matt. 24, vv. 25,
and 26 when we treat of the Antichrist in the Gospels.
We pass over several Psalms which contain incidental allusions to the Wicked One and
turn now to the thirty-sixth. The wording of the first verse is somewhat ambiguous, and we
believe its force comes out better by rendering it, with the Sept., Syriac and Vulgate, “the
transgression of the Wicked saith within his heart, that there is no fear of God before his
eyes.” He defies Jehovah and fears not Elohim. “For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
until his iniquity be found to be hateful” (v. 2). Haughty conceit fills him, but in the end he
shall reap as he has sown. “The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; he hath left off
to be wise, and to do good” (v. 3). This refers to his treacherous dealings with the Jews, and
takes note of the two great stages in his career; first, when he poses as Israel’s friend, later
when he comes out in his true character as their enemy.j Verse 4 describes his moral character:
“he
deviseth
mischief
upon
his
bed;
he
setteth
himself
in
a
way
that
is

not good; he
abhorreth not evil.”
The thirty-seventh Psalm, which in its ultimate application has to do with the godly
Remnant in the Tribulation period, contains a number of references to the Antichrist. In
the seventh verse the Remnant is exhorted to “rest in the Lord and wait patiently for Him”
(i.e. for His personal appearing) and to “fret not because of him who prospereth in his way,
because of the Man who bringeth wicked devices to pass” — a manifest allusion to the Man
of Sin. In the tenth verse they are assured, “for yet a little while, and the Wicked shall not
be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be.” In vv. 12 and 13 we read,
“the Wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth. The Lord shall
laugh at Him: for He seeth that his day is coming.” This brings out the satanic malice of
Antichrist against the people of God, and also marks the Lord’s contempt for him as He
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Antichrist in the Psalms
beholds the swiftly approaching doom of this one who has so daringly defied Him. The end
of the Wicked is noticed in v. 35. “I have seen the Wicked in great power, and spreading
himself like a green bay tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea, I sought him, but
he could not be found.” The whole of this wondrous Psalm calls for close study. It throws
a flood of light on the experiences of the Remnant amid the awful trials of the end of the
age.
“I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not with my tongue: I will keep my mouth
with a bridle, while the Wicked is before me” (Psa. 39:1). This sets forth the resolutions of
the Remnant in view of the troublesome presence of the Wicked One; while in v. 8 they are
seen praying that they may not be made the reproach of the Foolish One — “Deliver me
from all my transgressions: make me not the reproach of the Foolish.”
The forty-third Psalm opens with the plaintive supplications of the Remnant in view of
the contempt and opposition of the Jewish nation as a whole, at the head of which will be
the false Messiah: “Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver
me
from
the
deceitful
and
unjust
Man.
For
Thou
art
the
God
of
my
strength:
why
dost
Thou
cast
me
off?
Why
go
I
mourning
because
of
the
oppression
of
the
Enemy?”
The
allusion
to
the
deceit
and
injustice
of
the
man
of
Sin
views,
of
course,
his
breaking
of
the
covenant.
In the forty-fourth Psalm we are given to hear more of the bitter lamentations of the
Remnant, betrayed as they have been by the one who posed as their benefactor, and scorned
as they are by their fellow Jews: “Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a shaking
of the head among the people (Israel). My confusion is continually before me, and the shame
of my face covered me, For the voices of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth; by reason
of the Enemy and Avenger.”
The fiftieth Psalm is one of deep interest in this connection. It announces the response
of Jehovah to the cries of His faithful people. It declares that “God shall come, and shall not
keep silence: a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be tempestuous round about Him”
(v. 3). It promises that He will gather His saints together unto Him (v. 5). It contains an
exposulation with Israel as a whole (see vv. 7-14). And then, after bidding His people call
upon Him “in the Day of Trouble” and assuring them He will deliver them, God addresses
their Enemy as follows: — “But unto the Wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare
My statutes, or that thou shouldest take My covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction,
and
casteth
My
words
behind
thee.
When
thou
sawest
a
thief,
then
thou
consentedst
with
him,
and
hast

been partaker with adulterers. Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy
tongue frameth deceit. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine
own mother’s son” (vv. 16-22). First, God rebukes the Antichrist for his hypocrisy, referring
to the time when, at the beginning of his career, he had (like Satan in tempting the Saviour)
come declaring God’s statutes and taking the Divine Covenant in his mouth (v. 16). Second,
He charges him with his treachery when, at the midst of the seventieth week, he had cast
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Antichrist in the Psalms
God’s words behind him (v. 17). Third, He exposes his depravity and shows that he is altogether
destitute
of
any
moral
sensibility
(vv.
18-20).
Fourth,
He
reminds
him
of
how
he
had
congratulated
himself
that
he
should
continue
on
his
vile
course
with
impugnity
and
escape
the
due
reward
of
his
wickedness
(v.
21).
Finally,
He
announces
the
certainty
of
retribution
and
the
fearful
doom
which
awaits
him
(v.
22).
The fifty-second continues and amplifies what has just been before us from the closing
verses of the fiftieth Psalm. Here again the Antichrist is indicted by God — no doubt through
the Remnant. “Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? The goodness of God
endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully.
Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou
lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy thee forever,
and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.
The righteous also shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him: Lo, this is the man that made
not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself
in his wickedness” (vv. 1-7). The pride, the enmity, the treachery, the moral corruption, and
the vaunting of the incarnate Son of Perdition are all noticed and charged against him. The
certainty of his doom, and his degradation before those he had persecuted, is graphically
depicted.
The prophetic application of the fifty-fifth Psalm first found its tragic realization in the
treachery of Judas against the Lord Jesus, but its final accomplishment yet awaits a coming
day. In it we may see a pathetic description of the heart-pangs of the Remnant, mourning
over the duplicity of the mock Messiah. Driven out of Jerusalem, they bewail the awful
wickedness now holding high carnival in the holy city: “Wickedness is in the midst thereof:
deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it was not an enemy that reproached me;
then I could have borne it: neither was it he that hated me that did magnify himself against
me; then I would have hid myself from him: But it was thou, a man mine equal (i.e. a Jew),
my guide, and mine acquaintance” (vv. 11-13). Thus will the Jews in a coming day be called
upon to endure the bitter experience of betrayal and desertion by one whom they regarded
as their friend. Concerning their Enemy the Remnant exclaim, “He hath put forth his hand
against such as be at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant. The words of his mouth
were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were
they drawn swords” (vv. 20, 21). The reference is to the seven-year Treaty which the final
Caesar makes with Palestine, and which after three and one half years is treated as a scrap
of paper. But such treachery will not go unpunished. In the end Antichrist and his abettors
will be summarily dealt with by the Judge of all the earth: “But Thou, O God, shalt bring
them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their
days” (v. 23).
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Psalm seventy-one contains another of the Remnant’s prayers during the End-time.
“Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the Wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous
and cruel Man” (v. 4). The reference is, again, to the Man of Sin who has acted unjustly, and
whose fiendish delight it will be to persecute the people of God.
In Psalm seventy-two we find expressed the confidence of the Remnant. They are there
seen anticipating that joyful time when God’s King shall reign in righteousness. With glad
assurance they exclaim: “He shall judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with
judgments. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills Thy righteousness.
He
shall
judge
the
poor
of
the
people,
He
shall
save
the
children
of
the
needy,
and
shall
break

in pieces the Oppressor” (vv. 2-4). Mighty as their Enemy appeared in the eyes of
men, and invincible as he was in his own estimation, when God’s appointed time comes he
shall be broken in pieces as easily as the chaff is removed by the on-blowing wind.
The seventy-fourth Psalm makes reference to the violence of the Antichrist against the
believing Remnant: “They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned
up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit:
neither is there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary
reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (vv. 8-10). This contemplates
the time when the Man of Sin and his lieutenants will make a desperate effort to cut off Israel
from the earth and abolish everything which bears the name of God. Note it does not say
“all the synagogues” will be burned up, but the “synagogues of God,” that is, where the true
and living God is owned and worshipped.
The eighty-third Psalm carries us to a point a little nearer the end. Not only will the
synagogues of God be all destroyed, but an attempt will be made to exterminate those who
still worship God in secret. Listen to the tragic pleadings of this Satan-hunted company,
“Keep not Thou silence, O God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine
enemies make a tumult: and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken
crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said,
Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more
in remembrance” (vv. 1-4). As to who is responsible for this the verses following show. In
v. 5 we read, “For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against
Thee.” Then will be realized man’s dream of a League of Nations. It is remarkable that just
ten nations are here named — see vv.6-8. “Assur” in v. 8 is “the Assyrain” — the Antichrist
in his king-of-Babylon character. This verse is one of the few passages in the Psalms which
shows the Antichrist in connection with the Gentiles. Psalm 110:6 also contains a reference
to him as related to the Gentiles — “He hath stricken the Head over many countries” (R.
V.).
The one hundred and fortieth appears to be the last of the Psalms that takes note of the
Antichrist. There we hear once more the piteous cries of the Remnant to God: “Deliver me,
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Antichrist in the Psalms
O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man: Keep me, O Lord, from the
hands of the Wicked; preserve me from the Violent Man; who hath purposed to overthrow
my goings[hellip]Grant not, O Lord, the desires of the Wicked: further not his wicked device”
(vv. 1, 4, 8).
Thus we have glanced at no less than twenty Psalms in which allusion is made to the
Antichrist. This by no means exhausts the list; but sufficient has been noted to show what
a prominent place is there given to this dreadful monster. Let it not be supposed that we are
denying the present value and application of the Psalms to ourselves. Nothing is more foreign
to our desire. We not only firmly believe that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God
and is “profitable for doctrine,” but we readily and gladly unite with the saints of all ages in
turning to this precious portion of God’s Word to provide us with language suited to express
to God the varying emotions of our hearts. But while allowing fully the experimental and
doctrinal value of the Psalter for us today, it needs to be pointed out that many of the Psalms
have a prophetic significance, and will be used by another company of believers after the
Church which is the body of Christ has been removed from these scenes of sin and suffering.
We would urge those of our readers who are interested in dispensational truth to re-study
these lyrics of David with a view of discovering how much they reveal of things to come.
98
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The references to the Antichrist in the Prophets are numerous; nor is this to be wondered
at. It is there, more than anywhere else in Scripture, that we learn of the future of both Israel
and the Gentiles. It is there we have the fullest information concerning End-time conditions,
and the completest description of the varied parts which the leading characters shall play
in those days. It would carry us beyond the scope designed for these articles were to examine
every passage in the Prophets which makes mention of the Man of Sin and the numerous
roles he will fill. Yet we do not desire to pass by any of the more important allusions to him.
We shall, therefore, make a selection, and yet such a selection that we trust a complete outline
at least will be supplied. Certain scriptures, notably those which view the Antichrist in
connection with Babylon, will be waived now, because they will receive separate consideration
in a later chapter.
One other introductory remark needs to be made. We are conscious that this chapter
will probably be somewhat unsatisfactory to a few of our readers, inasmuch as we shall be
obliged to take a good deal for granted. It is manifest that we cannot here attempt to give a
complete analysis of the passages where the different allusions to the Antichrist occur, nor
should this be necessary. We are writing to Bible students, therefore we shall ask them to
turn to the different places from which we quote and examine the contexts so as to satisfy
themselves that they treat of End-time conditions. While in most instances the context will
show that we are not reading into the Scriptures what is not there, yet in a few cases they
may fail us. This is sometimes true with passages which contain prophecies concerning
Christ. It is often the case in the prophets that the Holy Spirit is treating of something near
at hand and then, without any warning, projects the view into the distant future. But just
as the New Testament enables us to determine which Old Testament passages speak of
Christ, so other scriptures help us to identify the person of the Antichrist in verses where
there is but an indefinite and passing allusion to him.
99
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
A brief notice is taken of the Man of Sin in chapter 16. The opening verses make it clear
that conditions in the Tribulation period are being described. They intimate how that the
persecuted Jews flee to the land of Moab for refuge — “Hide the outcasts; betray not him
that wandereth,” makes this clear. These outcasts are definitely identified in v. 4, where Jehovah
terms
them
“Mine
outcasts.”
The
same
verse
goes
on
to
tell
why
they
were
outcasts,
outcasts
from
Palestine:
“Let
Mine
outcasts
dwell
with
thee,
Moab;
be
thou
a
covert
to
them
from
the
face
of
the
Spoiler:
for
the
Extortioner
is
at
an
end,
the
Spoiler
ceaseth,
the
oppressors
are
consumed
out
of
the
land.”
Here
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist
is
noted.
A
further
proof
that
these
verses
describe
what
immediately
precedes
the
Millennium
is
found
in
the
next
verse,
which
conducts
us
to
the
beginning
of
the
Millennium
itself:
“And
in
mercy
shall
the
throne
be
established:
and
He
shall
sit
upon
it
in
truth
in
the
tabernacle
of
David,
judging,
and

seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.” Thus, in the light of other scriptures,
there is little room for doubt that the Spoiler and the Extortioner refer to none other than
the Son of Perdition.
In 22:25 we have another incidental reference to the Antichrist. For our comments on
this verse we refer the reader to chapter 4, section 17.
“In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish, Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and He shall slay the Dragon
that is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). This chapter is by no means easy to analyze: its structure seems
complex. That its contents point to a yet future date is intimated by its opening words —
compare other verses in Isaiah where “in that day” occur. As one reads the chapter through
it will be found that there is a peculiar alternation between references to the Tribulation
period and conditions in the Millennium. The closing verse clearly refers to the end of the
Tribulation period. So, also, does the first verse with which we are now chiefly concerned.
Leviathan, the piercing Serpent, is, we believe, one of the names of the Antichrist,
compare chapter 3, section II, 2. A comparison with a passage in Job confirms this conclusion.
It is generally agreed that “leviathan” in Job 41 refers to the crocodile, yet the commentators
do not appear to have seen in it anything more than a description of that creature. But surely
a whole chapter of Scripture would scarcely be devoted to describing a reptile! Personally,
we are satisfied that under the figure of that treacherous and cruel monster we have a remarkable
silhouette
of
the
Prince
of
darkness.
Note
the
following
striking
points:
In verses 1 and 2 (of Job 41) the strength of Leviathan is referred to. In v. 3 the question
is asked “will he speak soft words unto thee?”: this is meaningless if only a crocodile is in
view; but it is very pertinent if we have here a symbolic description of Antichrist. In v. 4 the
question is put, “Will he make a covenant with Thee?”: this, too, is pointless if nothing but
a reptile is the subject of the passage; but if it looks to some Monster more dreadful, it serves
100
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
to identify. “None is so fierce that dare stir him up” (v. 10): how closely this corresponds
with Rev. 13:4 — “Who is able to make war with the Beast?” “His teeth are terrible round
about” (v. 14): how aptly this pictures the fierceness and cruelty of the Antichrist! “His heart
is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone” (v. 24): how accurately
this portrays the moral depravity of the Antichrist! “When he raiseth up himself the mighty
are afraid[hellip]the arrow cannot make him flee” (vv.25, 26, 28): how these words suggest
the invincibility of Antichrist so far as human power is concerned. “Upon earth there is not
his like, who is made without fear. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the
children of pride” (vv.33, 34). Surely these last verses remove all doubt as to who is really
before us here! The whole of Job 41 should be studied carefully, for we are assured that it
contains a remarkable but veiled amplification of Isa. 27:1.
In Isa. 33 there is another reference to the Antichrist. This chapter, like so many in
Isaiah, passes from a notice of Tribulation conditions to the Millennial state and back again.
The opening verse reads, “Woe to thee that spoileth, and thou wast not spoiled; and dealest
treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil,
thou shalt be spoiled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall
deal treacherously with thee.” This is evidently a judgment pronounced upon the head of
the false messiah. Two things serve to identify him: he is the great Spoiler, and the one who
shall deal treacherously with Israel. It is in view of the perfidy and rapacity of their Enemy
that the godly remnant cry, “O Lord, be gracious unto us; we have waited for Thee: be Thou
their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble” (v. 2). A further word
concerning the Antichrist is found in v. 8: “The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man
ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.”
The last three statements in this verse make it certain who is there in view. It is the Antichrist
displayed in his true colors; the one who breaks his covenant with Israel, sacks their cities,
and defies all human government to resist him.
A brief notice must be taken of 57:9 ere we turn from Isaiah. In this chapter we find
God arraigning Israel for their horrid idolatries and wickedness. The opening verse again
makes it clear that it is the Tribulation period which is in view: “The righteous perisheth,
and no man layeth it to heart,” etc. Following this we have the various indictments which
God makes against the unfaithful Jews — “But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress,
the seed of the adulterer and the whore” (v. 3, etc.). The remainder of the chapter continues
in the same strain. Among the many charges which God brings against Israel is this: “And
thou wentest to the King with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send
thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell” (v. 9). It is evident that as
this chapter is describing the sins of Israel committed in the End-time that “the King” here
must be the false messiah. Incidentally this verse furnishes one of the many proofs that the
Antichrist will be king over the Jews.
101
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
There is a distinct science of nomenclature, a system of names, in the Word of God.
Probably every name in Scripture has either a historic, a symbolic, or a spiritual significance.
The names are inseparably bound up with the narrative, and it frequently happens that the
meaning of a proper noun is a key to an important passage. Names are not employed by
the Holy Spirit in a loose and careless manner — of course not! — but with definite design.
A variety of names for the same individual are not given in order to prevent monotonous
repetition, but because the significance of each separate appellation is best fitted to express
what is recorded in any given instance. “Devil” and “Satan” are not synonyms, nor are they
used at haphazard, but with Divine discrimination. Upon the meaning of names found in
Holy Writ rests a whole scheme of interpretation; even the order in which names occur is
not fortuitous but designed, and constitutes a part of each lesson taught, or each truth
presented.
There is here a wide field opened for study, a field which few have made serious effort
to explore. It is strange that it has been so neglected, for again and again the Holy Spirit calls
attention to the importane and meaning of names. In the first book of the Bible we find that
children and places were given meaningful names, which called to remembrance incidents,
experiences, characteristics of interest and importance. Examples are given where names
changed to harmonize with a change in the person, place, experience, or situation where it
occurred. Abram and Sarai will at once occur to mind. For a place, take Luz, which was
changed to Bethel! — “House of God” — because by reason of a vision he received there it
became that to Jacob. Jacob’s name is changed to Israel; and in the New Testament an example
is
furnished
in
Simeon
being
re-named
Peter.
In
Heb.
7:1,
2
the Holy Spirit calls attention
to
the
significance
of
the
names
Melchizedik
and
Salem
(Jerusalem).
These
are
sufficient
to
show
the
importance
of
this
line
of
study.
Names are used in Scripture with marvelous discrimination, and it was this fact which
first demonstrated to the writer, the verbal inspiration of Scripture. The precision with
which names are used in the Bible is especially noticeable in connection with the Divine
titles. The names Elohim and Jehovah are found on the pages of the Old Testament several
thousand times, but they are never used loosely or interchangeably. Over three hundred
names and titles are given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and each has its own distinctive significance
and
to
substitute
any
other
for
the
one
used
would
destroy
the
beauty
and
perfections
of
every
passage
where
they
are
found.
Names are employed to express character; titles are used to denote relationships. It is
only as we make a careful study of the various and numerous names and titles of the Lord
Jesus Christ, that we are in a position to appreciate His infinite excellencies and the manifold
relationships which He sustains. From an opposite standpoint the same is equally true of
32
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
the Antichrist. As we pay careful attention to the different names and titles which are given
to him, we then discover what a marvelously complete delineation the Holy Spirit has furnished
us
with
of
the
person,
the
character,
and
career
of
this
monster
of
wickedness.
It
is
unfortunate
that
the
great
variety
of
names
bestowed
upon
him
has
led
some
brethren
to
the
conclusion
that
they
must
belong
to
separate
persons,
and
has
caused
them
to
apportion
these

out to different individuals; only confusion can result from this. There is almost as
much ground to make the Devil and Satan different persons, as there is to regard (as some
do) the Beast and the Antichrist as separate entities. That the Devil and Satan are names
belonging to the same person, and that the Beast and the Antichrist is the selfsame individual,
is proven by the fact that identically the same characteristics under each is found belonging
to the one as to the other. Instead of apportioning these names to different persons, we must
see that they denominate the same individual, only in different relationships, or as giving
us various phases of his character.
An old writer has said the name Devil is most suggestive of his character. If “d” is taken
away, evil is left. If “e” is taken away vile is left. If “v” is taken away ill is left. And if “i” is
taken away and the next letter be aspirated, it tells of hell. It is equally true of the Antichrist:
his names reveal his character, expose his vileness, and forecast his career and doom.
The names and titles given to the Antichrist are far more numerous than is commonly
supposed. We propose to give as complete a list as possible, and offer a few comments on
their significations. We shall not expatiate on them at equal length, for that is not necessary;
instead, we shall say the most on those cognomens which are of the greater importance, or,
which because of their ambiguity call for a more detailed elucidation.
33
1. The Antichrist
1. The Antichrist
“Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This name introduces to us one of the most solemn
and foreboding subjects in the Word of God. It brings before us one of the persons in the
Trinity of Evil. At every point he is the antithesis of Christ. The word “Antichrist” has a
double significance. Its primary meaning is one who is opposed to Christ; but its secondary
meaning is one who is instead of Christ. Let not this be thought strange, for it accords with
the two stages in his career. At first he will pose as the true Christ, masquerading in the livery
of religion. But, later, he will throw off his disguise, stand forth in his true character, and
set himself up as one who is against God and His Christ.
Not only does anti-christ denote the antagonist of Christ, but it tells of one who is instead
of Christ. The word signifies another Christ, a pro-Christ, an alter christus, a pretender to
the name of Christ. He will seem to be and will set himself up as the true Christ. He will be
the Devil’s counterfeit. Just as the Devil is an Anti-theos — not only the adversary of God,
but the usurper of the place and prerogatives of God, demanding worship; so the Son of
Perdition will be anti-christ — not only the antagonist and opponent of Christ, but His reval:
assuming
the
very
position
and
prerogatives
of
Christ;
passing
himself
off
as
the
rightful
claimant
to
all
the
rights
and
honors
of
the
Son
of
God.
1. The Antichrist
34
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come
a falling away first, and that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). This
double appellation is probably the most awful, the most important, and the most revealing
title given to the Antichrist in all the Bible. It diagnoses his personality and exposes his awful
character. It tells us he will be possessed of a twofold nature: he will be a man, and yet more
than a man. He will be Satan’s parody of the God-Man. He will be an incarnation of the
Devil. The world today is talking of and looking for the Super-man. This is exactly what the
Antichrist will be. He will be the Serpent’s masterpiece.
“That Man of Sin.” What a frightful name! The sin of man will culminate in the Man
of Sin. The Christ of God was sinless; the Christ of Satan will not only be sinful, but the Man
of Sin. “Man of Sin” intimates that he will be the living and active embodiment of every
form and character of evil. “Man of Sin” signifies that he will be sin itself personified. “Man
of Sin” denotes there will be no lengths of wickedness to which he will not go, no forms of
evil to which he will be a stranger, no depths of corruption that he will not bottom.
“The Son of Perdition.” And again we are forced to exclaim, what a frightful name! Not
only a human degenerate, but the offspring of the Dragon. Not only the worst of human
kind, but the incarnation of the Devil. Not only the most depraved of all sinners, but an
emanation from the Pit itself. “Son of Perdition” denotes that he will be the culmination
and consummation of satanic craft and power. All the evil, malignity, cunning, and power
of the Serpent will be embodied in this terrible monster.
35
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
“And then shall be revealed the Lawless One, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the
breath of His mouth, and bring to nought by the manifestation of His coming” (2 Thess.
2:8 R. V.). This is another name of the Antichrist which makes manifest his awful character.
Each of his names exhibits him as the antithesis of the true Christ. The Lord Jesus was the
Righteous One; the Man of Sin will be the Lawless One. The Lord Jesus was “made under
the law” (Gal. 4:4); the Antichrist will oppose all law, being a law unto himself. When the
Saviour entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9);
but of the Antichrist it is written “And the king shall do according to his will” (Dan. 11:36).
The Antichrist will set himself up in direct opposition to all authority, both Divine and human.
36
4. The Beast
4. The Beast
“And when they shall have finished their testimony the Beast that ascendeth out of the
bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them” (Rev.
11:7). This is another name which reveals the terrible nature and character of the Antichrist
and which places him in sharp antithesis from the true Christ. “The Beast” is the title by
which he is most frequently designated in the Revelation: there are at least thirty references
to him under this name in the last book of the Bible. The Greek word signifies a wild beast.
This name “the Beast” contrasts the Antichrist from the true Christ as “the Lamb;” and it
is a significant fact that by far the great majority of passages where the Lord Jesus is so designated

are also found here in the Apocalypse. The “Lamb” is the Saviour of sinners; the
“Beast” is the persecutor and slayer of the saints. The “Lamb” calls attention to the gentleness
of Christ; the “Beast” tells of the ferocity of the Antichrist. The “Lamb” reveals Christ as the
“harmless” One (Heb. 7:26); the “Beast” manifests the Antichrist as the cruel and heartless
one. Under the Law lambs were ceremonially clean and used in sacrifice, but beasts were
unclean and unfit for sacrifices.
It is a point of interest to note that there is one other very striking contrast between the
persons in the Holy Trinity, and the persons in the trinity of evil. At our Lord’s baptism the
Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove, and the first mention of the Holy
Spirit in Scripture represents Him as “brooding” like a dove over the waters which covered
the pre-Adamic earth (Gen. 1:2). How remarkable are those symbols — a “Lamb” and a
“Dove!” A Dove, not a hawk or an eagle. The gentle, harmless, cooing “dove.” Over against
this the Devil is termed “the Dragon.” What a contrast — the Dove and the Lamb, the Dragon
and the Beast!
4. The Beast
37
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
“Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful
Man” (Psa. 5:6). The Psalm from which this verse is quoted contains a prayer of the godly
Jewish remnant, offered during the Tribulation period. In proof of this assertion observe
that in v. 2 God is owned and addressed as “King.” In v. 7 intimation is given that the Temple
has been rebuilt in Jerusalem, for turning away from it when it has been defiled by “the
Abomination of Desolation,” the remnant say, “But as for me I will come into Thy house
in the multitude of Thy mercy: and in Thy fear will I worship toward Thy Holy Temple.”
While in v. 10 we find them praying for the destruction of their enemies, which is parallel
with Rev. 6:10. It is during that time the faithful remnant will exclaim, “Thou shalt destroy
them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful Man.”
The Bloody and Deceitful Man views the Antichrist in relation to the Jews. In the
earlier stages of his public career he poses as their friend and benefactor. He recognizes their
rights as a separate State and appears anxious to protect their autonomy. He makes a
formal covenant with them (Dan. 9:27) and their peace and security seem assured. But a
few years later he comes out in his true character. His fair speeches and professions of
friendship are seen to be false. He breaks his covenant (Psa. 55:20) and turns upon the Jews
in fury. Their benefactor is now their worst enemy. The protector of their interests now
aims to cut them off from being a nation in the earth (Psa. 83:4). Thus is he rightfully denominated
by
them
“the
Bloody
and
Deceitful
Man.”
38
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
“The Wicked (One) in his pride doth persecute the poor: the Wicked (One), through
the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God” (Psa. 10:2, 4). This entire Psalm is
about the Wicked One. The opening verse gives the key to its dispensational scope. It contains
the cry of the Jewish remnant during the Tribulation period, here denominated “Times of
Trouble” (cf. Jer. 30:7). So desperate is the situation of the true Israel, it seems as though
Jehovah must have deserted them — “Why standeth Thou afar off, O Lord? Why hidest
Thou Thyself in times of trouble?” (v. 1). Then follows a remarkably full description of their
arch-enemy, the Wicked One. His pride (v. 2), his depravity: “He abhorreth the Lord” (v.
3 margin); his blasphemy: “All his thoughts are, There is no God” (v. 4 margin); his grievous
ways, (v. 5); his consuming egotism, (v. 6); his deceitfulness, (v. 7); his treachery, (v. 8); his
cruelty, (vv. 9, 10); his complacent pride, (v. 11), is each described. Then the Remnant cry,
“Arise, O Lord; O God, lift up Thine hand: forget not the humble. Break Thou the arm of
the Wicked and Evil One” (vv. 12 and 15). The whole Psalm should be carefully studied.
39
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
“To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the Man of the Earth may no more oppress”
(Psa.
10:18).
The
“Wicked
One”
describes
his
character;
the
“Man
of
the
Earth”
defines
his
position.
The
one
speaks
of
his
awful
depths
of
depravity;
the
other
of
his
vast
dominions.
The
sphere
of
his
operations
will
be
no
mere
local
one,
He
will
become
World-emperor.
He
will
be
a
king
of
kings
and
lord
of
lords,
(Rev.
13:7).
When
the
true
Christ
appeared
on
earth
Satan
offered
Him
“all
the
kingdoms
of
the
world
and
the
glory
of
them”
if

He would fall
down and worship him. When the false Christ appears, this offer will be repeated, the conditions
will
be
met,
and
the
tempting
gift
will
be
bestowed
(Rev.
13:2).

In consequence of
this he shall be “the Man of the Earth;” just as later, Christ shall be “King over all the earth”
(Zech. 14:7).
40
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
“Why boasteth thou thyself in mischief, O Mighty Man” (Psa. 52:1). This is another
Psalm which is devoted to a description of this fearful character. Here again we have mention
of his boastfulness (v. 1), his deceitfulness (v. 2), his depravity (v. 3), his egotism (v. 4), his
riches (v. 7). His doom is also announced (v. 5). This title, the Mighty Man, refers to his
immense wealth and possessions, and the power which they confer upon their possessor.
It also points a striking contrast: Christ was the Lowly Man, not having where to lay His
head; the Antichrist will be the Mighty Man, of whom it is said, “Lo, this is the man that
made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened
himself in his substance” (Psa. 52:7).
41
9. The Enemy
9. The Enemy
“Because of the voice of the Enemy, because of the oppression of the Wicked: for they
cast iniquity upon me, and in wrath they hate me” (Psa. 55:3). This is another title used of
the Antichrist in connection with Israel, a title which recurs several times both in the Psalms
and the Prophets. It points a designed contrast from that Friend that “sticketh closer than
a brother.” This Enemy of Israel oppresses them sorely. His duplicity and treachery are here
referred to. Concerning him Israel shall exclaim, “The words of his mouth were smoother
than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn
swords” (Psa. 55:21). Let the student be on the lookout for passages in the Old Testament
which make mention of the Enemy.
9. The Enemy
42
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
“They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned up all the
synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit: neither is
there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary reproach?
Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (Psa. 74:8-10). This title occurs in several
important passages. In Isa. 59:19 we read, “So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the
west, and His glory from the rising of the sun. When the Adversary shall come in like a
flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him.” Lam. 4:11, 12 is another
scripture which obviously speaks of the End-time. “The Lord hath accomplished His fury;
He hath poured out His fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured
the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would
not have believed that the Adversary and the Enemy should have entered into the gates of
Jerusalem.” In Amos 3:11 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God; an Adversary there
shall be even round about the land; and he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy
palaces shall be spoiled.” This is a title which intimates his satanic origin, for the Greek word
for Devil means adversary.
43
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
“He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall
wound the Head over many countries” (Psa. 110:6). The context here shows that it must be
the Antichrist which is in view. The Psalm opens by the Father inviting the Son to sit at His
right hand until His enemies shall be made His footstool. Then follows the affirmation that
Jehovah will display His strength out of Jerusalem, and make His people Israel willing in
the day of His power. Then, following Jehovah’s oath that Christ is a Priest forever after the
order of Melchizedek (which contemplates the exercise of His millennial and royal priesthood),

we read, “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of His
wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill the places with the dead bodies; He
shall wound the Head over many countries.” The “Day of His wrath” is the closing portion
of the Tribulation period, and in the Day of His wrath. He wounds this Head over many
countries. The Head over many countries refers to the Man of Sin as the Caesar of the last
world-empire, prior to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom.
44
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
“Deliver me, O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man” (Ps. 140:1).
This is another Psalm which expresses the plaintive supplications of the godly remnant in
the “time of Jacob’s trouble.” Three times over the Antichrist is denominated the Violent
Man. In v. 1 the remnant pray to be delivered from him. In v. 4 the petition is repeated. In
v. 11 his doom is foretold. Cry is made for God to take vengeance upon this bloody persecutor:
“Let
the
burning
coals
fall

upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits,
that they rise not up again. Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt
the Violent Man to overthrow him” (Psa. 140:10, 11). The Violent Man is a name which
fully accords with his Beast-like character. It tells of his ferocity and rapacity.
45
13. The Assyrian
13. The Assyrian
“O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand in Mine indignation[hellip]Wherefore
it
shall
come
to
pass,
that
when
the
Lord
hath
performed
His
whole
work
upon
mount
Zion
and
on
Jerusalem,
I

will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the
King of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks” (Isa. 10:5, 12). We cannot here attempt an
exposition of the important passage in which these verses occur — that, in subsequent
chapters, we shall treat in detail of the Antichrist in the Psalms, and the Antichrist in the
Prophets — suffice it now to point out that it treats of the End-time (see vv. 12, 20), and
that the leading characteristics of the Man of Sin can be clearly discerned in what is here
said of the Assyrian. Almost all pre-millennial students of prophecy are agreed that the
“King” of Isa. 30:33 is the Antichrist, and yet in the two verses which precede, this “King”
is identified with “the Assyrian.”
13. The Assyrian
46
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
“Thou shalt take up this proverb against the King of Babylon, and say, How hath the
oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” (Isa. 14:4). We do not wish to anticipate what we
shall discuss at length in our future studies, enough now to state it is our firm conviction
that Scripture plainly teaches that there will be another Babylon which will eclipse the importance
and
glories
of
the
one
of
the
past,
and
that
Babylon
will
be
one
of
the
headquarters
of
the
Antichrist.
He
will
have
three:
Jerusalem
will
be
his
religious
headquarters, Rome his
political, and Babylon his commercial. For those who desire to anticipate our future expositions,
we
recommend
them
to
make
a
minute
study
of
Isa.
10,
11,
13,
14;
Jer.
49:51;
Zech.
5,
and
Rev.
18.
47
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
“How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, son of the Morning! How art thou cut down
to the ground, which didst weaken the nations” (Isa. 14:12). “Lucifer” is a Latin word which
signifies the “morning star.” “All the ancient versions and all the Rabbins make the word a
noun denoting the bright one, or, more specifically, bright star, or according to the ancients
more specifically still, the Morning Star or harbinger of daylight” (Dr. J. A. Alexander). This
term “Lucifer” has been commonly regarded as one of the names of Satan, and what is here
said of the Morning Star is viewed as describing his apostasy. Against this interpretation we
have nothing to say, except to remark that we are satisfied it does not exhaust this remarkable
scripture. A detailed exposition must be reserved for a later chapter. Sufficient now to point
out that however Isa. 14 may look back to the distant past when, through pride, Satan fell
from his original estate, it most evidently looks forward to a coming day and gives another
picture of the Antichrist. In this same passage “Lucifer” is termed “the Man that did make
the earth to tremble” (v. 16), and in his blasphemous boast “I will be like the Most High”
(v. 14), we have no difficulty in identifying him with the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4. The
force of this particular title “Morning Star” is seen by comparing it with Rev. 22:16, where
we learn that this is one of the titles of the God-man. The “Morning Star” speaks of Christ
coming to usher in the great Day of rest for the earth. In blasphemous travesty of this Satan
will send forth the mock messiah to usher in a false millennium.
48
16. The Spoiler
16. The Spoiler
“Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them from the face of the
Spoiler: for the Extortioner is at an end, the Spoiler ceaseth, the oppressors are consumed
out of the land. And in mercy shall the throne be established: and He shall sit upon it in
truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness”
(Isa. 16:4, 5). It will be observed that the verse in which the Antichrist is spoken of as the
Spoiler comes immediately before the one where we read of the throne being established, a
reference, of course, to the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom. These two things synchronize:
the
destruction
of
Antichrist,
and
the
beginning
of
the
real
Messiah’s
reign;
hence
we
read
here
“the
Spoiler
ceaseth.”
A
further
reference
to
the
Man
of
Sin
under
this
title
of
the
Spoiler
is
found
in
Jer.
6:26:
“O
daughter
of
My
people,
gird
thee
with
sackcloth,
and
wallow
thyself
in
ashes:
make
thee
mournings,
as
for
an
only
son,
most
bitter
lamentation:
for
the
Spoiler
shall suddenly come upon thee.” This is another title which views the Antichrist in
connection with Israel. After the return of many of the Jews to Palestine, and after their
rights have been owned by the Powers, and their security and success seem assured; their
enemy, filled with satanic malice, will seek their extermination. “The Spoiler” contrasts him
with the Lord Jesus who is the great Restorer (see Psa. 69:4).
16. The Spoiler
49
17. The Nail
17. The Nail
“In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall the Nail that is fastened in the sure place be
removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the
Lord hath spoken it” (Isa. 22:25). The last ten verses of this chapter should be read carefully.
They furnish a striking foreshadowment of the End-time. Shebna was holding some office
over (note “government” in v. 21) Israel. Apparently he was a usurper. God announced that
he should be set aside in shame, and the man of His choice — Eliakim — should take his
place. These historical figures merge into prophetic characters. In v. 22 we read that God
says, “And the key of the house of David will lay upon His shoulder, so He shall open, and
none shall shut; and He shall shut, and none shall open.” As we know from Rev. 3:7 this
refers to none other than the Lord Jesus, and of Him it is here said, “And I will fasten Him
as a Nail in a sure place; and He shall be for a glorious throne to His father’s house” (v. 23).
Then, in the closing verse of the chapter we read, “In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall
the Nail that is fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall.” Just as
Eliakim foreshadowed Christ, so Shebna pointed forward to the Antichrist; and just as in
v.23 we have a prophecy announcing the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom, so in v. 25
we have foretold the overthrow of the false messiah’s kingdom.
17. The Nail
50
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
“Thou shalt bring down the noise of strangers, as the heat in a dry place; even the heat
with the shadow of a cloud; the Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low” (Isa. 25:5).
The first five verses of this chapter contemplate the Enemy’s stronghold — Babylon — and
the remainder of the chapter pictures the blessedness of the millennial era. In the fifth verse
the Antichrist’s overthrow is announced: “The Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought
low.” With this should be compared Isa. 14:19, where of Lucifer it is said, “Thou art cast out
of thy grave like an abominable Branch.” This points another contrast. The “Branch” is one
of the Messianic names: “Behold, I will bring forth My Servant, the Branch” (Zech. 3:8);
“Behold the man whose name is the Branch” (Zech. 6:12). By placing together Isa. 4:2 and
Isa. 14:19 the antithesis will be more evident. Of Christ it is said, “The Branch of the Lord
shall be beautiful and glorious.” Antichrist is called “an abominable Branch”: Christ is “the
Branch of the Lord;” Antichrist is “the Branch ofthe terrible ones.”
51
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
“And thou, profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have
an end, thus saith the Lord God; remove the diadem, and take off the crown; this shall not
be the same; exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn,
overturn it: and it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him”
(Ezek. 21:25-27). The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel here can be none other than the
Antichrist, for we are expressly told that “his day shall be when iniquity shall have an end.”
The reference is, of course, to Israel’s “iniquity,” and their iniquity shall end at the appearing
of the Messiah (see Dan. 9:24) when “He shall be a priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13).
Here in Ezekiel we see how the Son of Perdition shall ape the Christ of God, for he, too, will
be a priest-king: “Remove the diadem” refers to the insignia of his priesthood (in every
other place in the O. T. where this occurs the Hebrew word here translated “diadem” it is
rendered “mitre” — worn only by the high priest of Israel); “take off the crown” is the
symbol of his kingship.
52
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
“I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another Little Horn,
before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in
this Horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things” (Dan. 7:8).
For a full description of the Antichrist under this title see Dan. 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25.
We must reserve our comments on these verses till a later chapter. “Little Horn” refers to
the lowly political origin of the Antichrist, and describes him as he is before he attains governmental
supremacy.
53
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
“And after three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself: and
the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary” (Dan. 9:26).
This title connects the Antichrist with the Roman Empire in its final form, and presents
him as the last of the Ceasars.
54
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
“And in his estate shall stand up a Vile Person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries” (Dan.
11:21). This contrasts the Antichrist from “the Holy One of Israel.” His identity is established
by noting what is predicted of him.
55
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
“And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(Dan. 11:36). The Antichrist will not only be the High Priest of the world’s religion, but he
will be King supreme at the head of its government.
56
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
“For, lo, I will raise up a Shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off,
neither shall seek the young ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth
still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd
that leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall
be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened” (Zech. 11:16, 17). This is in
evident contrast from the Good Shepherd who gave His life for His sheep. The Idol Shepherd
of deluded Israel will prove himself the monster Desolator, who shall bring upon that people
the severest tribulations ever experiences by that race.
57
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
“And they had a king over them, which is the Angel of the bottomless pit, whose name
in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon” (Rev.
9:11). “Abaddon” and “Apollyon” mean Destroyer. It is the “Spoiler” of Isa. 16:4 rendered
“Destroyer” in Jer. 4:7. That his name is here given in the Hebrew and the Greek shows that
he will be connected with both the Jews and the Gentiles.
Other names of the Antichrist which the student may look up are, “The Rod of God’s
anger” (Isa. 10:12); “The Unclean Spirit” (Matt. 12:43); “The Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11); “A Star”
(Rev. 8:10 and 9:1); and “The Vine of the Earth” (Rev. 14:18).
In our next chapter we shall deal with the genius of the Antichrist, and point out the
many striking comparisons and contrasts between him and the Christ of God. Let the student
see how many points of resemblance and opposition he can find.
58
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
For six thousand years Satan has had full opportunity afforded him to study fallen human
nature to discover its weakest points and to learn how best to make men do his bidding.
The Devil knows full well how to dazzle men by the attraction of power, and how to make
them quail before its terrors. He knows how to gratify the craving for knowledge and how
to satisfy the taste for refinement and culture, he can delight the ear with melodious music
and the eye with entrancing beauty. If he could transport the Saviour from the wilderness
to a mountain, in a moment of time, and show Him all the kingdoms of the world and their
glory, he is no novice in the art of presenting alluring objects before his victims today. He
knows how to stimulate energy and direct inquiry, and how to appease the craving for the
occult. He knows how to exalt men to dizzy heights of worldly greatness and fame, and how
to control that greatness when attained, so that it may be employed against God and his
people.
It is true that up to now Satan’s power has been restrained, and his activities have been
checked and often counteracted by the Spirit of God. The brightest fires of the Devil’s
kindling can burn but dimly whilever God sheds around them the power of heavenly light.
They require the full darkness of night in order to shine in the full strength of their deceiving
brightness; and that time is coming. The Word of God reveals the fact that a day is not far
distant when Divine restraint will be removed; the light of God will be withdrawn; and then
shall “darkness cover the earth and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). Not only will that
which has hindered the full development of the Mystery of Iniquity be removed, but God
will “send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:13), and Satan
will take advantage of this; he will then make full use of all the knowledge which he has acquired
during
the
last
six
thousand
years.
Satan will become incarnate and appear on earth in human form. As we have shown in
previous chapters, the Antichrist will not only be the Man of Sin, but also “the Son of Perdition,”
the
Seed
of
the
Serpent.
The
Antichrist
will
be
the
Devil’s
masterpiece.
In
him
shall
dwell
all
the
fulness
of
the
Devil
bodily.
He
will
be
the
culmination
and
consummation
of
Satan’s
workings.
The
world
is
now
talking
of
and
looking
for
the
Superman;
and
the
Devil
is
soon
to
supply
him.
The
Antichrist
will
be
no
ordinary
person,
but
one
possessed
of
extraordinary
talents.
He
will
be
endowed
with
superhuman
powers.
With
the
one
exception
of
the
God-man
he
will
be
the
most
remarkable
personage
who
has
ever
appeared
upon
the
stage
of
human
history.
But
to
particularize:
59
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
He will be possessed of extraordinary intelligence. He will be the Devil’s imitation of
that blessed One “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Col. 2:3).
This Son of Perdition will surpass Solomon in wisdom. In Dan. 7:20 he is represented as “A
horn that had eyes.” It is a double symbol. The “horn” prefigures strength; “eyes” speak of
intelligence. Again, in Dan. 8:23 he is referred to as “A King of fierce countenance.” who
shall “understand dark sentences.” That which baffles others shall be simple to him. The
Hebrew word here translated “dark sentences” is the same as the one rendered “hard questions”
in
1
Kings
10:1,
where
we
read
of
the
Queen
of
Sheba
coming
to
Solomon
with
her
“hard

questions” in order to test his wisdom. It is also the word that is used in Samson’s
riddle in Judges 14. It indicates that the Antichrist will be master of all the secrets of occult
science. Ezek. 28:3 declares of him “Beholding, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret
that they can hide from thee.” This will be one of his most alluring attractions. His master
mind will captivate the educated world. His marvelous store of knowledge, his acquaintance
with the secrets of nature, his superhuman powers of perception, will stamp him as an intellectual
genius
of
the
first
magnitude.
60
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
In Dan. 7:20 we are told that he has “a mouth that spake very great things.” As a wizard
of words he will surpass Demosthenes. Here also will the Devil imitate that One “who spake
as never man spake.” The people were “astonished” at Christ’s doctrine (Matt. 7:28), and
said “Whence hath this man this wisdom?” (Matt. 13:54). So will it be with this daring
counterfeiter: he will have a mouth speaking very great things. He will have a perfect command
and
flow
of
language.
His
oratory
will
not
only
gain
attention
but
command
respect.
Rev.
13:2
declares that his mouth is “as the mouth of a lion” which is a symbolic expression
telling of the majesty and awe producing effects of his voice. The voice of the lion excels
that of any other beast. So the Antichrist will out rival orators ancient and modern.
61
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
He will emerge from obscurity, but by dint of his diplomatic skill he will win the admiration
and
compel
the
cooperation
of
the
political
world.
In
the
early
stages
of
his
career
he
appears
as
“a
little
horn”
(or
power),
but
it
is
not
long
before
he
climbs
the
ladder
of
fame,
and

by means of brilliant statesmanship, ascends its topmost rung. Like the majority of
politicians, he will not scruple to employ questionable methods; in fact it will be by diplomatic
chicanery
and
intrigue
that
he
will
win
his
early
successes.
Dan.
11:21
tells us that at
first they will not give to him the honor of the kingdom, but “he shall come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” Once he gains the ascendancy none will dare to
challenge his authority. Kings will be his pawns and princes his playthings.
62
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (Dan. 8:25).
Under his regime everything will be nationalized, and none will be able to buy or sell without
his permission (Rev. 13:17). All commerce will be under his personal control, and this will
be used for his own aggrandizement. The wealth of the world will be at his disposal. There
are several scriptures which call attention to this. For example in Psa. 52:7 we read, “Lo, this
is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches; and
strengthened himself in his substance.” Again, in Dan. 11:38 we are told, “But in his estate
shall he honor the god of forces (Satan): and a god whom his fathers knew not shall be
honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” Even plainer is
Dan. 11:43, “But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt.” In the last verse of Dan. 11 mention is made of his “palace.” He
will be wealthier than Croesus. Ezak. 28:4, 5 speaks of him thus, “With thy wisdom and with
thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy
treasures: By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thine
heart is lifted up because of thy riches.” Thus will he be able to wield the sceptre of financial
power and outdo Solomon in all his glory.
63
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
He will be endowed with the most extraordinary powers, so that “he shall destroy
wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy
people” (Dan. 8:24). Before his exploits the fame of Alexander and Napoleon will be forgotten.
None will be able to stand before him. He will go “forth conquering and to conquer” (Rev.
6:2). He will sweep everything before him so that the world will exclaim, “Who is like unto
the Beast? who is able to make war with him?” (Rev. 13:4). His military exploits will not be
confined to a corner, but carried out on a vast scale. He is spoken of as the man who will
“shake kingdoms” and “make the earth to tremble” (Isa. 14:16).
64
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
He will weld together opposing forces. He will unify conflicting agencies. Under the
compelling power of his skill the world Powers will be united. The dream of a League of
Nations will then be realized. The Orient and the Occident shall no longer be divided. A
marvelous symbolic picture of this is given us in Rev. 13:1, 2: “And I stood upon the sand
of the sea, and saw a Beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and
upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the Beast which
I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the
mouth of a lion: and the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
Here we find the forces of the Roman, the Grecian, the Medo-Persian, and the Babylonian
empires coalesced. He will be the personal embodiment of the world’s political authority in
its final form. So completely will the world be swayed by the hypnotic spell cast over it by
the Beast that the ten kings of the Roman empire in its ultimate form shall “give their kingdoms
unto
him”
(Rev.
17:17).
He
will
be
the
last
great
Caesar.
65
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
He will proclaim himself God, demanding that Divine honors should be rendered to
him and sitting in the Temple shall show himself forth that he is God (2 Thess. 2:4). Such
wonders will he perform, such prodigious marvels will he work, the very elect would be
deceived by him did not God directly protect them. The Man of Sin will combine in himself
all the varied genius of the human race, and what is more, he will be invested with all the
wisdom and power of Satan. He will be a master of science, acquainted with all of nature’s
forces, compelling her to give up for him her long held secrets. “In this master-piece of
Satan,” says one, “will be concentrated intellectual greatness, sovereign power and human
glory, combined with every species of iniquity, pride, tyranny, wilfulness, deceit, and blasphemy,
such
as

Antiochus Epiphanes, Mohammed, the whole line of popes, atheists, and
deists of every age of the world have failed to unite in any individual person.”
“All the world wondered after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). His final triumph shall be that,
wounded by a sword, he shall live again (Rev. 13:3). He shall raise himself from the dead,
and so wonder-struck will men be at this stupendous marvel they will readily pay him Divine
homage, yea, so great will be his dazzling power over men, they will worship his very image
(Rev. 13:14, 15).
Having contemplated something of the genius of Satan’s prodigy, let us now consider
his character. In doing so we shall view him in the light of the Character of the Lord Jesus.
Christ is the Divine plumb-line and standard of measurement by which all character must
be tested.
In our last chapter we pointed out how that the distinguishing title of the coming Superman

the
Antichrist
— has a double significance, inasmuch as it points to him as the imitator
of
Christ
and
the
opponent
of
Christ.
Hence,
in
studying
his
character,
we
find
a
series
of
comparisons
and
a
series
of
contrasts
drawn
between
the
false
christ
and
the
true
Christ;
and
these
we
now
propose
to
set
before
the
reader.
66
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Satan is the master-counterfeiter, and in nothing will this appear more conspicuously
than in his next great move. He is now preparing the stage for his climactic production,
which will issue in a blasphemous imitation of the Divine incarnation. When the Son of
Perdition appears he will pose as the Christ of God, and so perfect will be his disguise, the
very elect would be deceived, were it not that God will grant them special illumination. It
is this disguise, this simulation of the true Christ which we shall now examine, pointing out
the various parallelisms which Scripture furnishes:
1 Christ was the subject of Old Testament prophecy: so also is the Antichrist; many are
the predictions which describe this coming one, see especially Dan. 11:21-45.
2 The Lord Jesus was typified by many Old Testament characters such as Abel, Joseph,
Moses, David, etc. So also will the Antichrist be: such characters as Cain, Pharaoh,
Absolom, Saul, etc., foreshadow the Man of Sin. We shall devote a separate chapter to
this most fascinating and totally neglected branch of our subject.
3 Christ was revealed only at God’s appointed time: such will also be the case with the
Antichrist. Of the one we read, “But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth
His Son” (Gal. 4:4); of the other it is said, “And now we know what withholdeth that
he might be revealed in his time” (2 Thess. 2:6).
4 Christ was a Man, a real Man, “the Man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5); so also will the
Antichrist be — “that Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
5 But Christ was more than a man; He was the God-Man; so also will the Antichrist be
more than a man: the Super-man.
6 Christ was, according to the flesh, a Jew (Rom. 1:3); so also will the Antichrist be —
for proofs see chapter three, section one.
7 Christ will make a covenant with Israel (Heb. 8:8); so also will the Antichrist (Dan.
9:27).
8 Christ is our “Great High Priest;” so Antichrist will yet be Israel’s great high priest
(Ezek. 21:26).
9 Christ was and will be the King of the Jews (Matt. 2:1); so also will the Antichrist be
(Dan. 11:36).
10 Christ will be the King of kings (Rev. 17:14); so also will the Antichrist be (Rev. 17:12,
13).
67
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
11 Christ wrought miracles: of Him it is said “approved of God among you by miracles
and wonders and signs” (Acts 2:22); so also will the Antichrist, concerning whom it is
written, “whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9).
12 Christ’s public ministry was limited to three years and a half; so also will the Antichrist’s
final ministry be (Rev. 13:5).
13 Christ is shown to us riding a “white horse” (Rev. 19:11); so also is the Antichrist (Rev.
6:2).
14 Christ will return to the earth as Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6, 7); so also will the Antichrist
introduce an era of peace (Dan. 11:21); it is to this that 1 Thess. 5:3 directly refers.
15 Christ is entitled “the Morning Star” (Rev. 22:16); so also is the Antichrist (Isa. 14:12).
16 Christ is referred to as Him “which was, and is, and is to come” (Rev. 4:8); the Antichrist
is referred to as him that “was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit”
(Rev. 17:8).
17 Christ died and rose again; so also will the Antichrist (Rev. 13:3).
18 Christ will be the object of universal worship (Phil. 2:10); so also will the Antichrist
(Rev. 13:4).
19 The followers of the Lamb will be sealed in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3; 14:1); so also will
the followers of the Beast (Rev. 13:16, 17).
20 Christ has been followed by the Holy Spirit who causes men to worship Him; so the
Antichrist will be followed by the Anti-spirit — the False Prophet — who will cause
men to worship the Beast (Rev. 13:12).
There is no need for us to make any comments on these striking correspondences: they
speak for themselves. They show the incredible lengths to which God will permit Satan to
go in mimicking the Lord Jesus. We turn now to consider:
68
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
1 In their respective Designations
1 One is called the Christ (Matt. 16:16); the other the Antichrist (1 John 4:3).
2 One is called the Man of Sorrows (Isa. 53:3); the other the Man of Sin (2 Thess.
2:3).
3 One is called the Son of God (John 1:34); the other the Son of Perdition (2 Thess.
2:3).
4 One is called the Seed of woman (Gen. 3:15); the other the seed of the Serpent (Gen.
3:15).
5 One is called the Lamb (Isa. 53:7); the other the Beast (Rev. 11:7).
6 One is called the Holy One (Mark 1:24); the other the Wicked One (2 Thess. 2:8).
7 One is called the Truth (John 14:6); the other the Lie (John 8:44).
8 One is called the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6); the other the wicked, profane Prince
(Ezek. 21:25).
9 One is called the glorious Branch (Isa. 4:2); the other the abominable Branch (Isa.
14:19).
10 One is called the Mighty Angel (Rev. 10:1); the other is called the Angel of the
Bottomless Pit (Rev. 9:11).
11 One is called the Good Shepherd (John 10:11); the other is called the Idol Shepherd
(Zech. 11:17).
12 One has for the number of His name (the gematria of “Jesus”) 888; the other has
for the number of his name 666 (Rev. 13:18).
2 In their respective Careers
1 Christ came down from heaven (John 3:13); Antichrist comes up out of the bottom-
less pit (Rev. 11:7).
2 Christ came in Another’s Name (John 5:43); Antichrist will come in his own name
(John 5:43).
3 Christ came to do the Father’s will (John 6:38); Antichrist will do his own will (Dan.
11:36).
4 Christ was energized by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:14); Antichrist will be energized
by Satan (Rev. 13:4).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
69
5 Christ submitted Himself to God (John 5:30); Antichrist defies God (2 Thess. 2:4).
6 Christ humbled Himself (Phil. 2:8); Antichrist exalts himself (Dan. 11:37).
7 Christ honored the God of His fathers (Luke 4:16); Antichrist refuses to (Dan
11:37).
8 Christ cleansed the temple (John 2:14, 16); the Antichrist defiles the temple (Matt.
24:15).
9 Christ ministered to the needy (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist robs the poor (Psa. 10:8, 9).
10 Christ was rejected of men (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist will be accepted by men (Rev.
13:4).
11 Christ leadeth the flock (John 10:3); Antichrist leaveth the flock (Zech. 11:17).
12 Christ was slain for the people (John 11:51); Antichrist slays the people (Isa. 14:20).
13 Christ glorified God on earth (John 17:4), Antichrist blasphemes the name of God
in heaven (Rev. 13:6).
14 Christ was received up into heaven (Luke 24:51); Antichrist goes down into the
Lake of Fire (Rev. 19:20).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
70
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
We now come to the most interesting and yet the most difficult part of our subject.
When will the Antichrist be manifested? where will he appear? what will he do? are questions
which readily occur to all who have given any thought to the matter. It is not our purpose
to seek to satisfy the idly curious, still less is it to gratify those who love the sensational. We
are well aware that our present theme is one that appeals strongly to the curiously inclined,
and were it not for the importance of our inquiry we would leave it alone. But without due
regard to the person and place of the coming Superman, it is impossible to understand the
eschatology of either the Old or New Testaments.
The chief difficulty is to arrange in chronological sequence the many passages which
treat of the Antichrist. It is by no means easy to discover the precise order in which the
prophecies which deal with the Man of Sin will receive their fulfillment. There is great need
for much prayerful study along this line. We can only write according to the light we now
have, and our readers must examine for themselves what we say in the light of the Scriptures.
It ill becomes any one to be dogmatic where the Word itself does not plainly state the exact
time when certain prophecies are to be fulfilled.
In this chapter we are placed somewhat at a disadvantage, because we shall be obliged
to give brief expositions of many scriptures where it will be impossible for us to pause and
furnish proofs or reasons for each interpretation. For example, it is our firm conviction that
the Assyrian of Isa. 10, the king of Babylon of Isa. 14, the Little Horn of Dan. 7, the Little
Horn of Dan. 8, and the first Beast of Rev. 13, each and all view the Antichrist himself in
different relationships. There are some Bible students who may take issue with us on these
points, and complain because that in this chapter we make assertions without endeavoring
to prove them. We regret this, but would ask all to bear with us patiently. In the later chapters
of this book we shall devote separate studies to the Antichrist in the Psalms, in the Prophets,
in the Gospels and Epistles, and in the Apocalypse; when we shall endeavor to examine each
passage separately and attempt to give scriptural proofs for every interpretation adopted.
While it is admittedly difficult, and perhaps impossible, to fit each prophecy concerning
the Antichrist into its proper chronological place, we are able to determine the relative position

of most of them. The career of the Antichrist is divided into two distinct parts, and
there is a clearly defined dividing line between them. In previous chapters we have pointed
out how that the name “Antichrist;” has a double meaning, signifying one who imitates
Christ, and one who is opposed to Christ. This double meaning to his name corresponds
exactly with the two chief parts in his career. In the first, he poses as the true Christ, claiming
to be indeed the Messiah of Israel. This claim will be backed up with the most imposing
credentials, and all excepting God’s elect will be deceived. He will sit in the Temple (a rebuilt
temple in Jerusalem) showing himself forth to be God, and Divine honors will be paid him.
71
The Career of the Antichrist
But at a later stage he will throw off his mask, and appear in his true character as the opponent
of Christ and the defier of God. Then, instead of befriending the Jews, he will turn against
them and seek to exterminate them from the earth. Thus, with many of the scriptures which
describe the person and career of the Antichrist it is a comparatively easy matter to decide
whether they belong to the first or to the second stage of his history. But beyond this it is
difficult, with some scriptures at least to go.
We shall now consider, first the time of Antichrist’s appearing. It is hardly necessary
for us to enter into a lengthy argument to show that the Antichrist (as such) has not already
appeared. Many antichrists have already come and gone, and some are in the world even
now; the same is equally true of the many false prophets foretold in Scripture; but all of
these are but the forecasts and foreshadowings of the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who
are yet to be revealed, and who will receive their final overthrow by the Lord Jesus at His
return to the earth. Before the Antichrist can appear the Holy Spirit must be “taken out of
the way;” (2 Thess. 2:7); the old Roman Empire must be revived and assume its final form
— “divided under ten kings;” — before the “Little Horn;” comes into prominence (Dan.
7:24 — he rises “after them”): Israel must be restored to their land and the Temple be rebuilt,
etc., etc.
At the present time the ultimate development of “the Mystery of Iniquity” is being
hindered. God’s people are the salt of the earth, and their presence here stays the corruption
of the “carcass” (Matt. 24:28 — The “Carcass” is the antithesis of the “Body” of Christ). The
saints are the light of the world, and while they remain in it is impossible for darkness to
cover the earth and gross darkness the people (Isa. 60:2). The Spirit of God is here, indwelling
believers, and His holy presence checks the final outworking of Satan’s plans. But when all
believers of this dispensation have been “caught up to meet the Lord in the air” (1 Thess.
4:16), and the Holy Spirit has departed from the earth, all restraint will be removed, and
Satan will be allowed to bring forth his false christ, who will be “revealed in his time” (2
Thess. 2:6), and it would seem that even now signs are not wanting to show that God has
already given permission to Satan to prepare the stage of action for the ghastly consummation
of his evil efforts. There can be no doubt but that the Devil has desired to reveal the Son of
Perdition long before this, so that by means of him he may reduce the whole world to submission.
But
the
restraining
hand
of
God,
now
so
soon
to
be
removed,
has
held
him
back.
The time, then, when the Antichrist will be revealed is after this present Dispensation
of Grace has run its course; after the Mystical Body of Christ has been completed; after the
whole company of God’s people have been caught up to meet the Lord in the air; after the
Holy Spirit has departed from the world. How soon after we cannot say for certain. The
majority of prophetic students seems to think that the last great Caesar will come into
prominence almost immediately after the rapture of the saints. Personally, we believe there
will be an interval, long or short, between the two. As there was a period of thirty years after
72
The Career of the Antichrist
the birth of the Lord Jesus — a period of silence — before His public ministry commenced,
so there may be a similar interval between the Rapture and the Revelation of Antichrist.
The Antichrist will enter the arena of public affairs before the beginning of Daniel’s
seventieth week, for at the beginning of it he makes a seven-years covenant with the Jews,
then in their land. But at that point he will be the Dictator of the world’s policies, and as he
begins in comparative obscurity (at least from a governmental standpoint), some time —
probably years — must be allowed for his gradual rise to political supremacy. His meteoric
course will not be terminated until the Lord Himself descends to earth to usher in the Millennium.
Just
as
the
reign
of
Saul
preceded
that
of
David,
so
shall
that
of
Antichrist
antedate
that
of
the
true
Christ.
We turn now to consider the place of Antichrist’s appearing. So far as the writer is aware
there are only two scriptures which give direct information upon this point, and they are
each found in the prophecy of Daniel. We refer to the passages which speak of “the Little
Horn.” In Dan. 7:7, 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and, behold, a fourth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured
and break in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all
the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold,
there came up among them another little horn.” This fourth Beast is the last world-empire,
prior to the setting up of the Messianic kingdom. This empire will, at first, be ruled over by
ten kings — the “ten horns” of v.7 and defined as ten kings in v. 24. After them arises another,
the “Little Horn,” which signifies another “king,” see v. 24. He is termed “little” because at
that stage his kingdom is but small compared with that of the others, and the power he then
wields is insignificant when contrasted from the ten kings. But not for long will he remain
weak and insignificant. Soon the ten kings will themselves own allegiance to this eleventh
— see Rev. 17:12, 13. We reserve for a later chapter the proofs that this “Little Horn” is the
Antichrist, asking our readers to study carefully the description furnished of him in Dan.
7:8, 20-27; 8:9-12, 23-25.
Taking it for granted (at the moment) that the Little Horn of Dan. 7 is the Antichrist
let us see how what is there said of him helps us to determine the quarter from which he
will arise. In Dan. 7:7 the “fourth Beast” is described, and in 7:23 we are told, “the fourth
beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms,
and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” This
Kingdom will be divided into ten parts, over which will be the ten kings (7:24). This kingdom
will be, we believe, the old Roman Empire revived in its final form, and divided into two
great halves — the Eastern and the Western. This fourth kingdom will include within itself
all the territory and will perpetuate all the dominant characteristics of the other three which
have preceded it, i.e. the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Grecian. Turning now to Dan.
7:8 we are told, “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another
73
The Career of the Antichrist
little horn.” The Antichrist, then, will have his rise within the limits of the old Roman Empire.
This narrows considerably our circle of inquiry. The next question is, Can we determine
from which part of the empire he will arise — the Eastern or the Western? Dan. 8 furnishes
light upon this point.
In Dan. 8:8, 9 we read, “Therefore the he-goat waxed very great: and when he was strong,
the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of
heaven. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward
the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.” Now v. 21 of this same chapter
tells us, “The rough goat is the king (kingdom) of Grecia,” and v. 22 informs us “and the
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four
stood up for it, four kingdoms (or kings) shall stand up out of the nation.” This, of course,
refers to the act of Alexander the Great who divided his kingdom into four parts — Greece,
Egypt, Syria, and the rest of the domains of Turkey — under his four great generals: Ptolemy,
Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. This, again, very appreciably narrows our circle of
inquiry. Dan. 7 tells us the Little Horn is to arise in a part of the territory covered by the old
Roman Empire, which Empire gradually included within its domains that the the preceding
empires. Now here in Dan. 8 we learn that the Little Horn will spring from that part of the
revived Roman Empire which was included in the Grecian Empire. But this is not all that
Dan. 8 tells us. The Grecian Empire is here viewed as disintegrated into four parts or kingdoms,
from
which
of
these
parts,
then,
may
we
expect
him
to
issue

Macedonia,
Egypt,
Syria,
or
Thrace?
This
question,
we
believe,
receives
answer
in
Dan.
8:(
where
we
are
told,
that
the
Little
Horn
“waxed
exceeding
great
toward
the
south,
and
toward
the
east,
and
toward
the
pleasant
land.”
Practically
all
students
are
agreed
that
“the
south”
here
refers
to
Egypt,
the

“east” to Persia and Greece and “the pleasant land” to Palestine, hence it would seem
that the country from which Antichrist will first be manifested is Syria. It will be noted that
nothing is said in Dan. 8:9 about the Little Horn “waxing great” toward the north, and we
believe the reason for this is because that is the quarter from whence he shall arise. This is
confirmed by the fact that “the king of Assyria” in Isa. 10:12 is clearly none other than the
Antichrist. We may say this was the current view of Christian writers on prophecy through
the first ten centuries A.D. The late Mr. W. B. Newton in his splendid “Aids to the Study of
Prophetic Inquiry” has succinctly summarized the various arguments of the ancients in the
following language: —
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The Career of the Antichrist
“In the first place, as Nimrod — the founder of Babel, that is, the Tower
of Babylon — a savage tyrant and cruel oppressor of men, was the first person
who declared open war against God; so it is meet that there should arise from
the selfsame Babylon, the last and most atrocious persecutor of the saints —
the Antichrist. Moreover, seeing that Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus Epiphanes

— two monsters who bore down upon the people of God with an
overwhelming power of destruction, and who were the antichrists of the old
Testament and remarkable types of the Antichrist which is to come; seeing,
I say, that these monarchs reigned in Babylon, it is fitting that the true Antichrist
of
the
New
Testament
should
arise
from
the
same
Babylon.
Besides, no place can be pointed out more meet for the nativity of Antichrist

than Babylon, for it is the City of the Devil — always diametrically
opposed to Jerusalem, which is deemed the City of God; the former city, that
is, Babylon, being the mother and disseminator of every kind of confusion,
idolatry, impiety — a vast sink of every foul pollution, crime, and iniquity
— the first city in the world which cut itself off from the worship of the true
God — which reared the city of universal vice, — which perpetually (according
to
the
record
of
Holy
Writ)
carries
on
the
mystery
of
iniquity,
and
bears
imprinted

on her brow the inscription of blasphemy against the name of
God. The consummation, therefore, of impiety, which is to have its recapitulation
in

Antichrist, could not break forth from a more fitting place than
Babylon.”
Having dwelt at some length on the time and the place of the Antichrist’s appearing,
we shall attempt to give now a brief outline of the leading events in his career. We have seen
that the scriptures which help us to determine the direction from which he will arise, speak
of him under the title of the Little Horn. Now the first thing this title denotes is that he is a
king, king of Assyria. Some, no doubt, will wonder how a Jew will succeed in obtaining the
throne of Syria. Several answers might be suggested, such, for example, as heading a successful
rebellion — the spectacle of an obscure plebeian speedily rising to the rank of national
Dictator, has been forcibly exhibited before our own eyes in Russia. But on this point we
are not left to speculation. Dan. 11:21 tells us that the “Vile Person” will come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. With this agrees Rev. 6:2, where the Antichrist is seen
riding a white war-horse, and with bow in hand, but with no arrow fitted to it. The symbol
suggests bloodless victories.
As soon as this Jew acquires the crown of Syria he will speedily enlarge his dominions.
As Rev. 6:2 tells us, he will go forth “conquering and to conquer,” and as we are told further
in Hab. 2:5, “He is a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who enlarged his desire as hell,
and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations, and heapeth
75
The Career of the Antichrist
unto him all people.” The first thing which is predicted of him (as “the Little Horn”) is that
“he shall subdue three kings” (Dan. 7:24). As to what kings these may be, appears to be intimated

in Dan. 8:9 where we are told, “And out of one of them came forth a little horn,
which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant
land.” He waxes great first toward the south, that is, most probably, by a victorious expedition
into Egypt. Next, he is seen moving toward the east, reducing, to what extent we are not
told, the dominions of Persia and Greece; finally he turns his face toward the pleasant land,
which is Palestine. Without being dogmatic, we would suggest that the three kings he subdues
are those of Egypt, Persia, and Greece.
Having subdued the three kings by his military prowess a “league” is made with him
(see Dan. 11:23). Probably it is the remaining seven kings of the revived Roman Empire,
plus the three vassals of the Antichrist who take the place of the kings he had deposed, that
enter into this League with the Little horn, or king of Assyria; but he shall work deceitfully,
and shall become strong with a small people (Dan. 11:23). So strong does he become that
in a short time he rises to political supremacy, and the whole of the ten kings shall “give
their kingdom unto the Beast.” (Rev. 17:17), and he will then be recognized as the imperial
Emperor. Thus as King of kings he will dictate the policies of Europe and Asia.
“The Little Horn will revive in himself all the personified glory of Babylon, Medo-Persia,
Greece and Rome. And let not this be regarded as an event incredible. We are to remember
that Antichrist will be Satan’s masterpiece; furnished with every auxiliary of influence and
wealth, for wresting the sceptre from the hands of Him who won it by His humiliation of
the Cross. Thus it is said he will ‘resist the God of gods’. The accumulated and restored
honors of each royal successor are thus to crown the brow of this last and greatest of Gentile
monarchs. And so shall he stand in his unrivalled magnificence till the Stone shall smite
him and his power, and grind all to powder” (Mrs. G. Needham).
After the Antichrist has acquired the political sovereignty of the prophetic earth he will
then enter upon his religious role, claiming to be the Christ of God and demanding Divine
honors. At first sight it appears strange, if not incongruous, that a military despot should
be found filling the character of a religious impostor. But history shows that there is a point
at which one character readily merges into the other. Political ambition, intoxicated by
success, finds it an easy step from self-glorification to self-deification, and the popular infatuation
as
easily
passes
from
the
abject
adulation
of
the
tyrant
to
the
adoration
of
the
god.
Or

again; a religious impostor, encouraged by the ascendancy he has acquired over the
minds of men, grasps the sceptre of secular power and becomes the most arbitrary of despots.
Rev. 13:4 makes it plain that the military prowess of the Antichrist first induces men to
render him Divine homage: “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the
Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is able to
make war with him?” But no ordinary honors will suffice him. His religious ambitions are
76
The Career of the Antichrist
as insatiable as his political, for he will “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God,
or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that
he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This claim to be God Himself, incarnate, will be backed up by
imposing credentials, for his coming will be, “after the working of Satan, with all power and
signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). These miracles will be no mere pretenses, but
prodigies of power.
The Jews, previously returned to Palestine, and with temple in Jerusalem rebuilt, will
receive this Son of Perdition as their long-promised “Messiah” (John 5:43). In imitation of
the true Christ who will, at His return to the earth, “make a new covenant with the House
of Israel and with the House of Judah” (Heb. 8:8, compare Jer. 31 and Ezek. 36), the Antichrist
will make a covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27 and 11:22). Under a seven years’ treaty,
and in the guise of friendship, he will gain ascendancy in Jerusalem, only later to throw off
the mask and break the covenant.
About seven months after the Antichrist, the “Prince” (i.e. of the Roman Empire) of
Dan 9:27 has made the Covenant with the Jews he will begin to “practice” in Jerusalem (Dan.
8:24). This we believe is the explanation of the two thousand three hundred days of Dan.
8:14 which has puzzled so many of the commentators. This two thousand three hundred
days is the whole period during which the false messiah will practice in Jerusalem and have
power over the “sanctuary”: two thousand three hundred days is seven years less seven
months and ten days.
There, in Jerusalem, he will pose as the Christ of God, the Prince of Peace. The world
will suppose that the long looked- for Millennium has arrived. There will be every indication
that the eagerly desired Golden Age has, at last, dawned. The great Powers of Europe and
Asia will have been united under the ten-kingdomed Empire. It will be expected that the
League of Nations guarantees the peace of the earth. For a season quietness and amity will
prevail. None will dare to oppose the mighty Emperor. But not for long will the hideous
war-spectre hide himself. Soon will the “white horse” of Rev. 6 be found to change his hue.
A “red horse” will go forth, and then “peace shall be taken from the earth” (Rev. 6). At the
very time the world is congratulating itself that all is well, and the slogan of the hour is
“Peace and Safety,” then “sudden destruction cometh upon them” (1 Thess. 5:3).
In the midst of the seven years the Antichrist will throw off his mask, break his covenant
with Israel, and stand forth as the most daring idolater who has ever trodden this earth.
After he has “practiced” in Jerusalem for two years and five months, he will take away the
daily sacrifice (Dan. 8:11; 9:27) from the Temple, and in its place rear an image to himself
in the holy place, which is the “abomination of desolation” referred to by Christ (see Matt.
24:15).
This brings us to the great dividing line in his career, to which reference was made near
the beginning of this chapter. It is a point not only of interest but of considerable importance
77
The Career of the Antichrist
to ascertain what it is that causes this startling change of front, from posing as the true Christ
to that of the open defier of God. There are several scriptures which throw light on this
point. Satan will cause the Man of Sin to crown his daring imitation of the Christ of God
by being slain and rising again from the dead.
Both the Old and the New Testaments refer to the death of the Antichrist, and attribute
it to the sword. In Rev. 13:14 we read that the false Prophet shall say to them that dwell on
the earth that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by the sword
and did live. In harmony with this we read in Zech. 11:17, “Woe to the Idol Shepherd that
leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye.” It is to be noted
that before we read that “the sword shall be” upon him, we are told that he “leaveth the
flock,” and the previous verse tells us that he was raised up “in the land,” which can only
mean that he was ruling in Palestine. Hence it is clear that he leaves the Land before he receives
his
death
wound
by
the
sword.
In
perfect
accord
with
this
is
what
we
read
in
Isa.
37:6,
7
(in a later chapter we shall treat at length of the future Babylon, restored; the connection
of Antichrist with it, and the typical and prophetical significance of Isa. 37 and 38); “Behold,
I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land; and I
will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.”
Leaving Palestine, the Antichrist will “return to his own land,” that is, the land of his
nativity — Assyria — which confirms what we have said previously about Assyria being the
country where Antichrist will first be manifested. There, in his own land, he will fall by the
sword. Most probably he will be slain there by his political enemies, envious of his power
and chafing under his haughty autocracy. In death he will be hated and dishonored, and
burial will be refused him. It is to this that Isa. 14 (speaking of the King of Babylon, see v.4)
refers: “But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of
those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit. As
a carcass trodden under feed, thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou
hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people” (vv. 19, 20). But his enemies will suddenly be
filled with consternation and then admiration for to their amazement this one slain by the
sword shall rise from the dead, and his deadly wound will be healed — note how this is implied
in
Isa.
14,
for
v.
25
shows him once more in the land of the living, only to meet his final
doom at the hands of the Lord Himself. It is to this amazing resurrection of the Antichrist
that Rev. 13:3, 4 refers: “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his
deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast. And they worshipped
the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is
able to make war with him?” Details of his resurrection are supplied in Rev. 9, from which
we gather that just as Christ was raised from the dead by God the Father, so the Antichrist
will be raised from the dead by his father the Devil, see v. 1 where the fallen “Star,” which
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The Career of the Antichrist
refers to Satan, is given the “key to the bottomless pit,” and when this is happened there
comes out of it the mysterious “locusts” whose king is the Destroyer (v. 11), the Antichrist.
A further reference to the resurrection of the Antichrist, his coming forth from the
Bottomless Pit, is found in Rev. 17:8: “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall
ascend out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into Perdition: and they that dwell on the earth
shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the
world, when they behold the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is.” It is to be noted that the
earth-dwellers wonder when they behold the Beast that was (alive), and is not (now alive),
and yet is (raised again). The world will then be presented with the spectacle of a man raised
from the dead. All know him, for his career and amazing progress were eagerly watched;
his wonderful achievements and military campaigns were the subject of daily interest; his
transcendent genius elicited their admiration. They had witnessed his death. They stood
awe-struck, no doubt, at the downfall of this King of kings. And now he is made alive; his
wound of death is healed; and the whole world wonders, and worships him.
It is about this time, apparently, that the “False Prophet” (Rev. 13:11-16), the third
person in the Trinity of Evil will appear on the scene. From a number of scriptures it is
evident that the Antichrist will not spend all his time in Palestine during the last three and
a half years of his career. It seems that shortly after the middle of the “week” the Beast will
turn his face again toward Babylon, leaving the False Prophet to act as his viceregent, compelling
all
in
Jerusalem
to
worship
the
image
of
the
Beast
under
pain
of
death
(Rev.
13:15).
It
is
to
be
noted
that
Hab.
2:5
tells us that the Antichrist is “a proud man, neither keepeth at
home, who enlarged his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth
unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him all people.”
The reason for the Antichrist’s return to Babylon is not far to seek. Having thrown off
his mask of religious pretension, he now stands forth as the Defier of God. His first move
now will be to blot out from the earth everything that bears His name. To accomplish this
the Jewish race must be utterly exterminated, and to this end he will put forth all his power
to banish Israel from the earth. He will make war with the saints (the Jewish saints) and
prevail against them (Dan. 7:21; 8:24): this is the going forth of the “red horse” of Rev. 6:4.
Those of the godly remnant who are left will “flee to the mountains” (Matt. 24:16), and
there they will be hunted like partridges. It is then they will cry, “Keep not Thou silence, O
God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine enemies make a tumult:
and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against Thy
people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them
off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance” (Psa.
83:1-4). Then, because many of the Jews will be found in that day dwelling in Babylon (see
Jer. 50:8; 51:6, 45; Rev. 18:4) the Antichrist will go thither to wreak his vengeance upon
them. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his blasphemous and bloody course.
79
The Career of the Antichrist
Soon will heaven respond to the cries of the faithful remnant of Israel, and terrible shall be
the punishment meted out on their last enemy. This, however, must be left for consideration
in our next chapter, when we shall treat of the last days and doom of the Antichrist.
80
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
If there is a measure of difficulty attending the placing and elucidation of some of the
prophecies which depict the various phases and stages of the Antichrist’s career, the cloud
lifts as the end is neared. And this is in full accord with many other things which pertain to
the closing days of the Age. The nearer we come to the blessed event of our Lord’s return
to this earth, the more light has God seemed to cast on those things which immediately
precede the Second Advent. It is as though, at first, God furnishes only a bare outline, but
ultimately He fills in the details for us. It is thus with the end of the Antichrist. The Holy
Spirit has been pleased to supply us with a most comprehensive and vivid description of
the closing scenes in the career of the Son of Perdition. It is with mingled feelings that we
turn and ponder what has thus been recorded for our learning.
The awful course which is followed by the Man of Sin cannot but shock us. The frightful
hypocrisy, the shocking duplicity and treachery, the terrible cruelty, and the amazing impiety
of this Monster of wickedness, make us marvel at the forbearance of God, who endures
“with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction.” But when we come to
the final scenes, and behold the Antichrist openly challenging heaven, publicly defying God,
and making a deliberate and determined effort to prevent the Lord Jesus returning to this
earth, we are well nigh rendered speechless by the unthinkable lengths to which sin will go.
On the other hand, as we learn that all of this is the ending of that long dismal night which
precedes the Day of Christ, the Millennium, we see that it is but the dark background to
bring into more vivid relief the glories of the God-Man. The destruction of the Antichrist
will be followed at once by the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom which shall bring peace
and blessing to all the earth. And the contemplation of this cannot but fill us with joy and
thanksgiving.
“The end of the Man of Sin marks an era of sublimest interest to the believing children
of God. It shall be the day of our triumphant manifestation, and the Jubilee of all creation.
The day, Oh, Hallelujah! when Satan’s crown of pride shall be smitten, and his glory trailed
in the dust; when his long-continued and persistent temptations shall have an end; and his
power receive the wounding from which it shall never recover itself. That blessed, blessed
day when He whose right it is, shall reign, and the kingdom of Israel be no more overturned
and dishonored. The sweet, sweet day, when the mockings, the scourgings, the bonds, the
imprisonments, the afflictions, and the torments of the great multitude of whom the world
was not worthy, shall cease to annoy forever, and the whole earth be at rest, and break forth
into gladness” (Mrs. E. Needham).
But before that blessed Day arrives, the last hour of the night of Christ’s absence has to
run its course, and as the darkest hour precedes the dawn, so the last hour of this “night”
shall be the most foreboding of all. The period which immediately precedes the return of
81
The Doom of the Antichrist
Christ to the earth will witness the most awful events ever chronicled. It was of this period
that Daniel spoke when he said, “There shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since
there was a nation even to that same time” (12:1). It was to this same time that Christ referred
when He declared, “For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning
of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. And except that the Lord
had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom He hath
chosen, He hath shortened the days” (Mark 13:19, 20). This is “the hour of temptation which
shall come upon all the world” (Rev. 3:10). It will be a time of unparalleled wickedness, and
a time of unprecedented suffering. It is the time when God shall avenge the murder of His
Son, when He shall take to task a world that has so long despised His Word, and trampled
His commandments under foot. The very Antichrist will be one of the instruments of His
vengeance — “the rod of His anger” (Isa. 10:5).
It is because men received not the love of God’s truth. He shall send them strong delusion
that they should believe the Devil’s lie. It is because men had “pleasure” in “unrighteousness”
they shall be deceived by the Lawless One. It is because Israel refused that blessed One who
came in His Father’s name that they shall receive the one who comes in his own name. This
is why the Antichrist will, for a season, be suffered to prosper, and apparently to defy God
with impugnity. But when God has used him to perform His own pleasure, then shall He
empty upon his kingdom and upon his subjects the vials of His wrath. Just as God has set
the bounds of the sea, saying thus far shalt thou go and no further, so has He fixed the limits
to which He will allow the Antichrist to go. And when that limit is reached the Son of Perdition
will
find
himself
as
helpless
to
pass
beyond
what
God
has
decreed
as
a
worm
would
be
beneath
the
foot
of
an
elephant.
This
will
be
made
evident
as
we
proceed.
At the close of our last chapter we followed the career of the Antichrist to the point
where he turns upon the Jewish people and seeks to cut them off from being a nation.
Fearful will be his assaults upon them, and bitter will be their wailings. It is at that time the
Remnant will cry, “O God; why hast Thou cast us off forever? why doth Thine anger smoke
against the sheep of Thy pasture? Remember Thy congregation, which Thou hast purchased
of old; the rod of Thine inheritance, which Thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein
Thou hast dwelt. Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations; even all that the Enemy
hath done wickedly in the sanctuary. Thine enemies roar in the midst of Thy congregations;
they set up their ensigns for signs. A man was famous according as he had lifted up axes
upon the thick trees. But now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes
and hammers. They have cast fire into Thy sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down
the dwelling-place of Thy name to the ground. They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them
together; they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs:
there is no more any profit neither is there any among us which knoweth how long. O God,
how long shall the Adversary reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?
82
The Doom of the Antichrist
Why withdrawest Thou Thy hand, even Thy right hand? Pluck it out of Thy bosom” (Psa.
74:1-11).
It is at this time that the prophecy of Amos 8 will receive its final fulfillment: “The Lord
hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works. Shall
not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise
wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt. And it shall
come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon,
and I will darken the earth in the clear day: And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and
all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness
upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as
a bitter day. Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land,
not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but the hearing the words of the Lord: And
they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and
fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. In that day shall the fair virgins and
the young men faint for thirst” (Amos 8:7-13). How remarkably does Psa. 74 interpret this
prophecy of Amos! The reason why the godly Remnant shall run to and fro to seek the word
of the Lord and shall not find it, and the meaning of the famine of hearing the words of the
Lord is that all the synagogues in the land shall have been burned up.
But not for long will this frightful persecution continue: “Therefore thus saith the Lord
God of hosts, O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrain: he shall smite
thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For yet a
very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction” (Isa.
10:24, 25). Once the Antichrist turns upon Israel his days are numbered, for to touch that
nation is to touch the apple of God’s eye (Zech. 2:8). God shall “stir up a scourge for him”
(Isa. 10:26). What this scourge is we learn from Dan. 11:40: “And at the time of the end shall
the king of the south push at him; and the king of the north (the Antichrist) shall come
against him (i.e. the king of the south) like a whirlwind with chariots, and with horsemen,
and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow, and pass
over” (Dan. 11:40).
The king of the south who pushes it — assails — the Antichrist is the king of Egypt. The
Antichrist, here termed the king of the north, i.e. Assyrai, shall leave Babylon, and marshalling
his imperial forces, which he has ready for immediate action, shall lead them against him
(the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind. The rapidity of his movements and the immensity of
his armies, is intimated by the words, “He shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow
and pass over.” His progress will be as the rushing of an overwhelming torrent from the
mountains, that spreads over the land, and carries everything before it. “He shall enter also
into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown” (Dan. 11:41). His route
from Babylon to Egypt will take him through Palestine, the land which is soon to be the
83
The Doom of the Antichrist
glory of all lands; and, although we are not told here what he will do there at that time, his
hand will, no doubt, be heavy upon it, as also upon the many other countries which he will
overthrow. “But these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of
the children of Ammon” (Dan. 11:41). These three peoples will escape his fury. The reason
for their escape seems to be a double one. In Ps. 83, which describes an event at a little
earlier period, we are told, “they have taken crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted
against Thy hidden ones. They has said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation;
that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together
with one consent, they are confederate against Thee: the tabernacles of Edom and the Ishmaelites;
of
Moab,
and
the
Hagarenes;
Gebal,
and
Ammon,
and
Amalck;
the
Philistines
with
the
inhabitants
of
Tyre;
Assur
(the
Assyrian)
also
is
joined
with
them”
(Psa.
83:3-8).
Thus
we
see
that
these
three
peoples
acted
in
concert
with
the
Antichrist
when
a
determined
effort
was
made
to
utterly
exterminate
the
Jewish
people.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
spares
these
submissive
allies
of
his
when
he
goes
forth
to
overthrow
the
other
countries.
So much for the human side as to why “these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom,
and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.” But there is a Divine side, too. These
peoples are spared at that time in order that they may be dealt with later by God Himself.
Thus did Jehovah declare of old through Balaam the heathen prophet: “There shall come a
Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab,
and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a
possession for his enemies” (Num. 24:17, 18). This will be right at the beginning of the
Millennium. Israel, too, shall be used by God in this work of judgment upon their ancient
enemies: “But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall
spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the
children of Ammon shall obey them” (Isa. 11:14).
“He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not
escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” (Dan.
11:42, 43). The victorious King will then take possession of those countries which were
overthrown by him during his march from Babylon to Egypt. Having now reached this land
which dared to push at him — the land never completely subjugated by the previous kings
of the north referred to in the earlier part of Dan. 11 — its king and subjects must now bow
before his iron sceptre. He becomes master of its treasures of gold, silver, and precious
things. The Libyans and Ethiopians, who were the allies of Egypt, will be compelled to follow
in this train. Thus will he crush this Egyptian rebellion, and demonstrate once more his
military prowess. Yet not for long will he be permitted to defy Heaven with impugnity.
“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go
forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). What these
84
The Doom of the Antichrist
troublous tidings are we learn from Jer. 51. A serious attack will be made upon his Babylonian

headquarters, and during his absence from there, the kings of Ararat, Minni, and
Ashchenaz — no doubt emboldened by the insubordination of Egypt — will besiege and
capture one end of the Capital. The time is nigh at hand when God shall utterly destroy that
City of the Devil, and a preliminary warning of this is now given: “And I will render unto
Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in
your sight, saith the Lord. Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord,
which destroyeth all the earth: and I will stretch out Mine hand upon thee, and roll thee
down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. And they shall not take of thee
a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate forever, saith
the Lord” (Jer. 51:24-26).
As a beginning to this end, the Lord says, “Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the
trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the
kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz (all situated in the vicinity of Armenia); appoint
a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers. Prepare against
her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof,
and all the land of his dominion. And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose
of the Lord shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation
without an inhabitant. The mighty man of Babylon hath forborne to fight, they have remained
in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned their
dwelling places; her bars are broken” (Jer. 51:27-30).
It is this ominous news — the tidings which trouble him of Dan. 11:44 — which reaches
the ears of Babylon’s King, then absent in Egypt. The alarming tidings that part of the city
has already been destroyed arouses him to fierce anger, for we are told, “therefore he shall
go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). As he
nears the capital, “one post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another,
to show the King of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and that the passages are
stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted” (Jer.
51:31, 32). The end is not far distant: “For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
the daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while,
and the time of her harvest shall come” (Jer. 51:33). God now calls on the Jews who are
found dwelling within that city to leave at once, lest they be caught in the storm of His fierce
anger: “My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver you every man his soul from
the fierce anger of the Lord” (Jer. 51:45). A graphic description of Babylon’s destruction is
found at the end of Jer. 51 and also in Rev. 18.
The fury of the Antichrist at the destruction of Babylon will know no bounds. Enraged
at his loss, and incensed against God, he will now turn his face toward Palestine, and at the
head of his vast forces will bear down upon the glorious land. Even so, it is God who is dir-
85
The Doom of the Antichrist
ecting him and his blinded dupes — directing him to finish the work of judgment upon Israel,
and directing him to his awful doom. Habakkuk gives a fearful description of the spirit in
which the King of Babylon and his hosts shall fall upon the dwellers of Palestine: — “For,
lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the
breadth of the land, to possess the dwelling places that are not theirs. They are terrible and
dreadful: their judgment and their dignity shall proceed of themselves. Their horses also
are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen
shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle
that hasteth to eat. (How this verse anticipates the cruel aerial war-weapons!). They shall
come all for violence: their faces shall sup up as the east wind, and they shall gather the
captivity as the sand. And they shall heap dust, and take it. Then shall his mind change, and
he shall pass over, and offend, imputing this his power unto his god” (Note how this last
verse serves to identify the “Chaldean” with the “King” of Dan. 11:38, 39). So terrible will
be this onslaught that we are told, “And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the
Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein” (Zech.
13:8).
His course is vividly sketched by Isaiah in the tenth chapter of his prophecy: “He is come
to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Mickmash he hath laid up his carriages: They are gone
over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Galim: cause
it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth. Madmena is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim
gather themselves to flee. As yet shall he remain at Nob that day” (Isa. 10:28-32). Nob is his
camping-ground for that day, and it is there he will “plant the tabernacles of his palace
between the seas in the goodly holy mountain” (Dan. 11:45). Nob must be some elevation
commanding a distant view of Jerusalem from the west. As he stands on the hill that night
and looks at the Holy City, he “shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of
Zion, the hill of Jerusalem” (Isa. 10:32).
We now come to the closing scene. The following morning the Man of Sin leads his
forces to the famous Armageddon, there awaiting his final re-inforcements before attacking
Jerusalem. It is of this that Joel speaks: “Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war,
wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: Beat your
plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.
Assemble yourselves, and come all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about:
thither cause Thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord. Let the heathen be wakened, and
come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.
Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats
overflow; for their wickedness is great. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for
the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision” (Joel 3:9-14).
86
The Doom of the Antichrist
It is to this that Micah refers: “Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that
say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion. But they know not the thoughts of
the Lord, neither understand they His counsel: for He shall gather them as the sheaves into
the floor” (4:10, 11). But it is not in the valley that the battle is fought, but around Jerusalem,
where the Beast and his armies deliver the final blow of God’s judgment on that city ere the
Deliverer appears. It is then that God will say, “O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the
staff in their hands is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and
against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the
prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither
doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. For he
saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? Is not Hamath as
Arpad? Is not Samaria as Damascus? As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols,
and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; Shall I not, as I have
done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Wherefore it shall come
to pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem,
I
will
punish
the
fruit
of
the
stout
heart
of
the
King
of
Assyria,
and
the
glory
of
his
high
looks”
(Isa.
5-12).
The
Antichrist
is
but
the
Lord’s
instrument
after
all.
Just
as
Moses
picked
up
and
held
in
his
hand
the
rod
which
became
a
serpent,
so
shall
this
offspring
of
the
Serpent
be
wielded
by
the
hand
of
God
to
accomplish
His
predetermined
counsels.
Once again, though, the Beast appears to be successful. Jerusalem falls before his onslaught
as
Jehovah
had
foretold
that
it
should

“For
I
will
gather
all
nations
against
Jerusalem
to
battle;
and
the
city
shall
be
taken,
and
the
houses
rifled,
and
the
women
ravished;
and
half
of
the
city
shall
go
forth
into
captivity,
and
the
residue
of
the
people
shall
not
be
cut
off
from
the
city”
(Zech.
14:2).
Intoxicated
by
their
success,
it
is
then
that
the
heathen
shall
rage
and
the
people
imagine
a
vain
thing:
“The
kings
of
the
earth
set
themselves,
and
the
rulers
take
counsel
together,
against
the
Lord,
and
against
His
anointed,
saying,
Let
us
brake
their
bands
asunder,
and
cast
away
their
cords
from
us”
(Psa.
2:2,
3).
And then comes the grand finale. The heaven will open and from it will descend the
King of kings and Lord of lords, seated on a white horse, with His eyes “as a flame of fire”
(Rev. 19:11, 12). Attending Him will be the armies of heaven, also seated on white horses
(Rev. 19:14). Far from being appalled at this awe-inspiring spectacle, the Beast and the kings
of the earth and their armies shall gather together to “make war against Him that sat on the
horse, and against His armies” (Rev. 19:19). “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against
those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle” (Zech. 14:3). At last the Christ of God
and the christ of Satan will confront each other. But the instant the conflict begins, it is
ended. The Foe will be paralyzed, and all resistance cease.
Scripture has solemnly recorded the end of various august evil personages. Some were
overwhelmed by waters; some devoured by flames; some engulfed in the jaws of the earth;
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The Doom of the Antichrist
some stricken by a loathsome disease; some ignominiously slaughtered; some hanged; some
eaten up of dogs; some consumed by worms. But to no sinful dweller on earth, save the Man
of Sin, “the Wicked One,” has been appointed the terrible distinction of being consumed
by the brightness of the personal appearing of the Lord Jesus Himself. Such shall be his unprecedented
doom,
an
end
that
shall
fittingly
climax
his
ignoble
origin,
his
amazing
career,
and
his
unparalleled
wickedness.
“Hitherto proud boastings have issued from the lips of Satan’s king; but now he falls
helplessly to the ground blasted by the lightening which streams from the King of kings;
and together with the False Prophet and in the full sight of his countless armies, he is seized
by the angels of the Lord, to be hurled alive into the lake which burneth with fire and
brimstone” (G. H. Pember).
The overthrow of the Antichrist is described as follows: — “But with righteousness shall
He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite
the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked”
(Isa. 11:14).
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall
magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many; he shall also stand up against
the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand” — an expression which always
refers to that which is supernatural (Dan. 8:25).
“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy
mountain; yet shall he come to his end, and none shall help him” (Dan. 11:45).
“And then shall that Wicked (One) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the
spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (2 Thess. 2:8).
“And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone”
(Rev. 19:20).
“For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; he hath made it deep and
large: the pile: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream
of brimstone, doth kindle it” (Isa. 30:33).
“And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where
the Beast and the False Prophet are, and (they) shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever” (Rev. 20:10).
Frightful, too, shall be the doom meted out to the followers of the Antichrist. Zech. 14
tells us, “And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have
fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet,
and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongues shall consume away in
their mouth. And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the Lord shall
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The Doom of the Antichrist
be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hands of his neighbour, and his
hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour” (vv. 12, 13). So, also Rev. 19:21 declares,
“And the remnant were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which sword
proceeded out of His mouth; and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.”
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
The references to the Man of Sin in the book of Psalms are, for the most part, more or
less incidental ones. With rare exceptions he comes into view only as he is related to Israel,
or as he affects their fortunes. One cannot appreciate the force of what is there said of him
except as that is examined in the light of its prophetic setting. The time when the Antichrist
will be in full power is during the Tribulation period, and it is not until we discover, by
careful searching, which of the Psalms describe the Time of Jacob’s trouble, that we know
where to look for their last great Troubler.
Politically and ecclesiastically the Antichrist may be viewed in a threefold connection,
first, as he is related to the Gentile; second, as he is related to the apostate Jewish nation;
third, as he is related to the godly Jewish Remnant, who separate themselves from their
unbelieving brethren. More details are furnished us in the Psalms upon this third relationship
than upon the other two, though we have occasional allusions to Antichrist’s connections
with the Gentiles and the Jewish nation as a whole.
The second Psalm gives us a brief but vivid picture of that which will wind up the
Tribulation period, and while the Antichrist is not directly named, yet the light which other
scriptures throw upon it reveals the dreadful personality who heads the rebellion there described.

This second Psalm is prophetic in its character and has, like most (if not all)
prophecy, a double fulfillment.
“Why do the heathens rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth
set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His
anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us” (Psa.
2:1-3). A part of this passage is found quoted in Acts 4, but it is striking to note where the
quotation ceases. Peter and John had been arraigned before the religious authorities of Israel,
because that in the name of Jesus Christ they had healed an impotent man. The apostles
boldly and faithfully vindicated themselves, and after being admonished and threatened
were allowed to depart to their own company. Then it was that they “lifted up their voice
to God with one accord, and said, Lord, Thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth,
and the sea, and all that in them is: Who by the mouth of Thy servant David hath said, Why
did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up,
and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ” (Acts 4:24-26).
Notice they quoted only the first two verses of Psalm 2, and this they did not say was now
“fulfilled.” What they did say was, “For of a truth against Thy holy child Jesus, whom Thou
hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel,
were gathered together, for to do whatsoever Thy hand and Thy counsel determined before
to be done” (v. 28). In the apprehension of Christ and in His trials before the Jewish and
Gentilish authorities, this prophecy through David had received a partial fulfillment, but
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Antichrist in the Psalms
its final one is yet future. The time when Psalm 2 is to receive its complete accomplishment
is intimated in the middle section — it is just prior to the time when Christ returns to the
earth as “King,” and receives the heathen for His inheritance and the uttermost parts of the
earth for His possession; in other words, it is just before the dawn of the Millennium, namely,
the end of the Tribulation period.
As we re-read this second Psalm in the light of Rev. 16:14 and 19:19 we find that it depicts
the final act in the blatant and defiant career of the last great Caesar. it is an act of insane
desperation. The Son of Perdition will gather his forces and make a concerted effort to
prevent the Christ of God entering into His earthly inheritance. This we believe is evident
from the terms of the Psalm itself.
The Psalm opens with an interrogation: “Why do the heathen (the Gentiles) rage (better,
‘tumultuously assemble’), and the people (Israel) imagine (meditate) a vain thing?” The fact
that this is put in the form of a question is to arrest more quickly the reader’s attention, and
to emphasize the unthinkable impiety of what follows. “The kings of the earth set themselves,
and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Anointed.” Notice
that this rebellion is staged not only against the Lord but also against His “Anointed,” that
is, His Christ. The madness of this effort (headed by Antichrist) is intimated in v. 4: “He
that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” The futility of
this movement is seen in v. 6: “Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Zion.” The “yet”
here has the force of “notwithstanding”: it shows the aim and the object which the insurrectionists
had
in
view,
namely,
an
attempt
to
prevent
Christ
returning
to
earth
to
set
up
His
millennial

kingdom. The response of heaven is noted in v. 5: “Then shall He speak unto
them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure.” This is enlarged upon in Rev.
19:20, 21. Psalm 2, then, brings us to the end of the Antichrist’s history and treats only of
the closing events in his awful career. In the other Psalms where he is in view earlier incidents
are noted and his dealings with the Jews are described.
The next Psalm in which the Antichrist appears is the fifth. This Psalm sets forth the
petitions which the faithful Remnant of Israel will make to God during the Tribulation
period. It would carry us beyond our present bounds to attempt anything like a complete
exposition of this Psalm in the light of its prophetic application. We shall do little more than
generalize.
The Tribulation period is the time when Satan is given the freest rein, when lawlessness
abounds, and when to the unbelieving heart it would seem that God had vacated His throne.
But the eye of faith recognizes the fact that Jehovah is still ruling amid the armies of the
heavens and among the inhabitants of the earth. Hence the force of the Divine title in v. 2
— the remnant address Jehovah as “My King and my God.” The most awful wickedness and
rebellion is going on around them, but they are fully assured that God is quite able to cope
with the situation. “The Wicked shall not stand in Thy sight: Thou hatest all workers of
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Antichrist in the Psalms
iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the bloody and
deceitful man” (vv. 5, 6).
The “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is plainly the Man of Sin. He is denominated “bloody”
by virtue of his military ferocity; he is called “deceitful” because of his political duplicity.
One after another of his opponents will fall before him: through a sea of blood will he advance
to his imperial throne. Utterly unreliable will be his word, worthless his promises. A manifest
incarnation of that one who is the father of the Lie will he be. Most completely will he deceive
the Jews. A first, posing as their friend; later, standing as their arch-enemy. All doubt as to
the identity of this “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is removed by what is said of his “mouth.”
From Psalm 5 we turn to Psalm 7 where we find the godly Jewish Remnant crying unto
the Lord against their persecutors, chief of which is the Antichrist. This is clear from the
first two verses, where the change from the plural to the singular number is very significant
— “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me,
and deliver me: Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to
deliver.” The Remnant plead their innocency before God and call down upon themselves
the Enemy’s curse if they have acted unjustly — “O Lord my God, If I have done this; if
there be iniquity in my hands; if I have requited him that did evil unto me, or spoiled mine
adversary unto emptiness; Let the Enemy pursue my soul, and overtake it” (vv. 4-6, Jewish
translation). This at once serves to identify the individual of v. 2 who would tear their souls
like a “lion” (not like a bear) — showing his kinship with that awful one who “goeth about
as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” Observe, too, the word he “was at peace,”
but now “without cause is mine enemy.” Clearly it is the Antichrist that is here in view, and,
as manifested in the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week, when he shall have thrown off
his mask and stood forth revealed in all his dreadfulness. The twelfth verse goes on to say,
“If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow and made it ready.” It is this
which causes the Remnant to cry, “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from
all them that persecute me, and deliver me” (v. 1). The fourteenth verse unmistakably
identifies this end-time Enemy of Israel, and again stamps him as a worthy son of the father
of the Lie — “Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought
forth falsehood.” In the sixteenth verse the Remnant express their assurance of the certain
fate of their Foe: “His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall
come down upon his own pate.”
The eighth Psalm is closely connected with the seventh. In the last verse of the seventh
we hear the Remnant saying, “I will praise the Lord according to His righteousness: and will
sing praise to the name of the Lord most high.” This anticipates the time when they shall
be delivered from their awful Enemy, and when the glorious Millennium shall have dawned
— “The Lord most high” is His distinctive millennial title. Psalm 8 follows this with a lovely
millennial picture, when Jehovah will be worshipped because His name is then “excellent
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Antichrist in the Psalms
in all the earth.” Then shall the Remnant say, “Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast
Thou ordained strength because of Thine enemies, that Thou mightiest still the Enemy and
the Avenger” (v. 2). The Enemy and the Avenger, more literally “the Foe and the Revenger,”
are two of the many names of the Antichrist.
Much in the ninth Psalm also anticipates millennial conditions and celebrates the
overthrow of the Man of Sin. Sings the Remnant, “For Thou hast maintained my right and
my cause; Thou satest in the throne judging right. Thou has rebuked the heathen, Thou
hast destroyed the Wicked” (vv. 4, 5). That the Wicked, or Lawless One, is the Antichrist,
is clear from the next verse: “The destructions of the Enemy are come to a perpetual end:
and their cities hast Thou destroyed.” We hope to show in a later chapter that “their cities”
which God will destroy are the cities of Antichrist and the False Prophet, namely, Babylon
and Rome. Again; in vv. 15, 16 of this Psalm we read, “The heathen are sunk down in the
pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken. The Lord is known by
the judgment which He executeth: the Wicked is snared in the work of his own hands!”
This refers to the destruction of the Antichrist and his forces at Armageddon.
In the tenth Psalm we have the fullest description of the Antichrist found in any of the
Psalms. This Psalm is divided into four sections: first, the Cry of the Remnant (v. 1); second,
the Character of the Antichrist (vv. 2-11); third, the Cry of the Remnant renewed (vv. 12-15);
fourth, the Confidence of the Remnant (vv. 16-18). In its opening verse we discover its dispensational
key

the
“Times
of
Trouble”
(cf.
Jer.
30:7)
being
the
great
Tribulation.
Observe
now
what
is
here
said
of
the
Wicked
One.
In
v.
2
we read, “The Wicked in his pride doth
persecute (R. V. ‘hotly pursue’) the poor.” The “poor” (referred to in this Psalm seven times
— vv. 2, 8, 9, 9, 10, 14, and “humble” in v. 17 should be “poor” — emphasizing the completeness
of their poverty) are the faithful Remnant who have refused to receive the mark of the
Beast, and as the result are suffered to neither buy nor sell (see Rev. 13:17). In vv. 3, 4 we
are told, “For the Wicked (One) boasteth of his heart’s desire, and curseth, yea, abhorreth
the Lord (see Hebrew). The Wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek
after God: all his thoughts are — no God.” This tells of his frightful impiety and reveals his
satanic origin. In v. 6 his consuming egotism is depicted: “He hath said in his heart, I shall
not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.” Then follows a description of his awful
wickedness: “His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief
and vanity. He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder
the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.” Notice in this last verse the mention
of “the secret places.” It was to them our Lord referred in His Olivet Discourse, when He
said, “Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: Behold,
he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.” This whole Psalm will well repay the most minute
study.
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Antichrist in the Psalms
In the opening verse of the fourteenth Psalm we have what we doubt not is another
reference to the Antichrist, here called “The Fool.” He is the arch-fool, who, in his blatant
defiance, says in his heart — “no God.” The mark of identification is found in the marginal
reading of Psalm 10:4: All his thoughts are — “no God”. Does not this title point out another
contrast between Christ and the Antichrist: One is “the wonderful Counseller,” the other is
“the Fool!”
In the seventeenth Psalm, which contains the confession of the Remnant, (pleading
their innocency before God), reference is again made to the antichrist. “By the word of God’s
lips” will the believing Jews be “kept from the paths of the Destroyer.” This is another of his
titles which points a contrast: Christ is the Saviour; Antichrist the Destroyer. That it is the
Antichrist who is here in view is clear from what follows in vv. 12 and 13, where we read,
“Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.
Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the Wicked, by Thy
sword.” The “Wicked” is here in the singular number. Note again the reference to the “secret
places,” about which we shall have something to say, in our exposition of Matt. 24, vv. 25,
and 26 when we treat of the Antichrist in the Gospels.
We pass over several Psalms which contain incidental allusions to the Wicked One and
turn now to the thirty-sixth. The wording of the first verse is somewhat ambiguous, and we
believe its force comes out better by rendering it, with the Sept., Syriac and Vulgate, “the
transgression of the Wicked saith within his heart, that there is no fear of God before his
eyes.” He defies Jehovah and fears not Elohim. “For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
until his iniquity be found to be hateful” (v. 2). Haughty conceit fills him, but in the end he
shall reap as he has sown. “The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; he hath left off
to be wise, and to do good” (v. 3). This refers to his treacherous dealings with the Jews, and
takes note of the two great stages in his career; first, when he poses as Israel’s friend, later
when he comes out in his true character as their enemy.j Verse 4 describes his moral character:
“he
deviseth
mischief
upon
his
bed;
he
setteth
himself
in
a
way
that
is

not good; he
abhorreth not evil.”
The thirty-seventh Psalm, which in its ultimate application has to do with the godly
Remnant in the Tribulation period, contains a number of references to the Antichrist. In
the seventh verse the Remnant is exhorted to “rest in the Lord and wait patiently for Him”
(i.e. for His personal appearing) and to “fret not because of him who prospereth in his way,
because of the Man who bringeth wicked devices to pass” — a manifest allusion to the Man
of Sin. In the tenth verse they are assured, “for yet a little while, and the Wicked shall not
be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be.” In vv. 12 and 13 we read,
“the Wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth. The Lord shall
laugh at Him: for He seeth that his day is coming.” This brings out the satanic malice of
Antichrist against the people of God, and also marks the Lord’s contempt for him as He
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Antichrist in the Psalms
beholds the swiftly approaching doom of this one who has so daringly defied Him. The end
of the Wicked is noticed in v. 35. “I have seen the Wicked in great power, and spreading
himself like a green bay tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea, I sought him, but
he could not be found.” The whole of this wondrous Psalm calls for close study. It throws
a flood of light on the experiences of the Remnant amid the awful trials of the end of the
age.
“I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not with my tongue: I will keep my mouth
with a bridle, while the Wicked is before me” (Psa. 39:1). This sets forth the resolutions of
the Remnant in view of the troublesome presence of the Wicked One; while in v. 8 they are
seen praying that they may not be made the reproach of the Foolish One — “Deliver me
from all my transgressions: make me not the reproach of the Foolish.”
The forty-third Psalm opens with the plaintive supplications of the Remnant in view of
the contempt and opposition of the Jewish nation as a whole, at the head of which will be
the false Messiah: “Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver
me
from
the
deceitful
and
unjust
Man.
For
Thou
art
the
God
of
my
strength:
why
dost
Thou
cast
me
off?
Why
go
I
mourning
because
of
the
oppression
of
the
Enemy?”
The
allusion
to
the
deceit
and
injustice
of
the
man
of
Sin
views,
of
course,
his
breaking
of
the
covenant.
In the forty-fourth Psalm we are given to hear more of the bitter lamentations of the
Remnant, betrayed as they have been by the one who posed as their benefactor, and scorned
as they are by their fellow Jews: “Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a shaking
of the head among the people (Israel). My confusion is continually before me, and the shame
of my face covered me, For the voices of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth; by reason
of the Enemy and Avenger.”
The fiftieth Psalm is one of deep interest in this connection. It announces the response
of Jehovah to the cries of His faithful people. It declares that “God shall come, and shall not
keep silence: a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be tempestuous round about Him”
(v. 3). It promises that He will gather His saints together unto Him (v. 5). It contains an
exposulation with Israel as a whole (see vv. 7-14). And then, after bidding His people call
upon Him “in the Day of Trouble” and assuring them He will deliver them, God addresses
their Enemy as follows: — “But unto the Wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare
My statutes, or that thou shouldest take My covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction,
and
casteth
My
words
behind
thee.
When
thou
sawest
a
thief,
then
thou
consentedst
with
him,
and
hast

been partaker with adulterers. Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy
tongue frameth deceit. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine
own mother’s son” (vv. 16-22). First, God rebukes the Antichrist for his hypocrisy, referring
to the time when, at the beginning of his career, he had (like Satan in tempting the Saviour)
come declaring God’s statutes and taking the Divine Covenant in his mouth (v. 16). Second,
He charges him with his treachery when, at the midst of the seventieth week, he had cast
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Antichrist in the Psalms
God’s words behind him (v. 17). Third, He exposes his depravity and shows that he is altogether
destitute
of
any
moral
sensibility
(vv.
18-20).
Fourth,
He
reminds
him
of
how
he
had
congratulated
himself
that
he
should
continue
on
his
vile
course
with
impugnity
and
escape
the
due
reward
of
his
wickedness
(v.
21).
Finally,
He
announces
the
certainty
of
retribution
and
the
fearful
doom
which
awaits
him
(v.
22).
The fifty-second continues and amplifies what has just been before us from the closing
verses of the fiftieth Psalm. Here again the Antichrist is indicted by God — no doubt through
the Remnant. “Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? The goodness of God
endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully.
Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou
lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy thee forever,
and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.
The righteous also shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him: Lo, this is the man that made
not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself
in his wickedness” (vv. 1-7). The pride, the enmity, the treachery, the moral corruption, and
the vaunting of the incarnate Son of Perdition are all noticed and charged against him. The
certainty of his doom, and his degradation before those he had persecuted, is graphically
depicted.
The prophetic application of the fifty-fifth Psalm first found its tragic realization in the
treachery of Judas against the Lord Jesus, but its final accomplishment yet awaits a coming
day. In it we may see a pathetic description of the heart-pangs of the Remnant, mourning
over the duplicity of the mock Messiah. Driven out of Jerusalem, they bewail the awful
wickedness now holding high carnival in the holy city: “Wickedness is in the midst thereof:
deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it was not an enemy that reproached me;
then I could have borne it: neither was it he that hated me that did magnify himself against
me; then I would have hid myself from him: But it was thou, a man mine equal (i.e. a Jew),
my guide, and mine acquaintance” (vv. 11-13). Thus will the Jews in a coming day be called
upon to endure the bitter experience of betrayal and desertion by one whom they regarded
as their friend. Concerning their Enemy the Remnant exclaim, “He hath put forth his hand
against such as be at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant. The words of his mouth
were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were
they drawn swords” (vv. 20, 21). The reference is to the seven-year Treaty which the final
Caesar makes with Palestine, and which after three and one half years is treated as a scrap
of paper. But such treachery will not go unpunished. In the end Antichrist and his abettors
will be summarily dealt with by the Judge of all the earth: “But Thou, O God, shalt bring
them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their
days” (v. 23).
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Psalm seventy-one contains another of the Remnant’s prayers during the End-time.
“Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the Wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous
and cruel Man” (v. 4). The reference is, again, to the Man of Sin who has acted unjustly, and
whose fiendish delight it will be to persecute the people of God.
In Psalm seventy-two we find expressed the confidence of the Remnant. They are there
seen anticipating that joyful time when God’s King shall reign in righteousness. With glad
assurance they exclaim: “He shall judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with
judgments. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills Thy righteousness.
He
shall
judge
the
poor
of
the
people,
He
shall
save
the
children
of
the
needy,
and
shall
break

in pieces the Oppressor” (vv. 2-4). Mighty as their Enemy appeared in the eyes of
men, and invincible as he was in his own estimation, when God’s appointed time comes he
shall be broken in pieces as easily as the chaff is removed by the on-blowing wind.
The seventy-fourth Psalm makes reference to the violence of the Antichrist against the
believing Remnant: “They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned
up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit:
neither is there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary
reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (vv. 8-10). This contemplates
the time when the Man of Sin and his lieutenants will make a desperate effort to cut off Israel
from the earth and abolish everything which bears the name of God. Note it does not say
“all the synagogues” will be burned up, but the “synagogues of God,” that is, where the true
and living God is owned and worshipped.
The eighty-third Psalm carries us to a point a little nearer the end. Not only will the
synagogues of God be all destroyed, but an attempt will be made to exterminate those who
still worship God in secret. Listen to the tragic pleadings of this Satan-hunted company,
“Keep not Thou silence, O God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine
enemies make a tumult: and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken
crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said,
Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more
in remembrance” (vv. 1-4). As to who is responsible for this the verses following show. In
v. 5 we read, “For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against
Thee.” Then will be realized man’s dream of a League of Nations. It is remarkable that just
ten nations are here named — see vv.6-8. “Assur” in v. 8 is “the Assyrain” — the Antichrist
in his king-of-Babylon character. This verse is one of the few passages in the Psalms which
shows the Antichrist in connection with the Gentiles. Psalm 110:6 also contains a reference
to him as related to the Gentiles — “He hath stricken the Head over many countries” (R.
V.).
The one hundred and fortieth appears to be the last of the Psalms that takes note of the
Antichrist. There we hear once more the piteous cries of the Remnant to God: “Deliver me,
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Antichrist in the Psalms
O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man: Keep me, O Lord, from the
hands of the Wicked; preserve me from the Violent Man; who hath purposed to overthrow
my goings[hellip]Grant not, O Lord, the desires of the Wicked: further not his wicked device”
(vv. 1, 4, 8).
Thus we have glanced at no less than twenty Psalms in which allusion is made to the
Antichrist. This by no means exhausts the list; but sufficient has been noted to show what
a prominent place is there given to this dreadful monster. Let it not be supposed that we are
denying the present value and application of the Psalms to ourselves. Nothing is more foreign
to our desire. We not only firmly believe that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God
and is “profitable for doctrine,” but we readily and gladly unite with the saints of all ages in
turning to this precious portion of God’s Word to provide us with language suited to express
to God the varying emotions of our hearts. But while allowing fully the experimental and
doctrinal value of the Psalter for us today, it needs to be pointed out that many of the Psalms
have a prophetic significance, and will be used by another company of believers after the
Church which is the body of Christ has been removed from these scenes of sin and suffering.
We would urge those of our readers who are interested in dispensational truth to re-study
these lyrics of David with a view of discovering how much they reveal of things to come.
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The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The references to the Antichrist in the Prophets are numerous; nor is this to be wondered
at. It is there, more than anywhere else in Scripture, that we learn of the future of both Israel
and the Gentiles. It is there we have the fullest information concerning End-time conditions,
and the completest description of the varied parts which the leading characters shall play
in those days. It would carry us beyond the scope designed for these articles were to examine
every passage in the Prophets which makes mention of the Man of Sin and the numerous
roles he will fill. Yet we do not desire to pass by any of the more important allusions to him.
We shall, therefore, make a selection, and yet such a selection that we trust a complete outline
at least will be supplied. Certain scriptures, notably those which view the Antichrist in
connection with Babylon, will be waived now, because they will receive separate consideration
in a later chapter.
One other introductory remark needs to be made. We are conscious that this chapter
will probably be somewhat unsatisfactory to a few of our readers, inasmuch as we shall be
obliged to take a good deal for granted. It is manifest that we cannot here attempt to give a
complete analysis of the passages where the different allusions to the Antichrist occur, nor
should this be necessary. We are writing to Bible students, therefore we shall ask them to
turn to the different places from which we quote and examine the contexts so as to satisfy
themselves that they treat of End-time conditions. While in most instances the context will
show that we are not reading into the Scriptures what is not there, yet in a few cases they
may fail us. This is sometimes true with passages which contain prophecies concerning
Christ. It is often the case in the prophets that the Holy Spirit is treating of something near
at hand and then, without any warning, projects the view into the distant future. But just
as the New Testament enables us to determine which Old Testament passages speak of
Christ, so other scriptures help us to identify the person of the Antichrist in verses where
there is but an indefinite and passing allusion to him.
99
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
A brief notice is taken of the Man of Sin in chapter 16. The opening verses make it clear
that conditions in the Tribulation period are being described. They intimate how that the
persecuted Jews flee to the land of Moab for refuge — “Hide the outcasts; betray not him
that wandereth,” makes this clear. These outcasts are definitely identified in v. 4, where Jehovah
terms
them
“Mine
outcasts.”
The
same
verse
goes
on
to
tell
why
they
were
outcasts,
outcasts
from
Palestine:
“Let
Mine
outcasts
dwell
with
thee,
Moab;
be
thou
a
covert
to
them
from
the
face
of
the
Spoiler:
for
the
Extortioner
is
at
an
end,
the
Spoiler
ceaseth,
the
oppressors
are
consumed
out
of
the
land.”
Here
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist
is
noted.
A
further
proof
that
these
verses
describe
what
immediately
precedes
the
Millennium
is
found
in
the
next
verse,
which
conducts
us
to
the
beginning
of
the
Millennium
itself:
“And
in
mercy
shall
the
throne
be
established:
and
He
shall
sit
upon
it
in
truth
in
the
tabernacle
of
David,
judging,
and

seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.” Thus, in the light of other scriptures,
there is little room for doubt that the Spoiler and the Extortioner refer to none other than
the Son of Perdition.
In 22:25 we have another incidental reference to the Antichrist. For our comments on
this verse we refer the reader to chapter 4, section 17.
“In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish, Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and He shall slay the Dragon
that is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). This chapter is by no means easy to analyze: its structure seems
complex. That its contents point to a yet future date is intimated by its opening words —
compare other verses in Isaiah where “in that day” occur. As one reads the chapter through
it will be found that there is a peculiar alternation between references to the Tribulation
period and conditions in the Millennium. The closing verse clearly refers to the end of the
Tribulation period. So, also, does the first verse with which we are now chiefly concerned.
Leviathan, the piercing Serpent, is, we believe, one of the names of the Antichrist,
compare chapter 3, section II, 2. A comparison with a passage in Job confirms this conclusion.
It is generally agreed that “leviathan” in Job 41 refers to the crocodile, yet the commentators
do not appear to have seen in it anything more than a description of that creature. But surely
a whole chapter of Scripture would scarcely be devoted to describing a reptile! Personally,
we are satisfied that under the figure of that treacherous and cruel monster we have a remarkable
silhouette
of
the
Prince
of
darkness.
Note
the
following
striking
points:
In verses 1 and 2 (of Job 41) the strength of Leviathan is referred to. In v. 3 the question
is asked “will he speak soft words unto thee?”: this is meaningless if only a crocodile is in
view; but it is very pertinent if we have here a symbolic description of Antichrist. In v. 4 the
question is put, “Will he make a covenant with Thee?”: this, too, is pointless if nothing but
a reptile is the subject of the passage; but if it looks to some Monster more dreadful, it serves
100
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
to identify. “None is so fierce that dare stir him up” (v. 10): how closely this corresponds
with Rev. 13:4 — “Who is able to make war with the Beast?” “His teeth are terrible round
about” (v. 14): how aptly this pictures the fierceness and cruelty of the Antichrist! “His heart
is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone” (v. 24): how accurately
this portrays the moral depravity of the Antichrist! “When he raiseth up himself the mighty
are afraid[hellip]the arrow cannot make him flee” (vv.25, 26, 28): how these words suggest
the invincibility of Antichrist so far as human power is concerned. “Upon earth there is not
his like, who is made without fear. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the
children of pride” (vv.33, 34). Surely these last verses remove all doubt as to who is really
before us here! The whole of Job 41 should be studied carefully, for we are assured that it
contains a remarkable but veiled amplification of Isa. 27:1.
In Isa. 33 there is another reference to the Antichrist. This chapter, like so many in
Isaiah, passes from a notice of Tribulation conditions to the Millennial state and back again.
The opening verse reads, “Woe to thee that spoileth, and thou wast not spoiled; and dealest
treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil,
thou shalt be spoiled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall
deal treacherously with thee.” This is evidently a judgment pronounced upon the head of
the false messiah. Two things serve to identify him: he is the great Spoiler, and the one who
shall deal treacherously with Israel. It is in view of the perfidy and rapacity of their Enemy
that the godly remnant cry, “O Lord, be gracious unto us; we have waited for Thee: be Thou
their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble” (v. 2). A further word
concerning the Antichrist is found in v. 8: “The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man
ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.”
The last three statements in this verse make it certain who is there in view. It is the Antichrist
displayed in his true colors; the one who breaks his covenant with Israel, sacks their cities,
and defies all human government to resist him.
A brief notice must be taken of 57:9 ere we turn from Isaiah. In this chapter we find
God arraigning Israel for their horrid idolatries and wickedness. The opening verse again
makes it clear that it is the Tribulation period which is in view: “The righteous perisheth,
and no man layeth it to heart,” etc. Following this we have the various indictments which
God makes against the unfaithful Jews — “But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress,
the seed of the adulterer and the whore” (v. 3, etc.). The remainder of the chapter continues
in the same strain. Among the many charges which God brings against Israel is this: “And
thou wentest to the King with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send
thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell” (v. 9). It is evident that as
this chapter is describing the sins of Israel committed in the End-time that “the King” here
must be the false messiah. Incidentally this verse furnishes one of the many proofs that the
Antichrist will be king over the Jews.
1012. Antichrist in Jeremiah
2. Antichrist in Jeremiah
In the 4th chapter of this prophet there is a vivid description of the fearful afflictions
which shall come upon the inhabitants of Palestine. Doubtless, what is there said received
a tragic fulfillment in the past. But like most, if not all prophecy, this one will receive a later
and final accomplishment. There are several statements found in it which indicate that it
treats of the End-time. The plainest of these is found in the closing verse, where we read,
“For I have heard a voice as of a woman in travail, and the anguish as of her which bringeth
forth her first child, the voice of the daughter of Zion.” It is the “birth-pangs” of Matt. 24:8
(see Greek) which is in view. The sore trials which Israel shall then undergo are tragically
depicted: “Blow ye the trumpet in the land: cry, gather together, and say, Assemble yourselves,
and let us go into the defenced cities. Set up the standard toward Zion: retire, stay not: for
I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction. The Lion is come up from his
thicket, and the Destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way; he is gone forth from his place to
make thy land desolate; and thy cities shall be laid waste, without an inhabitant” (vv. 5-7).
The Destroyer of the Gentiles now turns to vent his fiendish malignity upon the holy land.
Destruction is in his heart. Terrible shall be his onslaught: “Behold, he shall come up as
clouds, and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto
us! for we are spoiled” (v. 13). Fearful will be the devastations his fury shall accomplish:
“The whole city shall flee for the noise of the horsemen and bowmen; they shall go into
thickets, and climb up upon the rocks: every city shall be forsaken, and not a man dwell
therein” (v. 29).
In 6:26, 27 there is a remarkable statement made concerning the Antichrist: “O daughter
of My people, gird thee with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning,
as for an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the Spoiler (Destroyer, as in 4:7) shall suddenly
come upon us.” This Spoiler is the Destroyer of the Gentiles. But it is what follows in the
next verse which is so striking: “I have set thee for a tower and a fortress among My people,
that thou mayest know and try their way.” Here we learn that, after all, the Antichrist is but
a tool in the hands of Jehovah. It is He who sets him in the midst of Israel to “try” them. A
parallel statement is found in Isa. 10:5, 6, where the Lord says of the Assyrian “I will send
him against a hypocritical nation.” It reminds us very much of what we read concerning
Pharaoh in Rom. 9:17. He was “raised up” by God to accomplish His purpose. Even so shall
it be with this one whom Pharaoh foreshadowed. He shall be an instrument in God’s hand
to chastise recreant Israel.
Chap. 15 contains brief allusions to the Antichrist. In v.8 we have a statement similar
to what was before us in the last passage. Speaking to Israel God says, “I have brought upon
them against the mother of the young men a Spoiler at noonday: I have caused him to fall
upon it suddenly, and terrors upon the city.” It is the Lord, then, (behind Satan) who brings
102
2. Antichrist in Jeremiah
this Spoiler against them. After His purpose has been accomplished, after the Antichrist has
done what (unknown to himself) God had appointed, we read how that the Lord assures
His people, “I will deliver thee out of the hand of the Wicked, and I will redeem thee out of
the hand of the Terrible” (v. 21). Thus will God demonstrate His supremacy over the Son
of Perdition.
25:38 takes us back a little and notices the awful desolation which the Antichrist brings
upon the land of Israel: “He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate
because of the fierceness of the Oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.”
103
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
We shall notice here but two passages in this prophet. First, in 21:25-27 — “and thou,
profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end, Thus
saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall not be the same:
exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and
it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him.”
So far as we are aware, all pre-millennial students regard this passage as a description
of the Antichrist. It pictures him as Satan’s parody of the Son of Man seated upon “the
throne of His glory.” It sets him forth as the priest-king. Just as in the Millennium the Lord
Jesus will “be a Priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13), so will the Antichrist combine in his
person the headships of both the civil and religious realms. He will be what the popes have
long aspired to be — head of the World-State, and head of the World-Church.
“And thou, O deadly wounded Wicked One, the Prince of Israel, whose day is come, in
the time of the iniquity of the end; thus saith the Lord: remove the mitre, and take off the
crown” (R. V.). This is clearly Israel’s last king, ere the King of kings and Lord of lords returns
to the earth. He is here termed “the Prince of Israel” as the true Christ is denominated
“Messiah the Prince” in Dan. 9:25. The description “O deadly wounded Wicked One” looks
forward to Rev. 13:12, where we read, “The first Beast whose deadly wound was healed!”
“Remove the mitre and take off the crown” point to his assumption of both priestly and
kingly honors. The Heb. word for “mitre” here is in every other passage used of the headdress
of
Israel’s
high
priest!
Finally,
the
statement
that
his
“day
is
come[hellip]in
the
time
of
iniquity
of
the
end”
establishes,
beyond
a
doubt,
the
identity
of
this
person.
In the opening verses of Ezek. 28 we have a striking view of the Man of Sin under the
title of “the Prince of Tyre,” just as what is said of “the King of Tyre” in the second half of
the chapter is an esoteric allusion to Satan. First, we are told his “heart is lifted up” (v. 2),
which is precisely what is said to his father, the Devil, in v. 17. Second, he makes the boast
“I am God” and “I sit in the seat of God” (v. 2), which is parallel with 2 Thess. 2:4. Third, it
is here said of him, “Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide
from thee” (v. 3), which intimates he will be endowed with superhuman wisdom by that
one of whom this same chapter declares, “Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom” (v. 12).
Fourth, it is said of him, “By thy wisdom and by thine understanding thou hast gotten thee
riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures” (v. 4). Thus will he be able to dazzle
the worshippers of Mammon by his Croseus-like wealth, and out-do Solomon in the glory
of his kingdom. Finally, his death by the sword is here noted, see vv. 7, 8.
104
4. Antichrist in Daniel
4. Antichrist in Daniel
4. Antichrist in Daniel
It is here that we find the fullest description of the Man of Sin. First, he is looked at
under the figure of “the little horn.” As there has been some dispute whether this expression
really applies to him, we propose to examine the more carefully what is here said of “the
little horn.” Personally, we have long been convinced that this expression refers to none
other than the Antichrist. There are a number of plain marks which make it comparatively
easy to recognize his person, whenever Scripture brings him before us. For example: his
insolent and blasphemous pride; his exalting himself against and above God; his impious
and cruel warfare against the people of God; his sudden, terrible, and supernatural end. Let
us compare these features with what is said of “the little horn” in Dan. 7 and 8.
We turn first to Dan. 7. In vv.7 and 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and
behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron
teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was
diverse from all the beasts which were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns,
and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three
of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes
of man, and a mouth speaking great things.” This refers to the rise of “the little horn” within
the bounds of the Roman Empire, for that is what is represented by the “fourth beast.” The
first thing said of the little horn is that he has eyes like the eyes of man, which speak of intelligence,
and
a
mouth
speaking
great
things

the
Heb.
word
signifies
“very
great,”
and
the
reference
is,
no
doubt,
to
his
lofty
pretensions
and
his
daring
blasphemies.
In 7:21 it is further said of him that he “made war with the saints, and prevailed against
them.” This contemplates his persecution of the godly Jews, and agrees perfectly with Rev.
13:7; “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them.” In
v. 25 we are told, “He shall speak great words against the Most High.” Surely this serves to
identify this “little horn” as the first beast of Rev. 13: “And there was given unto him a mouth
speaking great things and blasphemies” (v. 5). If further proof be needed, it is supplied by
the remainder of verse 25: “And shall wear out the saints of the Most High[hellip]and they
shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.” A “time” equals
a year (see Dan. 4:23 and Rev. 12:14, and cf. 12:6), so that a “time and times and the dividing
of time” would be three and one-half years during which the saints are given into his hand.
This corresponds exactly with Rev. 13:5, where of the first Beast, the Antichrist, it is said,
“And power was given unto him to continue forty and two months” — in a later chapter
we shall give a number of proofs to show that the first Beast of Rev. 13 is the Antichrist.
In Dan. 8 the Little Horn is before us again, and that it is the same dread personage as
in chapter 7 appears from what is predicted of him. First, he is referred to as “a king of fierce
countance” (8:23), which agrees with “whose look was more stout than his fellows” (7:20).
105
4. Antichrist in Daniel
Second, it is said of him that he “waxed exceeding great (first) towards the south, and (second)
towards the east, and (third) toward the pleasant land” (8:9), which agrees with “there came
up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked
up” (7:8). Third, it is said that he “shall destroy the mighty and the holy people” (8:24),
which agrees with “and the same horn made war with the saints and prevailed against them”
(7:21). There should, then, be no doubt whatever that the “little horn” of Dan. 7 and the
“little horn” of Dan. 8 refer to one and the same person. Their moral features coincide: both,
from an insignificant beginning, become great in the end: both persecute the people of God:
both are stricken down by direct interposition of God. We may add that Messrs. B. W.
Newton, James Inglis, G. H. Pember, Sir Robert Anderson, Drs. Tregilles, J. H. Brookes,
Haldeman, and a host of other devout scholars and students, take the same view, namely,
that the “little horn” of Dan. 7 and 8 and the Man of Sin is one and the same person.
Let us now consider briefly what is revealed concerning the Antichrist under this title
of his, the “little horn.” We confine ourself to Dan. 8:23-25.
First, he is “a king of fierce countenance.” This we believe is a literal description of his
facial expression, though we are satisfied that it also has a moral significance. In Deut. 28:50
we read of “a nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old nor
show favor to the young.” In the light of this scripture it seems clear that when the Antichrist
is denominated the “King of fierce countenance” the reference is not only to his actual features,

but that it also intimates he will be empowered to face the most perplexing and
frightful dangers and the most appalling scenes of horror without flinching or blanching.
It is significant that the reference in Deut. 28:50 is to the Romans, while what is said of the
Antichrist in Dan. 8:23 relates, specially, to his connections with Greece. The two dominant
characteristics of these Powers will be combined in the Man of Sin. There will be concentrated
in him the irresistible will of the Romans and the brilliant intellect of the Greeks.
Second, we are told that he shall be able to “understand dark sentences.” The Heb. noun
for “dark sentences” is used of Samson’s riddle (Judges 14:12, of the Queen of Sheba’s hard
questions (1 Kings 10:1), and of the dark sayings of the wise (Prov. 1:6), which are too profound
to
be
understood
by
the
simple.
This
characteristic
of
the
King
of
fierce
countance,
that
he
shall
be
able
to
“understand
dark
sentences,”
suggests
an
attempted
rivalry
of
Christ
as
the
Revealer
of
secret
things.
This
is
one
of
the
fascinations
by
which
the
Antichrist
will
dazzle
humanity.
He
will
present
himself
as
one
in
whom
are
hidden
treasures
of
wisdom
and
knowledge.
He
will
bewitch
the
world
by
his
solutions
of
the
enigmas
of
life,
and
most
probably
by
his
revelation
of
occult
powers
implanted
in
men
hitherto
unsuspected
by
most,
and
of
forces
and
secrets
of
nature
previously
undiscovered.
Third, it is said “And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power” (8:24). This
is explained in Rev. 13:2, where we are told, “And the Dragon gave him his power, and his
throne, and great authority.” Just as we read of the Lord Jesus, “The Father that dwelleth in
106
4. Antichrist in Daniel
Me, He doeth the works” (John 14:10), so shall the Son of Perdition perform his prodigies
by power from his father, the Devil. This is exactly what 2 Thess. 2:9 declares, “Whose
coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders.” Thus will
men be deceived by the miracles he performs.
Fourth, he will “destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy
the mighty and the holy people” (8:24). This has received enlargement in the previous
chapter, where we have given several illustrations from the Psalms of the Antichrist persecuting
Israel.
Fifth, “And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (8:25).
The Heb. word for “policy” denotes wisdom and understanding. It was the word used by
David to Solomon, when he said, “Only the Lord give thee wisdom” (1 Chron. 22:12), as it
is also employed by Huram when writing to Solomon: “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel,
that made heaven and earth, who hath given to David the king a wise son, endued with
prudence” (2 Chron. 2:12). The Heb. word for “craft” — “He shall cause craft to prosper”
— is the one employed by Isaac when speaking to Esau concerning Jacob: “Thy brother
came with subtilty” (Gen. 27:35). It has in view the chicanery and treacherous methods the
Antichrist will employ. “By peace shall destroy many” (v. 25) refers to the fact that he will
pose as the Prince of peace, and after gaining men’s confidence — particularly that of the
Jews — will take advantage of this to spring his bloody schemes upon them.
Sixth, it is said “He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes” (8:25). This unmistakably
identifies
him
with
the
Beast
of
Rev.
19:19,
where
we
are
told,
“And
I
saw
the
Beast,
and

the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against Him
that sat on the horse, and against His army.”
Seventh, “But he shall be broken without hand” (8:25). This expression means that he
shall come to his doom without human intervention or instrumentality — see Dan. 2:45; 2
Cor. 5:1, etc. That the King of fierce countenance shall be broken without hand refers to his
destruction by the Lord Himself — “And He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth,
and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked” (Is. 11:4).
We turn now to Dan. 9:26, 27. This forms a part of the celebrated prophecy of the seventy
“weeks” or hebdomads. We cannot now attempt an exposition of the whole prophecy: sufficient

to point out its principal divisions and examine that part of it which bears on our
present theme.
The prophecy begins with v. 24 and concerns the seventy hebdomads, a word signifying
“sevens.” Each “hebdomad” equals seven years, so that a period of 490 years in all is here
comprehended. These seventy “sevens” are divided into three portions: First, seven “sevens”
which concerned the re-building of Jerusalem, following the Babylonian captivity. Second,
sixty-two “sevens” unto “Messiah the Prince,” that is, unto the time when He formally
presented Himself to Israel as their King: this receiving its fulfillment in the so-called “Tri-
107
4. Antichrist in Daniel
umphal Entrance into Jerusalem.” Third, the last “seven” which is severed from the others.
It should be carefully noted that we are expressly told that “after threescore and two weeks
(which added to the preceding seven would make sixty-nine in all up to this point) shall
Messiah be cut off.” The reference is to the Cross when Christ was cut off from Israel and
from the land of the living. This occurred after the sixty-ninth week before the seventieth
began.
The sixty-ninth terminated with the formal presentation of Christ to Israel as their
“Prince.” This is described by Matthew (the distinctively Jewish Gospel) in chapter 21. The
rejection of their Prince caused the break between Christ and Israel. It is very striking to
note that (following the rejection) Matthew records three distinct proofs or evidences of
this break. The first is found in Matt. 21:19 in the cursing of the “fig tree,” which signified
the rejection of the Nation. The second was His sorrowful announcement from the brow
of Olivet that the time of Israel’s visitation was past and her overthrow now certain (Matt.
23:37 and cf. Luke 19:41-44). This was the abandonment of the City. The third was His
solemn pronouncement concerning the Temple: “Behold your House is left unto you desolate.
For I say unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh
in the name of the Lord” (Matt. 23:38, 39). This was the giving up of the Sanctuary.
The entire Christian dispensation (which began with the crucifixion of Christ) is passed
by unnoticed in this prophecy of the “seventy weeks.” It comes in, parenthetically, between
the sixty-ninth and the seventieth. What follows in Dan. 9:26, 27 concerns what will happen
after the Christian dispensation is ended when God again takes up Israel and accomplishes
His purpose concerning them. This purpose will be accomplished by means of sore judgment
which will be God’s answer to Israel’s rejection of His Son. But let us examine more closely
the form this judgment will take.
The judgment of God upon the people who were primarily responsible for the cutting
off of their Messiah was to issue in the destruction of their city and sanctuary (9:26). This
destruction was to be brought about by the people of a Prince who should subsequently
appear, and be himself destroyed. The Prince here is the Antichrist, but the Antichrist connected
with
and
at
the
head
of
the
Roman
Empire
in
its
final
form.
1
Now we know that it
in A. D. 70, but that “the Prince” here does not refer to the one who then headed the Roman
armies is clear from the fact that Dan. 9:27 informs us this Prince is to play his part in the
yet future seventieth week — further proof is furnished in that v. 26 carries us to the end
(i.e. of Israel’s desolations) which is to be marked by a “flood,” and Isa. 28:14, 15 intimates
that this is to be after Israel’s covenant with Antichrist: “Wherefore hear the word of the
Lord, ye scornful men, that rule this people which was in Jerusalem. Because ye have said,
1 It is the Man of Sin who is to be the last great Caesar: this will be made clear in our study of the Antichrist
in the Revelation.
108
4. Antichrist in Daniel
We have made a covenant with Death, and with Hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing
scourge
shall
pass
through
it,
it
shall
not
come
unto
us:
for
we
have
made
lies
our
refuge,
and
under
falsehood
have
we
hid
ourselves.”
To
this

God replies, “Your covenant
with Death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell shall not stand; when the
overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it” (v. 18). The
“overflowing scourge” is, literally, “the scourge coming in like a flood.”
A few words remain to be said on 9:27: “And he shall confirm the covenant with many
for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to
cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the
consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” The subject of this
verse is the Antichrist, “the Prince that shall come” of the previous verse. By the time he
appears on the scene large numbers of Jews will have been carried back to their land (cf. Isa.
18). With them the Prince makes a covenant, as of old Jehovah made one with Abraham,
and as Christ will yet do with Israel, see Jer. 31. This will be regarded by God with indignation,
as a covenant with Death, and an agreement with Sheol. But while this covenant is accepted
by the majority of the Jews, God will again reserve to Himself a remnant who will refuse to
bow the knee to Baal: hence the qualification, “He shall confirm the covenant with many,”
not all.
“In the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.” The returned
Jews
will
rebuild
their
temple
and
there
offer
sacrifices.
But
these,
so
far
from
being
acceptable
to
God,
will
be
an
offense.
There
seems
a
clear
reference
to
this
in
the
opening
verses
of
Isa.
66,
which
describe
conditions
just
before
the
Lord’s
appearing
(see
v.
15).
And
here
the
Lord
says,
“He
that
killeth
an
ox
is
as
if
he
slew
a
man;
he
that
sacrificeth
a
lamb,
as
if
he
cut
off
a
dog’s
neck,”
etc.
(v.
3).
But
three
and
a
half
years
before
the
end,
the
Prince
will
issue
a
decree
demanding
that
the
sacrifices
must
cease,
and
the
worship
of
Jehovah
be
transferred

to himself, for it is at this point he shall “exalt himself above all that is called
God, or that is worshipped” (2 Thess. 2:4). The fact that we are here told that he causes the
sacrifices and the oblation to cease, at once identifies this Prince of the Romans as the Antichrist

cf.
8:11.
The
remaining
portion
of
9:27
will be considered when we come to Matt.
24:15.
We turn now to Dan. 11, which is undoubtedly the most difficult chapter in the book.
It contains a prophecy which is remarkable for its fulness of details. Much of it has already
received a most striking fulfillment, but like other prophecies, we are fully satisfied that this
one yet awaits its final accomplishment. That Dan. 11 treats of the Antichrist all pre-millennial
students
are
agreed,
but
as
to
how
much
of
it
refers
to
him
there
is
considerable
difference
of
opinion.
A
small
minority,
from
whom
we
must
dissent,
confine
the
first
thirty-five
verses
to
the
past.
Others
make
the
division
in
the
middle
of
the
chapter
and
regard
all
from
v.
21
onwards
as
a
description
of
the
Man
of
Sin,
and
with
them
the
writer
is
in
hearty
accord.
A
109
4. Antichrist in Daniel
few consider the entire chapter, after v. 2, as containing a prediction of the Antichrist under
the title of “The King of the North,” and while we are not prepared to unreservedly endorse
this, yet it is fully allowed that there is not a little to be said in its favor.
We shall here confine ourself to the second half of Dan. 11. Our present limits of space,
however, will permit of nothing more than brief notes upon it. Commencing at v. 31 we
read, “And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” The
history of this “vile person” is here divided into three parts: first, the means by which he
obtains the kingdom: vv. 21, 22; second, the interval which elapses between the time when
he makes a covenant with Israel, the taking away of the daily sacrifice and the setting up of
the abomination of desolation: vv. 23-31; third, the brief season when he comes out in his
true colors and enters upon his career of open defiance of God, reaching on to his destruction:
vv. 32-45. Thus from v. 21 to the end of the chapter we have a continuous history of the
Antichrist.
“In his estate shall stand up a vile person[hellip]he shall come in peaceably, and obtain
the kingdom by flatteries.” This epithet “the vile person” is a manifest antitheses from “the
Holy One of God.” This twenty-first verse takes notice of the Man of Sin posing as the Prince
of peace. He shall achieve what his antitype, Absalom, tried but failed to do — “Obtain the
kingdom by flatteries.”
“And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be
broken; yea, also the Prince of the Covenant” (v. 22). This Vile Person is denominated “the
Prince of the Covenant,” which, at once, identifies him with the Prince of 9:26, 27. Then we
are told in v.23 “And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall
come up, and shall become strong with a small people.” This “league” or “covenant” is
doubtless the seven-years-treaty confirmed with Israel, which is made at an early point in
the Antichrist’s career, and which corresponds with the fact that at the first he appears as a
“little horn,” the “small people” being the Syrians — cf. our remarks on Dan. 8:8, 9 in chapter
six.
Vv. 25 and 26 describe his victory over the king of Egypt. Then, in v. 28 we read, “Then
shall he return into his land with great riches.” His land is Assyria. The mention of great
riches corresponds with what we are told of the Antichrist in Psa. 52:7; Ezek. 28:4, etc.
“And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength and
shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.”
This is clear evidence that these verses are treating of that which takes place during the
seventieth week. The mention of polluting the Sanctuary is an unmistakable reference to
“the abomination of desolation,” i.e. the setting up of an idol to the Antichrist in the Temple.
Note the repeated use of the plural pronoun in this verse; the “they” refer to the Antichrist
110
4. Antichrist in Daniel
and the False Prophet, cf. Rev. 13. It is significant that in the next verse (v. 32) there is an
allusion made to the faithful remnant — “The people that do know their God.”
“And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(v. 36). That “the King” here is the “Vile Person” is not only indicated by the absence of any
break in the prophecy, as also by the connecting “and” with which the verse opens, but is
definitely established by the fact that in v. 27 (note context) the Vile Person is expressly
termed a “king!” The contents of this thirty-sixth verse clearly connects “the king” with the
Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4, and also as definitely identifies him with the “little horn” —
cf. 7:23 and 8:25. The remaining verses of Dan. 11 have been before us in previous chapters
and need not detain us now.
111
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
Here a wide field of study is opened, but we must content ourself with but a few selections
and brief comments on them. Hosea makes several references to the Man of Sin. In 8:10 he
is termed “the King of princes,” as such he is Satan’s imitation of the King of kings. In 10:15
he is named “the King of Israel,” which shows his connection with the Jews. In 12:7 he is
called a “Merchant” or Trafficker, and of him it is said, “The balances of deceit are in his
hands: he loveth to oppress,” with this should be compared Rev. 6:5. These words denote
his twofold character in connection with the Jews: first he makes them believe he is the true
Christ; second, he ultimately stands forth as their great Enemy.
Joel alludes to him as the head of the “northern army,” i.e. the Assyrian. And here God
declares that He will “drive him into a land barren and desolate, with his face toward the
east sea; and his stink shall come up, and his ill savor shall come up, because he has magnified
to do great things” (2:20).
Amos speaks of him as “an Adversary” which shall be “even round about the land; and
he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy palaces shall be spoiled” (3:11). That
this is referring to the End-time is clear from the verses that follow, where we read, “That
in the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him,” etc. (v. 14).
Micah terms him “the Assyrian,” and of him it is said, when he “shall come into our
land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds,
and eight principal men[hellip]thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian” (5:5, 6).
Nahum has this to say of him: “There is one come out of thee, that imagineth evil against
the Lord, a wicked counseller. Thus saith the Lord; Though they be quiet, and likewise many,
yet thus shall they be cut down, when he shall pass through. Though I have afflicted thee, I
will afflict thee no more[hellip]for the Wicked shall no more pass through thee” (1:11, 12,
15). These verses contain another of the many antitheses between Christ and the Antichrist.
The One is the “Wonderful Counseller” (Isa. 9:6); the other, the “Wicked Counseller.”
Habakkuk describes him as one whose “soul is lifted up” and “is not upright in him,”
and as one who “transgresseth by wine,” as “a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who
enlargeth his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him
all nations, and heapeth unto him all people” (2:4, 5).
Zechariah denominates him “the Idol Shepherd that leaveth the flock,” and then pronounces
judgment
upon
him

“The
sword
shall
be
upon
his
arm,
and
upon
his
right
eye”
(11:17).
112
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
The Old and New Testaments have many things in common — far more than some
teachers of “dispensational” truth seem to be aware of — but there are also some noticeable
contrasts between them. Speaking generally, the one is principally prophetic; the other
mainly didactic. There is far more said in the former about the future of Israel than there is
in the latter. Much more space in the Old Testament than in the New is devoted to describing
the conditions which shall obtain in the Tribulation period. And far more was revealed
through the prophets about the Antichrist than was made known through the apostles. It
is in full keeping with this that we find there is one book in the New Testament which is a
noticeable exception, and that is the one which is peculiarly prophetic in its character and
contents, namely, the Revelation. There, perhaps, more is told us concerning the person
and career of the Man of Sin than in all the rest of the New Testament put together.
The passages which refer directly to the Antichrist in the four Gospels are few in number;
but in addition to these there are several indirect references to him, and these call for a more
careful examination because of their apparent obscurity. The writer believes there may be
other passages in the Gospels treating of the Man of Sin in his varied relations, and which
contain an esoteric view of him, but which the Holy Spirit has not yet been pleased to reveal
unto students of prophecy. Let not the reader then regard this chapter as in any-wise a
complete or exhaustive treatment of the subject, rather let its brief hints bestir him to make
prayerful and patient examination for himself.
The Antichrist receives an even more scant notice in the Epistles than he does in the
four Gospels. So far as we have been able to discover he is alluded to only in 2 Thess. 2 and
in John’s Epistles. The reason for this is not difficult to discover. The Epistles concern those
who are members of the Body of Christ, and by the time the Antichrist appears upon the
stage of human history, they shall be far above these scenes — with their blessed Lord in
the Father’s House. Nevertheless, “all Scripture” is profitable for our instruction and necessary
for our enlightenment. God has been pleased to reveal much concerning those things which
must shortly come to pass, and it may be that they who now ignore or neglect the study of
the prophetical portions of Scripture will be overtaken by surprise when, in a coming day,
they shall behold with wonder the fulfillment of prophecy; and possibly this surprise (due
to culpable ignorance) is included in what the apostle refers to when he speaks of not being
“ashamed before Him at His coming” (1 John 2:28). Certainly it is our duty as well as privilege
to examine diligently all that God has been pleased to make known in His Word.
1. Passing by the typical teaching of Matt. 2, which will come before us in a later chapter,
we turn first to Matt. 12 which is one of the most important chapters in that book, supplying
as it does one of the principal keys to its dispensational interpretation. In it is recorded the
first great break between the Jews and Christ, which eventually terminated in their crucifying
113
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Him. In v. 14 we read, “Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against Him, how
they might destroy Him.” This is the first time we read of anything like this in Matthew’s
Gospel. Following this we read, “Then was brought unto Him one possessed with a demon,
blind, and dumb; and He healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and
saw” (v. 22). Up to that time this was by far the most remarkable miracle our Lord had
performed. Its effect upon those who witnessed it was general and deep — “And all the
people were amazed, and said, Is not this the Son of David?” (v. 23). It must be the longpromised
Messiah
who
now
stood
in
their
midst.
But
the
Pharisees
were
blinded
by
their
hatred
of
Him,
and
committed
the
sin
for
which
there
is
no
forgiveness:
“This
fellow
doth
not
cast
out
demons,
but
by
Beelzebub
the
prince
of
the
demons”
(v.
24).
Then,
following
His
reply
to
their
awful
blasphemy
and
terming
them
“a
generation
of
vipers”
(v.
34),
our
Lord
uttered
a
prophetic
parable
which
bears
directly
on
our
present
theme:
“When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking
rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out;
and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh
with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there:
and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked
generation” (vv. 43-45). The first thing to note concerning this mysterious and remarkable
passage is its setting. This, as we have sought to indicate above, has to do with Christ’s solemn
pronouncement on those who had determined to destroy Him, and who were guilty of the
unpardonable sin. In it He declares the judgment which God shall yet send upon apostate
Israel.
Our next concern is to ascertain the meaning of this parabolic utterance. The central
figure is “The unclean spirit.” This unclean spirit is viewed here in three connections: first,
as indwelling a man; second, as going out of the man; third, as returning to the man and
indwelling him again. In v. 44 the man is termed by the unclean spirit “my house.” This
man unquestionably represents Israel, for at the close of the parable Christ says, “Even so
shall it be also unto this wicked generation.” Who, then, is referred to by “the unclean spirit?”
We believe that it is the Son of Perdition. The following reasons lead us to this conclusion:
First, mark attentively the use of the definite article: it is not simply an unclean spirit, but
the unclean spirit. Second, note his threefold relation to Israel. At the time the Saviour
uttered these words the Son of Perdition was then present in Israel’s midst. But a little later
he was no longer so. When he hanged himself he passed out of these scenes into the next
world; as Acts 1:25 compared with Rev. 11:7 tells us, into the Pit. His present state in the
Abyss is graphically and solemnly depicted — “He walketh through dry places, seeking rest,
and findeth none” (v. 43). Then, he says, “I will return into my house from whence I came
out.” This, we are satisfied, refers to the reincarnation of the Son of Perdition, when he appears
on
earth
for
the
last
time
as
the
Man
of
Sin.
Then,
in
a
special
sense,
will
Israel
be
his
114
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
“house.” A third reason why we believe “The Unclean Spirit” is the Son of Perdition is furnished
by
Zech.
13:2
— “And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord of hosts, that
I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered:
and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.” Clearly this
verse speaks of the End-time. What follows is very striking. Vv. 3 and 4 concern the
prophets who shall prophesy falsely. But in v. 5 there is a noticeable change from the plural
to the singular number: “But he shall say, I am no prophet,” etc. The only antecedent to this
pronoun is “The Unclean Spirit” of v. 2, which here in v. 5 is shown to be no mere abstraction
but a definite person. And then in v. 6 the question is asked, “What are these wounds in
thine hands?” We believe this intimates that God will even permit the Man of Sin to imitate
the Saviour to the extent that he will appear with wounds in his hands: thus will he be the
better able to pose as the true Christ.
When the Son of Perdition returns to Israel, he finds his house “empty, swept, and
garnished.” This depicts the moral and spiritual state of the Jews at the time the Antichrist
is manifested. Though clean from the horrible idolatries which defiled them of old, and
though adorned with all that temporal prosperity will bring them, Israel, nevertheless, will
be devoid of the Shekinah-glory, and have no Holy Spirit indwelling them. Next, we are
told, “Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself,
and they enter in and dwell there.” We believe that this has a double meaning. One plus
seven equals eight and in Scripture eight signifies a new beginning. This is in keeping with
the re-incarnation of the Son of Perdition. But we think there is also a reference here to
Satan’s blasphemous imitation of what we are told in Rev. 5:6, where we read of the Lamb
having seven eyes, which are “the seven spirits of God.” Just as the Christ of God will come
back to earth endued with the Spirit of God in the sevenfold plentitude of His power, so will
the Antichrist present himself to Israel in the sevenfold fulness of satanic power and uncleanness.
Then,
indeed,
shall
Israel’s
last
state
be
worse
than
their
first

i.e.
when
they
rejected
Christ
in
the
days
of
Judas.
2. We turn now to Matt. 24, which contains a lengthy forecast concerning the end of
this Age. Here we find our Lord describing the conditions which shall obtain during the
Tribulation period. Christ announces with considerable detail those things which are to
precede His own return to the earth. The whole chapter sets forth the Master’s answers to
three questions asked by His disciples, namely, as to when the Temple was to be destroyed,
what was to be the sign of His coming, and of the end of the Age (see v.3). A similar, but by
no means identical prophecy, is to be found in Luke 21. The main difference between them
being that Luke 21 treats of conditions which obtained prior to the destruction of Jerusalem
in A. D. 70 — it is not until v. 25 that the Tribulation period is reached; whereas the whole
of Matt. 24 is yet future.
115
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
It is striking to note that our Lord begins His prophecy by saying; “Take heed that no
man deceive you, for many shall come in My name, saying I am Christ; and shall deceive
many” (vv.4, 5). The significance of this appears by comparing v. 11, “And many false
prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many.” These false christs and false prophets are to
head up in the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who will be the arch-deceivers. When we
reach v. 15 a clear allusion is made to the Man of Sin: “When ye therefore shall see the abomination
of
desolation,
spoken
of
by
Daniel
the
prophet,
stand
in
the
holy
place,
whoso
readeth,
let
him
understand.”
This
reference
of
Christ
to
“the
abomination
of
desolation”
which
is
to
“stand
in
the
holy
place,”
looks
back
to
Dan.
12:11:
“And
from
the
time
that
the
daily
sacrifice
shall
be
taken
away,
and
the
abomination
that
maketh
desolate
set
up,
there
shall

be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.” This, in turn, carries us back to Dan.
9:27: “And in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,
and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate.” With these verses
should be compared Rev. 13:11-15, where we are told that the False Prophet who shall perform
great
wonders,
will
command
men
that
“they
should
make
an
image
to
the
beast.”
The
False
Prophet
will
have
“power
to
give
life
unto
the
image
of
the
beast,
that
the
image
of
the
beast
should
both
speak,
and
cause
that
as
many
as
would
not
worship
the
beast
should
be
killed.”
By
linking
these
scriptures
together
the
following
facts
are
brought
out:
First, an “image” is going to be made to the Antichrist (Rev. 13:15). Second, this “image”
will “stand in the holy place” (Matt. 24:15), that is, in the re-built Temple at Jerusalem.
Third, this “image” will possess supernatural power, for it shall be able to “speak” (Rev.
13:15). Fourth, this “image” unto the beast shall be an object of worship, and those who refuse
to worship it shall be killed (Rev. 13:14, 15). Fifth, this “image” is termed “abomination of
desolation.” The term “abomination” is an Old Testament expression connected with idolatry,
and signifies some special idol or false god (see Deut. 7:26; 1 Kings 11:5-7). Sixth, this “abomination”
or
idol-god
will
be
set
up
during
the
middle
of
Daniel’s
seventieth
week,
or
three
and

one half years from the end of Antichrist’s career. This is clear from Dan. 12:11 and
9:27. The taking away of “the daily sacrifice” occurs when the Antichrist throws off his mask
and stands forth as the Defier of heaven. In the re-built Temple of the Jews sacrifices shall
once more be offered by them to God. These their King suffers, while he is posing as the
Christ. But when he drops his religious pretensions and defies heaven as well as earth, the
“sacrifices” will be taken away, and in their place worship to an image of himself will be
substituted. Seventh, the setting up of this “image” to the Antichrist will, most probably, be
attended with supernatural phenomenon. We gather this from Dan. 9:27, where we read,
“And he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations

he shall make it desolate.” Now the word here translated “overspreading” is
never so rendered elsewhere. Seventy times is this word translated “wing” or “wings.” It is
the word used of the wings of the cherubim in Ex. 25:20 and Ezek. 10:5, etc. And in Psa.
116
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
18:10 we read of Jehovah that “He rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, He did fly upon the
wings of the wind.”
One profound Hebrew scholar has rendered the last clause of Dan. 9:27 as follows, “And
upon the wing of abominations he shall come desolating.” Remembering that “abomination”
has reference to an idol or false god, the force would then be “upon the wing of a false god
shall he come desolating.” Now in view of Psa. 18:10 it is highly probable that Dan. 9:27
refers to a satanic imitation of the Chariot of the Cherubim. This is strengthened by 1 Cor.
10:20 — “The things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to God”
— which shows the demoniacal nature of the “idols” or “abominations” worshipped. If this
view be correct, then the Antichrist will be supernaturally borne aloft (in invisible demons),
and apparently descending from on high (in blasphemous mimicry of Mal. 3:1) will finally
persuade the world to worship him as God. The apostate Jews will, no doubt, believe that
their eyes at last behold the long-awaited sign from heaven, and the return of the Glory to
the Temple. For it is thither the false christ will be borne, and there his image set up. We
believe that the words of 2 Thess. 2:4, “He as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that HE IS GOD” may, most likely, have reference to this same event.
Coming back now to the words of Christ, Matt. 24:15 will, we trust, be much more intelligible.

What our Lord there said was designed specially for the godly Jewish remnant
who will be in Palestine during the Tribulation period. When the “abomination of desolation”
is set up in the holy place, whoso readeth should “understand.” How wondrously this agrees
with other scriptures, and what a value it places upon the written Word! No supernatural
revelation will be granted — these all ceased when the Cannon of Scripture closed. Then,
as now, “understanding” is made dependent upon the reading of what God has revealed.
What, then, is it that those godly Jews should “understand?” Why, that a crisis has been
reached. That the Antichrist now stands fully revealed for the impious impostor that he is.
And now that his career is clearly manifested, let them beware. Let them turn to Rev. 13:14,
15, and they will discover that death awaits them should they tarry any longer in Jerusalem.
Therefore, says Christ, “Let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains: let him that is
on the housetop not come down to take anything out of his house[hellip]for then shall be
great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever
shall be” (Matt. 24:16-21). How marvelously one scripture throws light on another! How
clearly does Rev. 13:14, 15 explain the need for this hurried flight of the faithful remnant!
There is one other reference to the Antichrist in this 24th chapter of Matthew, namely,
in vv. 23-26: “Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.
For there shall arise false christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders;
insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you
before. Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold,
he is in the secret chamber; believe it not.” The reference to the “great signs and wonders”
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
is explained, at least in part, in Rev. 13. We have already seen that the False Prophet will
have power to give “life” or “breath” unto the image of the Beast, so that the image shall
speak (v. 15). In addition, it is recorded how that “He doeth great wonders, so that he maketh
fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell
on the earth by those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast” (vv. 13,
14).
We had hoped to be able to say something further on the “secret chambers” of Matt.
24:26, but in the absence of any clear light from other scriptures, we refrain from speculations
of our own. It seems plain, however, that the reference is to the occult powers and activities
of the Wicked One, who ever loveth darkness rather than light.
3. Our next passage will be the first eight verses of Luke 18, where in a parable the Lord
gives us another view of the Antichrist: “And He spake a parable unto them, that men ought
always to pray, and not to faint; Saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God,
neither regarded man: And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying,
Avenge me of mine adversary. And he would not for awhile: but afterward he said within
himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; yet because this woman troubleth me, I
will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. And the Lord said, Hear what
the unjust judge saith. And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night
unto Him, though He bear long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily.
Nevertheless when the Son of Man cometh, shall He find faith on the earth?”
Like many of Christ’s parables, this one is plainly prophetic in its character. It looks
forward to a coming day: it treats of conditions which are to obtain during the Tribulation
period. This is easily seen from the context. Luke 18 opens with the word “and,” and the
last eighteen verses of the previous chapter, with which the 18th is thus connected, treat of
those things which are to immediately precede the establishing of the Messiah’s Kingdom
— note particularly v. 26. So, too, the closing words of the parable now before us read,
“When the Son of Man cometh shall He find faith on the earth?”
Having thus pointed out the time when this prophetic parable is to receive its fulfillment,
our next concern is to ascertain the significance of its terms. The parable revolves around
a “widow” and an “unjust judge.” Once we discover who are represented by these, everything
will be simple. Our task ought not to be difficult seeing that we have already learned the
time when these characters are to appear.
The “widow” in Scripture is ever the figure of desolation, loneliness, weakness. Dispensationally,
Israel
is the widow, spiritually dead as she now is to her Divine Husband. Here in
the parable of Luke 18 it is the new Israel, the “Israel of God,” the faithful remnant, which
is in view. To quote one scripture is sufficient to establish this: “Fear not; for thou shalt not
be ashamed: neither be thou confounded; for thou shalt not be put to shame: for thou shalt
forget the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
more. For thy Maker is thine Husband; the Lord of Hosts is His name; and thy Redeemer
the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth shall He be called. For the Lord hath
called thee as a widow forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast
refused, saith thy God. For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercy will
I gather thee” (Isa. 54:4-7). These are the words which Christ will speak to the remnant right
at the beginning of the Millennium, after they have made Isa. 53 their own repentant confession.
In the chapter on the Antichrist in the Psalms attention was repeatedly directed to passages

which treat of the condition of the godly Jewish remnant during the Tribulation
period. We saw that their lot is to be a bitter one. Severe will be their testings; terrible their
sufferings. Not the least painful of their experiences will be the fierce opposition of their
unbelieving brethren. Just as the worst enemies of the Saviour were found among His
brethren according to the flesh, and just as the most relentless persecutors of the saints
during this dispensation have been those who professed to be the followers of Christ, so the
most merciless foes of the Jewish remnant will be the unbelieving portion of their own nation.
These, too, are noticed in our parable: they are the “adversary” against which the “widow”
appeals to the “Judge” — “Avenge me of mine adversary” is her plea.
In the light of what has been said above it is easy to discover who is represented by the
one to whom the “widow” appeals — appeals no doubt some little time before the end of
the Tribulation period is reached. Clearly it is the Antichrist himself, and what is here said
of him establishes this beyond a reasonable doubt. First, he is termed “a Judge,” so that he
is viewed as being in the position of authority: we may add, it is the same word as rendered
“Judge” in James 5:9 which speaks of the Lord Jesus. Second, he is represented as being
located in a certain “city”: whether this is Jerusalem or Babylon, we cannot say; but we rather
think it is the latter. In the third place, it is said of this Judge that he “feared not God, neither
regarded man.” We need not tarry to point out how fully this accords with what is elsewhere
said of the Man of Sin. Godlessness and lawlessness are the two most prominent elements
in his character. In the fourth place, the Lord specifically terms him “the unjust Judge” (v.
6). The word signifies “unrighteousness.” This word points an antithesis between him and
the true Christ who shall reign in righteousness. In the fifth place, his callousness is noted
in the words, “and he would not for awhile” (v. 4). The Greek verb of v. 3 signifies that the
widow came to this “Judge” again and again. But in his hard-heartedness he repeatedly
turned a deaf ear to her entreaties. Such will be the brutal indifference of the Antichrist to
the sufferings of the faithful Jews. In the sixth place, his untruthfulness and treachery are
clearly implied. In v. 5 this unjust Judge is represented as saying, “Because this widow
troubleth me, I will avenge her,” etc.; but that he fails to keep his word is clear from what
we read in the seventh verse — “Shall not God avenge His own elect?” etc. The Antichrist
does not avenge him, but God will. Finally, his doom is hinted at in the words last quoted.
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
When God “avenges” the elect remnant the Antichrist will be destroyed together with those
of his followers who had persecuted them.
There is only one difficulty in the way of the above interpretation and that is the appeal
of the Jewish remnant to the Antichrist. Can it be possible that they should seek help from
him! But is there any real difficulty in this? Let us consult our own experience for answer.
How often, in the hour of trial, do we turn to the arm of flesh for relief! Even the Apostle
Paul appealed to Caesar! But lest this be thought an invention of ours to meet a pertinent
objections against the interpretation advanced above, note carefully the wording of the
seventh verse: “And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night unto Him,
though He bear long with them?” Do not the words “bear long with them” intimate that
though they had cried unto God day and night, yet they had also sought help from some
one else. Even clearer is the testimony of Isa. 10:20 — “And it shall come to pass in that day
that the remnant of Israel and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again
stay upon him that smote them; but shall upon the Lord!”
4. “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if another shall come in his
own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). This scripture has already been before us (see
chapter three I:5) so it need not detain us long. It speaks of the Antichrist in connection
with unbelieving Israel. It draws a double contrast between the Son of god and the Son of
Perdition. The Christ of God, in lowly condescension, came not in His own name, but in
that of His Father — in perfect subjection; but the christ of Satan, in lofty arrogance, shall
come in his own name. This will at once appeal to the corrupt hearts of fallen men. The very
meekness of the Lord Jesus was an offense to the Jews; but the pride and egotism of the Man
of Sin will make him acceptable to them. By the apostate Nation Christ was not received.
As we read in this same Gospel, “He came unto His own, and His own received Him not”
(1:11). But the Antichrist shall be welcomed by them — “him ye will receive,” says the Lord.
They will receive him as their long-expected Messiah. They will receive him as their king.
They will receive him as the promised Deliverer. His yoke will be accepted. Divine honors
will be paid him. But bitterly will they rue it; and terrible will be God’s judgment upon them.
5. “Ye are of your father the Devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a
murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.
When he speaketh the Lie, he speaketh of his own (son): for he is a liar, and the father of it”
(John 8:44). The Greek word for “lie” is “pseudos.” It occurs in the New Testament just nine
times — the number of judgment. I always has reference to that which is opposed to the
truth. It is a fit appellation for the Antichrist, who is the son of him who is the Arch-liar,
the Devil. The Christ of God is “The Truth;” the christ of Satan, “The Lie.” That this is one
of the many names of the Man of Sin is clear from 2 Thess. 2. There we are told that his
coming is “after the working of Satan will all power and signs and lying wonders and with
all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
of the truth, that they might be saved.” Then we are told, “And for this cause God shall send
them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (cf. chapter three, v.11).
Upon John 8:44 we cannot do better than quote from Sir Robert Anderson: “To speak
a lie” is not English. In our language the proper expression is “to tell a lie.” But no one would
so render the Greek words here. It is not the false in the abstract which is in view, but a
concrete instance of it. And thus the connection is clear between Satan the liar and Satan
the murderer. He is not the instigator of all murders, but of the murder, there and then in
question, the murder of the Christ; he is not the father of lies, but the father of the Lie. In 2
Thess. 2:11 it is again the Lie of John 8:44. God does not incite men to tell lies or to believe
lies. But of those who reject the truth, it is written, “He shall send them strong delusion that
they should believe the Lie. Because they have rejected the Christ of God, a judicial blindness
shall fall upon them that they should accept the Christ of humanity, who will be Satan incarnate”
(The
Silence
of
God).
6. “While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Thy name: those that Thou gavest
Me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the Son of Perdition; that the Scripture might
be fulfilled” (John 17:5). That our Lord was referring to the Antichrist is unequivocally established
by
2
Thess.
2:3,
where
the
Man
of
Sin
is
denominated
“the
Son
of
Perdition.”
That
Judas,
here
termed
the
Son
of
Perdition,
was
more
than
a
man
is
clear
from
John
6:70
where
we read, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a Devil?” In no other passage is
the word “Diabolos” applied to anyone but Satan himself. Just as the Lord Jesus was God
incarnate, so will Judas be the Devil incarnate; and, as we have shown in chapter three (third
main section) Judas will be re-incarnated in the Antichrist.
Perhaps one other should be said on John 17:12 before we pass from it. Some have
thought that this verse weakens the doctrine of the absolute security of the saints, but in act
it does nothing of the kind. Notice Christ did not say, “Those that Thou gavest Me I have
kept, and none of them is lost except the Son of Perdition,” instead, He said, “None of them
is lost but the Son of Perdition.” The word “but” is used adversatively, not exceptively; that
is to say, Judas is here opposed to those that were given to Christ (for other scriptures with
a similar construction see Matt. 12:4, Acts 27:22, Rev. 21:27). This interpretation is unequivocally
established
by
John
18:9
— “Of them which Thou gavest Me have I lost none.”
7. 2 Thess. 2 contains the chief passage in the Epistles concerning the Antichrist. Here
he is denominated “that Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition” (v. 3). It is solemnly true that all
men are sinners (Rom. 3:23), but the Antichrist will be more than a sinner, he will be the
Man of Sin. As such he will be the direct opposite of Christ, who was the Holy One of God.
Sin in all its terrible satanic treachery, daring blasphemy, and tremendous appeal to the
corrupt hearts of men, will be consummated in this frightful monster. For fuller notes on
the force of these titles we again refer the reader to chapter three.
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Concerning the Man of Sin it is said, “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that
is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that he is God” (v. 4). Here he reaches the climax of his frightful blasphemy. He will
assume Divine honors, and under pain of death (Rev. 13:15) will demand the worship of
all. In vindication of his impious claims he will compel men to regard his mandates as
transcending all laws and customs, whether of human or Divine origin (Dan. 7:25). For a
season the Almighty will suffer his satanic impiety, the Hinderer having been taken out of
the way (v. 7). No lightning flash will strike down his blasted form to the dust. The earth
will not open her mouth to swallow him up alive. The Angel of the Lord, who smote Herod
with death for a much milder blasphemy, will restrain His hand from the hilt of the sword.
For a season Heaven will remain silent while this haughty rebel is doing according to his
will. But at the appointed hour “the Lord shall consume (him) with the spirit of His mouth,
and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (v. 8).
“Even him whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (v. 9). The Antichrist will be the culmination and consummation of Satan’s craft
and genius. He will be endowed with superhuman energy so that he shall perform miracles
which will be no mere pretenses, but prodigies of power. By means of these miracles and
signs he will deceive the entire world. No doubt he will mock the miracles of Christ, as of
old Jannes and Jambres duplicated the miracles of Moses. His marvelous deeds will reach
their climax in his own resurrection from the dead.
8. “Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). For our comments on the significance of this name
“the Antichrist” we refer our readers to the fourth chapter. There it will be seen that we
understand this official title to have a double significance, corresponding to the two main
divisions in his career. First, he will pose as the true Christ; later he will stand forth as the
avowed opponent of Christ. The above verse presents him as the Arch-apostate. He will,
eventually, repudiate the distinguishing truth of Judaism, namely that “Jesus is the Christ;”
as he will also set himself against that which is vital in Christianity — the revelation of “the
Father and the Son.”
9. A brief word upon 1 John 4:3 and we must conclude. “And every spirit that confesseth
not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of Antichrist,
whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world.” It is to
the last clause we would here direct attention. The spirit of Antichrist, that which is preparing
the way for his appearing, is even now already “in the world.” This statement is parallel with
2 Thess. 2:7, “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only He who now letteth
(hindereth) will let, until He be taken out of the way.” The Mystery of Iniquity, which concerns
the
incarnation
of
Satan,
is
the
direct
antithesis
of
“the
Mystery
of
Godliness”
(1
Tim.
3:16)
which
has
to
do
with
the
Divine
incarnation.
Just
as
there
was
a
long
preparation
by
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
God preceding the advent of His Son, so the Devil is now paving the way for the advent of
the Son of Perdition. The Mystery of Iniquity “doth already work;” so in 1 John 4:3 of the
spirit of Antichrist we read, “Even now already is it in the world!” How far advanced the
preparations of Satan now are for the bringing forth of his Masterpiece is becoming increasingly
evident
to
those
who
are
granted
wisdom
to
discern
the
signs
of
the
times.
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
The scope of the Apocalypse is indicated by its place in the Sacred Canon. Coming as
it does right at the close of the Scriptures, we should naturally expect to find it outlining the
last chapters of the world’s history. Such is indeed the case. The Revelation is mainly devoted
to a description of the judgments which God will yet send upon the earth. It furnishes by
far the most complete description of the conditions which are to obtain during the Tribulation
period. It treats at greatest length with the character and career of the Antichrist, who will
be the “Rod” in the hands of an angry God to chastise recreant Israel and apostate
Christendom. All of this is, of course, preparatory to the establishment of Messiah’s kingdom,
which will exist during the last of earth’s dispensations.
It is impossible to understand the Apocalypse without a thorough acquaintance with
the books that precede it. The more familiar we are with the first sixty-five books of the
Bible, the better prepared are we for the study of its sixty-sixth. There is little that is really
new in the Revelation. Its varied contents are largely an amplification of what is to be found
in the preceding scriptures. Each of its figures and symbols are explained if not on its own
pages, then somewhere within the compass of the written Word. For Scripture is ever selfinterpreting.
Most
of
our
difficulties
with
the
Revelation
grow
out
of
our
ignorance
and
lack
of
acquaintance
with
the
earlier
books.
Daniel
and
Zechariah
especially
should
be
examined
minutely,
for
they
shed
much
light
upon
the
various
and
prophecies
of
the
Patmos
seer.
The Apocalypse not only reveals much concerning the person and work of the Man of
Sin, but it describes his doom, as it also announces the complete overthrow of the Trinity
of Evil. This, no doubt, accounts for much of the prejudice which obtains against the study
and reading of this book. It is indeed remarkable that this is the only book in the Bible
connected with which there is a distinct promise given to those who read and hear read its
prophecy (1:3). And yet how very rarely it is read from the pulpits of those churches which
are reputed as orthodox! Surely the great Enemy is responsible for this. It seems that Satan
fears and hates above every book in the Bible this one which tells of his being ultimately cast
into the Lake of Fire. But “we are not ignorant of his devices” (2 Cor. 2:11). Then let him
not keep us from the prayerful and careful perusal of this prophecy which tells of those
things “which must shortly come to pass.”
1. We turn first to the sixth chapter of the Revelation, where a fourfold view is presented
of the Son of Perdition. Just as at the beginning of the New Testament the Holy Spirit has
given us a fourfold delineation of Christ in the Gospels, so at the commencement of His
description of the judgments of God on the earth He has furnished us with a fourfold picture
of Christ’s great opponent. We believe that the contents of the first four of the “seals” describe
four aspects of the Antichrist’s character, and also outline four stages in his career. First, he
is seen aping the Christ of God as the Righteous One. The “white horse” on which he is
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
seated, speaking of righteousness. Just as we are told in 2 Cor. 11:14 that “Satan himself is
transformed into an angel of light,” and “therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also
be transformed as the ministers of righteousness,” so the Antichrist will pose as the friend
of law and order. Second, he is seen mimicking the Christ of God as the mighty Warrior.
Just as the Lord Jesus at His return will make a footstool of His enemies, and trample in fury
all who defy Him (Isa. 63:3), so the Man of Sin shall slay all who dare to oppose him. Third,
he is seen imitating Christ as the Bread of Life, for the third seal views him as the Foodcontroller.
Fourth,
he
is
seen
with
his
mask
off,
depicted
as
one
whose
name
is
Death
and
Hades,
that
is,
as
the
Destroyer
of
men’s
bodies
and
souls.
Let us see how the identity of this Rider of the various colored horses is established. In
6:2 we are told, “And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow;
and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.” Notice
first, that he is here viewed as seated upon a “white horse.” This is in imitation of the Christ
of God, who, at the time of His second advent to the earth, will also appear seated upon “a
white horse” (Rev. 19:11). Second, it is said that “a crown was given unto him.” This at once
serves to connect him with the first Beast — the Antichrist — of Rev. 13, for of him it is
written, “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast” (v. 4). Again;
in 6:4 we are told, “And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to
him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and
there was given unto him a great sword.” Notice first, the last clause — “There was given
unto him a great sword.” This stamps him plainly as the pseudo christ, for of the true Christ
it is written, “Out of His mouth goeth a sharp sword” (19:15). Second, it is said “power was
given to him to take peace from the earth.” So, too, of the first Beast of Rev. 13 we read, “And
power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and all nations” (v. 7). In the third seal
he is viewed as the Food-controller, weighing out the necessities of life at famine prices.
This, no doubt, corresponds with what we read of in 13:17. Finally, in the fourth seal he is
named “Death and Hell.” This double title removes all doubt as to who is in view. When
God remonstrates with Israel for having made the seven-years treaty, He does so in the following
language:
“And
your
covenant
with
Death
shall
be
disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand”
(Isa.
28:18).
Thus
the
Riders
of
the
four
horses
of
Rev.
6
are not
four different persons, but one person presented in a fourfold way, as the Lord Jesus is in
the four Gospels.
Before we pass from Rev. 6 a few words should be added by way of amplification of our
remarks above, namely, that in the first part of Rev. 6 we have outlined four stages in the
Antichrist’s career. The preparation of the Man Christ Jesus for His public ministry — the
long years spent quietly at Nazareth — are passed over by the four Evangelists. So here in
Rev. 6 the early days of the Man of Sin — in his “little horn” character — are not noticed.
Under the first seal he is viewed as seated on a white horse, having a bow. The color of the
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
horse and the fact that no arrow is seen attached to the bow, suggests bloodless victories,
for he goes forth “conquering and to conquer.” This first seal at once conducts us to the
time when the Prince of Darkness poses as the Christ of God and presents himself to the
Jews for their acceptance. He does not come out in his true satanic character, rather does
he simulate the Prince of Peace. The first seal is parallel with Dan. 11:21, 23, where we learn
that he will gain the kingdom by flatteries and political diplomacy. But not for long will he
fill this pacific role. War is in his heart (Psa. 55:21), and nothing short of universal dominion
will satisfy his proud ambitions. As God has plainly warned, at the very time when men
shall be saying, Peace and safety, “then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail
upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape” (1 Thess. 5:3).
It is to this the second seal brings us. Here the Antichrist is seen no longer upon a white
horse, but upon a red horse. And in perfect accord with this, it is added, “And power was
given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth[hellip]and there was given to him
a great sword” (v. 4). Little wonder that he is called “the Destroyer of the Gentiles” (Jer. 4:7).
At the time of his overthrow it will be exclaimed, “Is this the man that made the earth to
tremble, that did shake kingdoms; that made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the
cities thereof?” (Isa. 14:17, 18). Jer. 25:29 throws light upon this “great sword” which is given
to him — “For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by my name, and should
ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished: for I will call for a sword upon all
the inhabitants of the earth, saith the Lord of hosts” (read verses 15 to 33).
In the third seal he is portrayed as the Harbinger of famine conditions. This is intimated
by the change of the color of the horse: for “black” in connection with famine see Jer. 14:1,
2 and Lam. 5:10. The symbolic significance of the “black” horse is intensified by the figure
of the “pair of balances in his hand” (compare Hosea 12:7, Amos 8:4-6). What follows describes
the
wheat
being
doled
out
at
famine
prices.
But
it
is
added,
“See
thou
hurt
not
the
oil
and
the
wine.”
This
intimates
that
the
famine
is
by
no
means
universal:
yea,
it
suggests
that
side
by
side
with
abject
suffering
there
is
abundance
and
luxury.
We
therefore
regard
this
third
seal
as
denoting
the
Antichrist’s
persecution
of
the
godly
Jews
which,
from
other
scriptures
we
learn,
will
be
the
fiercest
during
the
last
three
and
one
half
years
of
his
career.
Rev.
13:17
makes it known that they who will not be suffered to buy or sell are the ones who
refuse to receive his mark. These, of course, are the faithful remnant of the Jews. But they
who do render allegiance to the Beast will not want — “oil and wine” shall be their portion.
The fourth seal, plainly conducts us to the end of Antichrist’s course. The fact that he
is named Death and that we are told Hades (that which receives the soul) followed with
him, makes known the awful doom which shall overtake this Son of Perdition and all his
blinded followers — see Rev. 19:20, 21.
2. The next allusion to the Antichrist is found in Rev. 9:11 where he is given a threefold
appellation, namely, King over the locusts, The Angel of the Abyss, and the Destroyer. A
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
few remarks upon the context are required if we are to expound, even briefly, the significance
of these three titles. The majority of pre-millennial commentators are agreed upon the
identity of the personage named in Rev. 9:11, though there is considerable difference of
opinion among them concerning the meaning of the context. We can here only offer a few
remarks on the preceding verses according to our present light and submit the reasons for
our conclusions.
The immediate context takes us back to the opening verse of Rev. 9 where a “star” is
seen falling from heaven unto the earth, unto whom is given the key to the Bottomless Pit.
This we believe refers to Lucifer, or “Day-star” (see Isa. 14:12 margin). The reference, we
think, is not to his original fall, but to what is described in Rev. 12:9. The fact that the key
of the Abyss is given to him is in keeping with the fact that during the Tribulation period
God allows him free rein and suffers him to do his worst. The R. V. correctly renders verses
one and two as follows — “And there was given to him the key of the Pit of the Abyss. And
he opened the Pit of the Abyss,” etc., or, as it may literally be rendered, “the well of the Bottomless
Pit.”
This
expression
occurs
nowhere
else
in
Scripture.
The
“well
of
the
Bottomless
Pit”
is
to
be
distinguished
from
the
Bottomless
Pit
itself,
mentioned
in
9:11;
11:7;
17:8,
20:3.
What
the
distinction
is
we
shall
presently
suggest.
Out of the well of the Bottomless Pit issued a smoke, so great that the sun and the air
were darkened (v. 2), and out of the smoke came “locusts upon the earth.” We regard these
locusts as identical with the creatures referred to in the prophecy of Joel (2:1-11). By noticing
what is said of them in Joel 2 and Rev. 9 it is at once apparent that they are no ordinary locusts.

Joel says of them, “A great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like,
neither shall be any more after it” (2:2). It is said, “When they fall upon the sword they shall
not be wounded” (2:8). The fact that they issue from the Pit also denotes that they are supernatural

beings. In the description furnished in Rev. 9 they seem to be a kind of infernal
cherubim, for “the horse” (v. 7), the “man” (v. 7), the “lion” (v. 8), and “the scorpion” (v.
19) are combined in them. Their number is given as two hundred thousand thousand. Who,
then, are these infernal beings? No commentator that we are acquainted with has attempted
an answer. It is therefore with diffidence that we suggest, without being dogmatic, that they
are, most likely, fallen angels now imprisoned in Tartarus. We give three reason which, in
our judgment, point to this conclusion.
First, we know from 2 Pet. 2:4 that the angels which sinned were “cast down to Tartarus,”
and in Rev. 9:2, 3 we are told there “arose a smoke out of the Pit[hellip]and there came out
of the smoke locusts upon the earth.” Now, as pointed out, these infernal locusts issue from
“the well of the Pit,” an expression occurring nowhere else in Scripture, and only the locusts
are said to come from there. So also the term Tartarus is found nowhere but in 2 Pet. 2:4.
It seems likely, then, that the well of the Pit may be only another name for Tartarus (with
which only fallen angels are connected), just as the Lake of Fire is only another name for
127
Gehenna. Who else could these locusts be but the fallen angels? To say we do not know may
savor of humility, but shall the writer be deemed presumptuous because he has sought to
furnish an answer by comparing scripture with scripture?
In the second place, it is surely significant that the “king” of these “locusts” is termed
in Rev. 9:11 “the angel of the Bottomless Pit!” A title which is nowhere else given to him.
Just as Christ, the Angel of the Covenant (Mal. 3:1 — cf Isa. 63:9, etc.) is, again and again,
termed an angel in the Apocalypse (see 8:3, 10:1, etc.), so the Antichrist is here denominated
“the Angel of the Bottomless Pit.” And just as we learn from Matt. 25:31 that “the Son of
Man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him” (cf Matt 24:31), so when the
Son of Perdition is manifested, all the unholy angels will be with him!
In the third place, let the language of 2 Pet. 2:4 be carefully examined: “For if God spared
not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and delivered them into chains
of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.” It is to the last clause we wish to direct attention.
Let it be compared with the 9th verse of the same chapter — “The Lord knoweth how to
deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to
be punished.” Wicked human beings are said to be reserved “unto the Day of Judgment to
be punished.” But this is not what is said of the angels that sinned, though, of course,
eternal punishment awaits them as we learn from Matt. 25:41. 2 Pet. 2:4 simply says they
are “reserved unto judgment,” and we believe this means that God is holding them in Tartarus
until His time comes for Him to use them as one of His instruments of judgment upon an
ungodly world. The time when God will thus use them is stated in Jude 6 — it will be in “the
judgment of the great day” (compare Rev. 6:17 for “the great day”). Confirmatory of this,
observe that in Joel 2:11 the Lord calls the supernatural locusts “His army,” then employed
to inflict sore punishments on apostate Israel.
1
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
If our interpretation of 2 Pet. 2:4 be correct,
namely, that it makes no reference to the future punishment of the fallen angels, this explains
why the Lord in Matt. 25:41 when referring to future punishment was careful to mention
them specifically.
Returning now to Rev. 9:11 the Antichrist is here termed the “King over” the locusts.
Let the reader pay careful attention to what is predicted of these infernal beings in Joel 2
and here in Rev. 9, and let him remember they number no less than two hundred millions,
and then see if it does not throw new light on Rev. 13:4, where concerning the Antichrist
the question is asked, “Who is able to make war with him?!!” How utterly futile to engage
in conflict one who commands an army of two hundred millions, none of whom are subject
to death! In the second place, he is here termed “the Angel of the Bottomless Pit,” a title
peculiarly appropriate as the leader of the fallen angels; and, as well, a title which denotes
the superhuman nature of the Son of Perdition. In the third place, we are here told that his
1 Psa. 78:49 speaks of God using “evil angels” (those mentioned in Rev. 12:7) in His judgments on Egypt.
128
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
name “in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.”
This title serves to establish beyond a shadow of doubt the identity of this “King” of the infernal
locusts,
this
Angel
of
the
Bottomless
Pit.
The
Hebrew
and
the
Greek
names
signify
the

same thing in English — the Destroyer. It is the Destroyer of the Gentiles of Jer. 4:7,
translated “Spoiler” in Isa. 16:4 and Jer. 6:24. Suitable name is this for the one who is the
great opponent of the Saviour. “Destroyer” is close akin to “Death” in Rev. 6:8. The reason
why his name is given here in both Hebrew and Greek is because he will be connected with
and be the destroyer of both Jews and Gentiles! But why give the Hebrew name first? Because
the order in judgment, as in grace, is “the Jew first” — see Rom. 2:9 and 1:16 for each, respectively.
3. “And when they shall have finished their testimony, the Beast that ascendeth out of
the Bottomless Pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them”
(Rev. 11:7). This is the first time in the Revelation that the Antichrist is seen in his character
of “the Beast.” The last scripture which we have examined serves at once to identify him.
He is termed “the Angel of the Bottomless Pit,” because in a peculiar sense the Abyss is his
home. There he has been during all the centuries of this Christian era. In Acts 1:23 (cf chapter
3, Section 3) the Pit is called “his own place.” Here the Beast is shown ascending out of the
Bottomless Pit. What, then, is the Abyss? It appears to be the special abode of infernal
creatures. As we have seen, out of its well issue the fallen angels. From it comes the Beast.
And in it Satan himself is incarcerated for the thousand years (Rev. 20:3). The Abyss is quite
distinct from Hades in which the souls of lost human beings are now being tormented; as
it must also be distinguished from Gehenna or the Lake of Fire in which all the lost shall
suffer for ever and ever.
4. We come now to Rev. 13. A lengthy paper might readily be devoted to its exposition,
but as we have had occasion to refer to its contents so frequently in earlier chapters, we shall
here be as brief as possible. The contents of this chapter center around two “Beasts.” As to
which of them represent the Antichrist there is a difference of opinion. The majority of
those who have written upon the subject regard the first Beast as the Man of Sin, and with
them we are in hearty accord. We shall devote our next chapter to a setting forth of some
of the many proofs that the first Beast is the Antichrist. Here we shall take the point for
granted.
“And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having
seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name
of blasphemy” (v.1). There is here, as frequently in Scripture, a double reference. Two objects
quite distinct though intimately connected are in view. We believe that this Beast which
arises from the sea points to the Roman Empire revived and in its final form, that is, resuscitated
and
confederated
under
the
form
often
kingdoms.
In
Dan.
7:3
we read, “And four
great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.” These four great beasts are
129
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
interpreted in the verses which follow as four kingdoms. In v. 7 we are told this fourth Beast
(the Roman Empire) “had ten horns.” So the Beast of Rev. 13:1 also has ten horns. Each of
the successive Beasts or kingdoms of Dan. 7 retained the territory of the previous one, though
enlarging on it. In the symbolic description there furnished the first Beast is likened unto
“a lion” (v. 4); the second to “a bear” (v. 5); the third to “a leopard” (v. 6). So also in Rev. 13
the Beast there is “like unto a leopard,” has feet like “a bear,” and has the mouth of “a lion”
(v. 2). Thus we learn that the Roman Empire in its final form will include within its borders
the territory controlled by the earlier Empires and will also perpetuate the dominant characteristics
of
the
ancient
Babylonians,
Medo-Persians,
and
Grecians.
But it is very clear from what follows in Rev. 13 that there is something more than the
Empire here in view. In vv. 3-8 it is a person that is before us. We are satisfied that this same
person is also described, symbolically, in the opening verses. As is frequently the case in the
prophetic scriptures, the king and his kingdom are here inseparably united. Rev. 13:1, 2
portrays both the Empire and its last Emperor. One of the proofs for this is found in Dan.
9:26, 27, where (as we have shown in Chapter 9) the Antichrist is denominated “the prince”
of that people who destroyed Jerusalem in A. D. 70. We shall therefore interpret here according
to
this
principle.
“And I saw[hellip]a Beast rise up out of the sea.” In Scripture, the troubled “sea” is frequently

a figure of restless humanity away from God. The Antichrist will come upon the
scene at a time of unprecedented social disturbance and governmental upheaval. He will
appear at a crisis in the history of the world. From other prophetic scriptures we gather that,
following the removal of the Church from this earth, and some time before Daniel’s seventieth

week begins, there will be a complete overthrow of law and order, both civil and
political. All Divine restraint being removed, lawlessness will prevail. We have no doubt
that Satan will designedly bring this about. It will create a situation beyond the diplomatic
skill of earth’s statesmen. This will provide the desired opportunity for the coming Superman,
who will be a diplomatic genius. Just as many leaders today are satisfied that a League of
Nations would be the best device for preserving peace, so in the day to come the Man of Sin
will satisfy the world that this is the only solution to the baffling problems then confronting
the Powers of earth. Thus will the Antichrist resurrect the old Roman Empire at a time of
universal confusion and tumult. He will himself be the acknowledged head or Emperor, the
last of the Caesars. Hence the double significance of this figure — “a Beast rising out of the
sea.” Out of a state of anarchy will come forth this might Despot, who will speedily arrogate
to himself all authority, both Divine and human; and in the end it will be seen that he embodies
a
lawlessness
even
worse
and
more
fatal
than
that
out
of
which
he
sprang.
A
Beast
indeed
will
he
soon
appear
to
be.
Pregnant
with
meaning
is
this
title.
Having
rejected
God’s
“Lamb;”
a
Beast
shall
be
the
world’s
ruler.
This
will
be
God’s
reply
to
the
satanic
teaching
of
Evolution
now
so
popular
almost
everywhere.
The
leaders
of
modern
thought
insist
on
130
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
the beastial origin of man, and so a Beast shall yet lead the majority of his generation to
Perdition!
“Having seven heads and ten horns.” It is most significant that identically the same
features are attributed to the Dragon in 12:3. He, too, is there said to have “seven heads and
ten horns.” This clearly implies his satanic origin: he will be a human replica of the Devil
himself. As wrote the late G. H. Pember (from whom we have borrowed a number of valuable
points), the Beast will be “the effulgence of the Antigod’s glory, and the very image of his
substance.” We take it that the “seven heads” are symbolic of full intelligence, and the “ten
horns” speak of imperial dominion.
“And the Beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a
bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion” (v. 2). Like the Beast rising up out of the sea of
the previous verse, we believe the terms of this second verse have a double significance.
First, as intimated above, they denote that the Empire will include the territory and preserve
the dominant features of the earlier Empires. Second, they supply a figurative description
of the Emperor himself. The Antichrist will combine in his personality the characteristics
of the leopard (beauty and subtlety), of the bear (strength and cruelty), and of the lion
(boldness and ferocity).
“And the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority” (v. 2). This is
the Devil’s travesty of what God the Father will yet do to His Son: — “I saw in the night
visions, and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to
the Ancient of Days, and they brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him
dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve
Him” (Dan. 7:13, 14).
“And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was
healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast” (v. 3). It is clear from a number of
scriptures that during the early part of the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week the Antichrist
will
be
slain
by
the
sword

cf
Isa.
14:18,
19;
37:7;
Ezek.
21:25
R. V.; Zech. 11:17: see
our comments on these in the closing portion of Chapter 6. It is equally clear that this wound
of death will be healed (Rev. 13:4) and that the Beast shall again live (Rev. 13:14).
Satan
will be permitted to bring his son from the dead. This is no wild speculation of ours but a
view which has been propounded by quite a number of devout students. In his “Coming
Prince,” Sir Robert Anderson said, “The language of Rev. 13:3, 12 suggests that there will
be some impious travesty of the resurrection of our Lord.” It is useless to reason about it:
we simply believe the record of Scripture upon it. The raising of the Beast from the dead
will remove whatever doubt men may have entertained concerning his supernatural character.
2 It is remarkable that just three times (the number of resurrection) the healing of the Antichrist’s wound of
death is referred to here in Rev. 13 — see vv. 3, 12, 14!
2
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
“All the world wondered after him” is the statement which immediately follows the reference
to the healing of his wound of death.
“And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: and they worshipped
the
Beast,
saying,
Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?
Who
is
able
to
make
war
with
him?”
(v.
4).
This
cry
of
the
world,
“Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?”
is
a
travesty
of
the
song
of
Moses.
When
celebrating
Jehovah’s
overthrow
of
their
enemies
at
the
Red
Sea,
Israel
sang,
“Who
is
like
unto
Thee,
O
Lord,
among
the
Gods!
Who
is
like
Thee,
glorious
in
holiness,
fearful
in
praises,
doing
wonders!”
(Ex.
15:11).
The
additional
exclamation,
“Who
is
able
to
make
war
with
him?”
is
evoked
by
the
vast
army
of
infernal
creatures
at
his
command,
and
by
his
own
triumph
over
death
in
battle.
“And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies” (v. 5).
This is the one great distinguishing mark of the Antichrist — cf. Psa. 52:1-4; Isa. 14:13, 14;
Dan. 7:11, 20; 11:36; 2 Thess. 2:4, etc. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his
God-defying course. Another forty-two months and his career shall be ended. This number
— here designedly used by the Holy Spirit, rather than three and one half years or twelve
hundred and sixty days — is a very significant one. Its factors are 6 and 7, which stand for
man and completeness. It is man in his fallen condition, here the Man of Sin, fully manifested.
Forty-two stands for intensified apostasy. Thus Num. 33 gives the various stopping places
of unbelieving Israel in the wilderness as forty-two in number. Judges 12:6 tells us that the
number of the apostate Ephraimites which fell before the Gileadites were 42 thousand. See
also 2 Kings 2:4 and 10:14.
“And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and
there was given to him authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation. And
all they that dwell on the earth shall worship him, every one whose name hath not been
written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that hath been
slain” (vv. 7, 8, R. V.). The “saints” here mentioned are the godly Jewish remnant who will
refuse to worship the Beast. Those “overcome” are they who disobeyed the command of
Christ recorded in Matt. 24:16; those who obey will be preserved by God — see Rev. 12:6.
Note how election is seen here: only they whose names were written from the foundation
of the world in the book of life will be preserved from the unpardonable sin of worshipping
the Antichrist — cf Matt. 24:22, 24.
“And I beheld another Beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a
lamb, and he spake as a dragon” (v. 11). This brings before us the second Beast, called in
19:20 the False Prophet. He is the third person of the Trinity of Evil. As there is to be an
Antichrist who will both counterfeit and oppose the Christ of God, so there will be an Antispirit

who will simulate and oppose the Spirit of God. Just as the great work of the Holy
Spirit is to glorify Christ, so the one aim of the Anti-spirit will be to magnify the false christ
(see 13:12). Just as the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost was visibly attended by “cloven
132
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
tongues like as of fire” (Acts 2:3), so we read of the Anti-spirit that “he doeth great wonders,
so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men” (v. 13).
And just as it is the Holy Spirit who now quickens dead sinners into newness of life, so of
the Anti-spirit we are told, “He had power to give life unto the image of the Beast” (v. 15).
5. “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship
the Beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall
drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of
His indignation, and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the
holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb” (Rev. 14:9, 10). This looks back to what we
read of in the closing verses of the preceding chapter. “And he causeth all, both small and
great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the Beast, or
the number of his name” (13:16, 17). This “mark” will be the official sign of allegiance to
the Emperor stamped either upon the hand or forehead of his loyal subjects. It will be the
satanic travesty of the “seal” which the angel will stamp on the foreheads of God’s servants.
This “mark” on the persons of the subjects of the Beast will be, we believe, the name of the
Devil, (cf. Rev. 13:4), as the seal on the foreheads of God’s servants is defined in 14:1 as
“having their Father’s name written on their foreheads.” Here in Rev. 14:9-11 we have one
of the most solemn warnings in all the Bible. An angel from heaven will announce the terrible
punishment which shall be visited upon those who honor the Beast. It is set over against
the threats of the Beast and the False Prophet, who will terrify men by the sentence of
physical death for all who defy them. But here God, by His angel, declares that all who heed
the Beast and his coadjutor will share their awful doom. This no doubt will strengthen the
faith and patience of the saints, and enable them to endure unto the end.
6. “And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried
with a loud cry, to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and
gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. And the angel thrust
in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great
winepress of the wrath of God” (14:19, 20). The “Vine of the earth” refers, we believe, to the
Man of Sin at the head of apostate Israel. This appellation points one more contrast. In John
15, we find the Lord Jesus saying, “I am the true Vine, ye are the branches.” The true Vine,
then, consists of the Christ of God and His people in fellowship with Him. Over against this
is “the vine of the earth,” which is the Antichrist and those allied to him, particularly,
renegade Israel. In Deut. 32 there is a reference to the “Vine of the earth” — “For their rock
is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges. For their Vine is of the vine
of Sodom, and their clusters are bitter” (v. 31, 32). That this is speaking of apostate Israel is
clear from v. 28 — “For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding
in them.” That the passage is speaking of apostate Israel in the days of the Antichrist appears
133
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
from v. 35 — “To me belongeth vengeance, and recompense; their foot shall slide in due
time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things which shall come upon them
make haste” (v. 35).
7. In Rev. 15:2 there is a brief allusion to the Beast, in connection with the godly Remnant:
“And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory
over the Beast, and over his image, and over his mask, and over the number of his name,
stand on the sea of glass having the harps of God,” etc. The reference is to those who had
been slain by the Antichrist because they had refused to render him any honor or worship.
The same company is seen again in 20:4.
8. Rev. 16 describes the “vial” judgments which are executed just before the end of the
Tribulation. The Beast is noticed several times in the chapter. In v.2 we read, “And the first
went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore
upon the men which had the mark of the Beast, and upon them which worshipped his image”
(v. 2). This is a foretaste of the grievous torments awaiting the worshippers of the Beast.
Again in v.10 we read, “And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the Beast;
and his kingdom was full of darkness and they gnawed their tongues for pain.” Here the
Beast himself receives intimation of the doom awaiting him. In vv. 13 and 14 we are told,
“And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the Dragon, and out
of the mouth of the Beast, and out of the mouth of the False Prophet. For they are the sprites
of demons, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole
world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” Here we behold, in
symbolic guise, each of the persons in the Evil Trinity. The figure of the “frog” is very suggestive.
Frogs
are
creatures
which
love
the
darkness
rather
than
the
light:
they
wallow
in
the
mire
and
filth:
their
croaking
is
heard
in
the
dusk
of
twilight
and
by
night.
Thus
they
are
an
apt
symbol
of
the
persons
in
the
Trinity
of
Evil.
Their
very
form
suggests
inflation
by
pride.
The

reference here in Rev. 16:13, 14 indicates the superhuman character of the False
Prophet as well as of the Beast and the Dragon.
9. Rev. 17 calls for a lengthy exposition, so we must defer to a later chapter the consideration

of its details. The central figures in it are “the great whore” and the Beast. While
freely granting that, historically, the great whore has received its fulfillment in the Roman
Catholic system, and while allowing that it will yet represent the whole of apostate
Christendom, nevertheless, we believe that the ultimate reference is to apostate Israel. Here
in Rev. 17 the “woman” is first seen sitting upon the scarlet colored Beast — the Antichrist
in his imperial glory (v.3); but later we see him suffering his ten kings to destroy her (v. 16).
This accords perfectly with the dual relation of Antichrist to Israel: first posing as their Benefactor

(here seen in v. 3 supporting her), later standing forth as her great Enemy. The
eighth verse (see our comments on it in Chapter 3, Section III,6) is one of the scriptures
which show that Antichrist is a re-incarnation of Judas.
134
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
10. Rev. 19:19, 20 describes the end of Antichrist’s career. We need not enlarge now
upon these verses for we have already commented on them in Chapter 7. The final reference
to the Antichrist is in Rev. 20:10 where we read of the Devil being cast into the Lake of Fire
where the Beast and the False Prophet are, to be, with them, tormented for ever and ever.
135
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
In the thirteenth chapter of Revelation two Beasts are there described. The first is the
final Head of the last great Empire before the establishment of the millennial kingdom of
our Lord. The second Beast is denominated, in other passages, “the False Prophet.” There
is a difference of opinion as to which of these Beasts represents the Antichrist. In the Appendix

to our book “The Redeemer’s Return,” where this subject is discussed and from
which we shall here freely transcribe, we have stated that opinion is about equally divided.
But during the last five years we have made a much wider investigation, and as the result
we have found that the great majority of those who have written on the subject regard the
first Beast as the Antichrist, and that only a comparative few — nearly all of whom belong
to a particular school — favor the alternative view. However, the writings of the few have
had a wide circulation and have exerted a considerable influence on students of prophecy,
and therefore these papers on the Antichrist would lack completeness, and probably some
of our readers would be disappointed, if we said nothing on the subject. It is in no spirit of
controversy that we now present our own reasons for believing it is the first Beast of Rev.
13 who is the Antichrist.
The book of Revelation makes known the fact that there is a Trinity of Evil. Each of
these three evil persons comes into view in Rev. 13. First, there is “the Beast” (v. 2). Second,
there is “the Dragon” (v. 2). Third, there is “another Beast” (v. 11). The fact that of this third
Beast it is said “He spake as a dragon” (v. 11) at once intimates his satanic nature and character,
for
the
speech
corresponds
to
the
heart.
The
demoniacal
nature
of
each
of
these
evil
persons
comes
out
clearly
in
Rev.
16:13,
14,
where
we
read,
“And
I
saw
three
unclean
spirits
like
frogs
come
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
Dragon,
and
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
Beast,
and
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
False
Prophet.
For
they
are
the
spirits
of
demons,
working
miracles.”
Finally,

in Rev. 19:19, 20 we are told, “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False
Prophet[hellip]these both were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone,” and
then in 20:10 we read, “And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and
brimstone, where the Beast and the False Prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night
for ever and ever.”
The above scriptures clearly establish the fact that there is a Trinity of Evil. Now it surely
needs no argument to prove that these three evil persons are opposed to and are the antithesis
of
the
three
Persons
in
the
Godhead.
The
Devil
stands
opposed
to
God
the
Father

“Ye
are
of
your
father,
the
Devil,”
John
8:40,
etc.
The
Antichrist
stands
opposed
to
God
the
Son

— his very name shows this. The remaining evil person stands opposed to God the
Spirit. If this be the case, then our present task is greatly simplified: it is merely a matter of
noting what is separately predicted of the two Beasts in Rev. 13 so as to ascertain which of
them stands opposed to Christ and which to the Holy Spirit.
136
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
Now there are only two arguments of any plausibility which have been advanced to
support the view that it is the second Beast of Rev. 13 which is the Antichrist, but so far as
we are aware no one has endeavored to show that the first Beast represents the third Person
in the Trinity of Evil! Yet he must be so if the second is the Antichrist! This is unmistakably
clear from Rev. 16:13, 14 and 19:19, 20. The first argument used is drawn from the language
of 13:11, where of the second Beast it is said, “He had two horns like a lamb, and he spake
as a dragon.” This, we are told, indicates that it is the Antichrist who is here in view, aping
the Lamb of God. Personally, we are amazed that such an assertion should have been made
in soberness. It is difficult to imagine anything more wide of the mark, seeing that not only
is it not said this beast with the two horns was “like the lamb” but in this same book “the
Lamb” is pictured with “seven horns” (see. 5:6). But if this second Beast, the False Prophet,
be the opponent of God the Spirit, then the two horns have a pertinent significance, for two
is the number of witness, and just as Christ declared the Spirit of God should “testify (lit.,
bear witness) of Me” (John 15:26), so the third person in the Trinity of Evil bears witness
to the first Beast — see 13:12, 14, 16. In the second place, it is said that the first Beast of Rev.
13 is presented as the political Head, while it is the second who is viewed as the religious
Head. But if this is not a bad mistake, it certainly needs to be modified. It is the first Beast,
not the second, who is worshipped (v. 12)! Having thus noticed briefly the two leading objections
which
have
been
brought
against
the
position
we
are
about
to
define
and
defend,
we
shall
now
present
some
of
the
many
arguments
on
the
other
side.
In the first place, to regard the Antichrist as limited to the religious realm and divorced
from the political, seems to us, to leave out entirely an essential and fundamental element
of his character and career. The Antichrist will claim to be the true Christ, the Christ of
God. Hence, it would seem that he will present himself to the Jews as their long-expected
Messiah — the One foretold by the Old Testament prophets — and that before apostate
Christendom, given over by God to believe the Lie, he will pose as the returned Christ.
Therefore, must we not predict, as an inevitable corollary, that the pseudo christ, will usher
in a false millennium, and rule over a mock messianic kingdom? That this conclusion is
fully borne out by Scripture we shall show in a moment.
Why was it (from the human side) that, when out Lord tabernacled among men, the
Jews rejected Him as their Messiah? Was it not because He failed to fulfill their expectations
that he would take the government upon His shoulder and wield the royal sceptre as soon
as He presented Himself to them? Was it not because they looked for Him to restore the
Kingdom to Israel there and then? Is it not therefore reasonable to suppose that when the
Antichrist presents himself to them, that he will wield great temporal power, and rule over
a vast earthly empire? It would certainly seem so. Happily we are not left to logical deductions
and conclusions. We have a “thus saith the Lord” to rest upon. In Dan. 11:36 — a scripture
upon which all are agreed concerning its application — the Antichrist is expressly termed
137
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
“the king (which) shall do according to his will.” Here then is unequivocal proof that Antichrist
will
exercise
political
or
governmental
power.
He
will
be
a
king

“the
king”

and
if
a
king
he
must
be
at
the
head
of
a
kingdom.
In the second place, if the Antichrist is to be a perfect counterfeit of the true Christ, if
he is to ape the millennial Christ as set forth in Old Testament prophecy — for, of course,
he will not mimic the “suffering” Christ of the first advent — then it necessarily follows that
he will fill the role of king, yea, that he will reign as a King of kings, as Satan’s parody of the
Son of man seated upon “the throne of His glory.” That the Antichrist will also be at the
head of the religious world, that he will demand and receive Divine honors, is equally true.
Just as in the Millennium the Lord Jesus will “be a Priest upon His Throne” (Zech. 6:13), so
the Antichrist will combine in his person the headships of both the political and the religious
realms — see our notes on Ezek. 21:25, 26 in Chapter 9. And just as the Son of Man will be
the Head of the fifth world-empire (Dan. 2:44) so, the Man of Sin will be the head of the
revived fourth world-empire (Dan. 2:40).
In the third place, to make the Antichrist and “the False Prophet” one and the same
person is to involve us in a difficulty for which there seems to be no solution. In Rev. 19:20
we read, “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles
before him[hellip].These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.”
Now, if the False Prophet be the Antichrist, then who is “the Beast” that is cast with him
into the Lake of Fire? The Beast here cannot be the Roman Empire (the people in it), for no
member of the human race (as such) is cast into the Lake of Fire until after the Millennium
(see Rev. 20). That “the Beast” is a separate entity, another individual than the False
Prophet is also clear from Rev. 20:10 — “And the Devil that deceived them was cast into
the lake of fire and brimstone, where the Beast and the False Prophet are.” In this last quoted
scripture, each of the three persons in the Trinity of Evil is specifically mentioned, and if
“the Beast” is not the Antichrist, the Son of Perdition, the second person in the Trinity of
Evil, who is he?
In the fourth place, what is predicted of the first Beast in Rev. 13 comports much better
with what is elsewhere revealed concerning the Antichrist, than what is here said of the
second Beast. In proof of our assertion we submit the following:
Points of resemblance between the first Beast of Rev. 13 and the Man of Sin of 2 Thess.
2:-
1. The first Beast receives his power, seat, and great authority from the Dragon, Rev.
13:2. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:9 — “Him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power
and signs and lying wonders.”
2. “All the world” wonders after the first Beast, Rev. 13:2. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:11, 12 — “And
for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie; that
they all might be damned,” etc.
138
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
3. The first Beast is “worshipped,” Rev. 13:4. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:4 — “He as God sitteth in
the temple of God.”
4. The first Beast has a mouth “speaking great things,” Rev. 13:5. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:4 —
“Who[hellip]exalteth himself above all that is called God.” Note also that in Rev. 13:5 it is
said of the first Beast, he “has a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies.” Is not this
one of the chief characteristic marks of the Antichrist?
5. The first Beast makes war on the saints, Rev. 13:7. Cf 2 Thess. 2:4 — “Who opposeth[hellip]all

that is called God,” that is, he will seek to exterminate and obliterate
everything on earth which bears God’s name.
From these points of analogy it is evident that the first Beast of Rev. 13 and the Man of
Sin of 2 Thess. 2 are one and the same person.
In the fifth place, that the second Beast is not the Man of Sin appears from the fact that
the second Beast causeth the earth to worship the first Beast (Rev. 13:12), whereas the Man
of Sin exalteth himself (2 Thess. 2:4), and compare Dan. 11:36: “And he exalteth himself.”
As already intimated, there are several things which show plainly that the second Beast is
the third person in the Trinity of Evil, that is, the one who is the satanic parody of the Holy
Spirit. The point now before us supplies further confirmation. There is nothing in Rev. 13,
nor elsewhere, to show that this second Beast is worshipped, rather does he direct worship
away from himself, to the first Beast. Therefore, he cannot be the pseudo christ, for the Lord
Jesus did, again and again, receive worship (see particularly Matthew’s Gospel), and will be
worshipped on His return. But this second Beast, who directs worship away from himself,
accurately imitates the Holy Spirit in this respect, for nowhere in the New Testament is the
third Person of the Holy Trinity presented as a distinct Object of worship; instead, He is to
“glorify” Christ (John 16:14) by drawing out our hearts unto that blessed One who loved us
and gave Himself for us.
Again; it has been generally recognized by prophetic students that our Lord referred to
the Antichrist when He said, “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if
another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). If the one here mentioned
as
coming
“in
his
own
name”
is
the
Antichrist,
then
it
is
certain
that
the
second
Beast
of
Rev.
13
cannot be the Antichrist, for he does not come “in his own name.” On the contrary,
the second Beast comes in the name of the first Beast as is clear from Rev. 13:12-15. Just as
the Holy Spirit — the third Person in the Holy Trinity speaks “not of Himself” (John 16:13),
but is here to glorify Christ, so the second Beast — the third person in the Evil Trinity seeks
to glorify the first Beast, the Antichrist.
If it should be objected that the second Beast is represented as working miracles (Rev.
13:13, 14) and, that as the Man of Sin is also said to come “after the working of Satan with
all power and signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9), therefore, the second Beast must be
the Antichrist, the answer is, This by no means follows. The power to work miracles is
139
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
common to each person in the Trinity of evil. Just as God the Father, God the Son, and God
the Holy Spirit, each perform miracles, so does the Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet
(see Rev. 16:13, 14 for proof). Three things are said in connection with the second Beast
which correspond closely with the work of the Holy Spirit. First, “he maketh fire come down
from heaven” (Rev. 13:13), cf Acts 2:1-4. Second, “he had power to give life unto the image
of the Beast” (Rev. 13:15), cf John 3:6 — “born of the Spirit.” Third, “he causeth all, both
small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in
their foreheads” (Rev. 13:16), cf Eph. 4:30 — “Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby
ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.”
Finally; the second Beast is clearly subordinate to the first Beast. But would the Jews
receive as their Messiah and King one who was himself the vassal of a Roman? Was not this
the very reason why the Jews of old rejected the Lord Jesus, i.e., because He was subject to
Caesar, and because He refused to deliver the Jews from the Romans!
In the sixth place, as we have seen, in Dan. 11:36 the Antichrist is termed “the King,”
and if a king he must posses a kingdom, and can there be any doubt as to the identity of this
kingdom? Will not Antichrist’s kingdom be the very one which Satan offered in vain to
Christ? namely, “all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them” (Matt. 4:8). That the
kingdom of the Antichrist will be much wider than Palestine appears from Dan. 11:40-42
— “And at the time of the end shall the king of the South push at him (the Antichrist): and
the king of the North (the Antichrist, as King of Babylon) shall come against him (the King
of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships: and
he (the Antichrist) shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. He (the
Antichrist) shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his (the Antichrist’s) hand,
even Edom and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. He (the Antichrist) shall
stretch forth his hand upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.” From
this scripture it is also clear that the Antichrist will be at the head of a great army and
therefore must be a political ruler as well as a religious chief.
In the seventh place, it is generally agreed among those students of prophecy who belong
to the Futurist school, that the rider upon the four horses in Rev. 6 is the Antichrist. If this
be the case, then we have further proof that the Antichrist and the Head of the revived Roman
Empire is one and the same person. This may be seen by comparing three scriptures. In
Rev. 6:8, of the rider on “the pale horse,” we read, “His name that sat on him was Death and
Hell followed with him.” In Isa. 28:18, those who will be in Jerusalem during the Tribulation
period are addressed by Jehovah as follows: “And your covenant with Death shall be disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand.”
What
“covenant”
can
this
be,
except
the
one
mentioned
in
Dan.
9:27,
where
we
read
of
the
Roman
Prince
(the
Head
of
the
revived
Roman
Empire)
confirming
the
covenant
with
the
many
for
seven
years?
Now
reverse
the
order
of
these
three
passages,
and
what
do
we
learn?
In
Dan.
9:27
we learn that the Head of
140
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
the Roman Empire makes a covenant with the Jews. In Isa. 28:18 this covenant is said to
have been made with “Death and Hell.” While in Rev. 6:8 the rider on the pale horse (whom
it is generally admitted is the Antichrist) is named “Death and Hell.” Hence, from whatever
angle we approach the subject it is seen that the Antichrist is the Head of the fourth worldkingdom.
141
Types of the Antichrist
Types of the Antichrist
Types of the Antichrist
“In the volume of the book it is written of Me” (Heb. 10:7), said the Lord Jesus. Christ
is the key to the Scriptures — “Search the Scriptures[hellip]they are they which testify of
Me,” are His words; and the Scriptures to which He had reference were not the four Gospels,
for they were not then written, but the writings of Moses and the prophets. The Old Testament

Scriptures, then, are something more than a compilation of historical narratives,
something more than the record of a system of social and religious legislation, or a code of
ethics. The Old Testament Scriptures are, fundamentally, a stage on which is shown forth,
in vivid symbolry, stupendous events then future. The events recorded in the Old Testament
were actual occurrences, yet were they also typical prefigurations. Throughout the Old
Testament dispensations God caused to be shadowed forth things which must yet come to
pass. This is in full accord with a basic law in the economy of God. Nothing is brought to
maturity at once. As it is in the natural world, so it is in the spiritual: there is first the blade,
then the ear, and then the full corn in the ear. So there is first the shadow, and then the
substance; the type, and then the antitype.
“Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning” (Rom. 15:4).
Israel’s tabernacle was “a figure for the time then present” (Heb. 9:8, 9), as well as the example
and “shadow of heavenly things” (Heb. 8:5). Concerning the history of Abraham, his wives
and his children, the apostle was inspired to write “which things are an allegory” (Gal. 4:24).
These and other passages which might be quoted witness plainly to the typical meaning of
portions of the Old Testament. But there are some brethren who will own the typical significance
of
these
things,
who
refuse
to
acknowledge
that
anything
else
in
the
Old
Testament
has
a
typical
meaning
save
those
which
are
expressly
interpreted
or
mentioned
in
the
New.
But
surely
this
is
a
mistake.
Ought
we
not
to
regard
those
Old
Testament
types
which
are
expounded
in
the
New
Testament
as
samples
of
others
which
are
not
explained?
Are
there
no
more
prophecies
in
the
Old
Testament
than
those
which
in
the
New
Testament
are
expressly
said
to
be
“fulfilled?”
Assuredly
there
are.
Then
why
not
admit
the
same
in
connection
with
the
types?
Nothing
is
said
in
the
New
Testament
that
the
history
of
Joseph
has
a
profound
and
wonderful
typical
significance,
yet
who
with
anointed
eyes
can
fail
to
see
in
the
experiences
of
Jacob’s
favorite
son
a
remarkable
foreshadowing
of
the
person
and
work
of
Christ!
There will probably be few who read this chapter that will dispute what we have said
above. No doubt the majority of our readers have already been instructed in much of the
typology of the Old Testament. Many of God’s servants have written at length upon the
Passover, the brazen serpent, the Tabernacle, etc., as well as upon the many ways in which
such men as Abel, Noah, Isaac, Moses, David, etc. prefigured the Saviour. But strange to
say, very little seems to have been written upon those who adumbrated the Antichrist. So
142
Types of the Antichrist
far as we are aware practically nothing has been given out concerning the many Bible characters
of
ill
fame,
who
foreshadowed
that
coming
one,
that
occupies
such
a
prominent
place
in
the
prophetic
scriptures.
A
wide
field
is
here
opened
for
study,
and
we
take
pleasure
in
now

submitting to the careful perusal of the reader the results of our own imperfect researches,
hoping
that
it
may
lead
others
to
make
a
more
complete
examination
of
the
subject
for
themselves.
It was well said by one of the Continental Puritans that “When we read the Scriptures,
we are to judge beforehand, that then only do we understand them, when we discover in
them a wisdom unsearchable and worthy of God” (Witsius).Such is the inexhaustible fulness
of the written Word of God that not only are its words significant of things, but even the
things, which are first signified by the words, also represent other things, which they were
appointed to prefigure long before they happened. Besides the plain and literal sense of
Scripture, there is also a mystical sense, hidden beneath the surface and which can only be
discovered as we, in dependence on the Holy Spirit, diligently compare scripture with
scripture. In pursuing the latter we need not only to proceed with due caution, but in “fear
and trembling,” lest we devise mysteries of of our own imagination, and thus pervert to one
use what belongs to another. The principle which will safeguard us is to thoroughly acquaint
ourselves with the antitypes. Let nothing be regarded as a type unless we are sure there is
an exact correspondence with the antitype. This will preserve us from erroneously supposing
that any person who is clearly a type of either Christ or the Antichrist is so in every detail
of his life. Thus Moses was plainly a type of Christ as our Mediator, and in many other respects
too,
but
in
his
failures
and
in
other
details
of
his
personal
history
he
was
not
a
type
of
Christ.
So,
too,
with
those
who
foreshadowed
the
Antichrist:
not
everything
recorded
of
them
prefigured
the
character
or
deeds
of
the
Man
of
Sin.
Should
it
still
be
inquired,
How
are

we to ascertain in which respects the actions of Old Testament characters were, and
were not, typical? the answer, as given above, is, By comparing the antitype. This will save
us from the wild allegorizing of Origen and others of the “Fathers.” We shall now look at
ten Bible characters, each of which strikingly typified the Antichrist.
1. Cain. It is indeed solemn to discover that the very first man born into this world
prefigured the Man of Sin. He did so in a least seven respects. First, we may observe that in
1 John 3:12 we are told “Cain was of that Wicked One,” i.e. the Devil. Of none other is this
particular expression used. The Antichrist will also, in a special sense, be “of that Wicked
one,” for the Devil is said to be his father (John 8:44). Second, Cain was a religious hypocrite.
This is seen in the fact that at first he posed as a worshipper of God, but the emptiness of
his pretensions were quickly evidenced; for, when the Lord refused his offering, Cain was
“very wroth” (Gen. 4:5). As such he clearly prefigured that one who will first claim to be the
Christ, only to stand forth later as His denier (1 John 2:22). Third, by his primogeniture
Cain occupied the position of ruler. Said the Lord to him, “Unto to thee shall be his desire,
143
Types of the Antichrist
and thou shalt rule over him,” that is, over Abel (Gen. 4:7). Such, too, will be the position
filled by the Antichrist — he shall be a Ruler over men. Fourth, in murdering his brother
Abel, Cain foreshadowed the wicked martyrdom of the Tribulation saints by the Son of
Perdition. Fifth, Cain was a liar. After the murder of Abel, when the Lord asked Cain, “Where
is Abel thy brother?,” he answered, “I know not” (Gen. 4:9). In like manner deceit and
falsehood will characterize him who is appropriately named “the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11). Sixth,
God’s judgment descended upon Cain. So far as we know from the Scripture record, no
human eye witnessed the dastardly murder of Abel, and doubtless Cain deemed himself
secure from any penal consequences. But if so, he reckoned without God. The Lord announced
to
him,
“Thy
brother’s
blood
crieth
unto
Me
from
the
ground,”
and
then
He
declared,
“And
now
art
thou
cursed
from
the
earth”
(Gen.
4:10).
So,
too,
in
his
reckless
conceit
,
the
Antichrist
will
imagine
that
he
can
defy
God
and
slay
His
people
with
impugnity.
But
his

blasphemous delusions will be quickly dispelled. Seventh, Cain was made to exclaim,
“My punishment is greater than I can bear” (Gen. 4:13). Such indeed will be the awful portion
meted out to the Antichrist — he shall be “cast alive into the lake of fire burning with
brimstone” (Rev. 19:20).
2. Lamech. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; “Ye wives
of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: For I have slain a man for wounding me, and a young
man for bruising me. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and seven
fold” (Gen. 4:23, 24, R. V.). The record of this man’s life is exceedingly brief, but from the
little that is recorded about him we may discover at least seven parallelisms between him
and the Antichrist. First, the meaning of his name. Lamech signifies “powerful.” This was
an appropriate name for one who foreshadowed the Man of Sin who, as the Head of the
United States of the World, will be powerful governmentally. He will also be mighty in his
person, for we are told that the Dragon shall give power unto him (Rev. 13:4). Second, in
the fact that Lamech was a descendant of Cain (Gen. 4:17-19), not Seth, we see that he sprang
from the evil line. Third, he was the seventh from fallen Adam, as though to intimate that
the cycle of depravity was completed in him. So the Antichrist will be not only the culmination
of
satanic
craft
and
power,
but
as
well,
the
climax
of
human
wickedness

the
Man
of
Sin.
Fourth,
the
first
thing
predicted
of
Lamech
is
his
“lawlessness.”
“Lamech
took
unto
him
two
wives”
(Gen.
4:19).
As
such
he
violated
the
marriage
law
and
disobeyed
the
command
of
God
(Gen.
2:24).
Clearly,
then,
he
foreshadowed
the
“Lawless
One”
(2
Thess.
2:8,
R.V.).
Fifth,
like
Cain
before
him,
Lamech
was
a
murderer.
His
confession
is,
“I
have
slain
a

man for wounding me, and a young man for bruising me” (Gen. 4:23). In this, too, he
foreshadowed the Man of blood and of violence. Sixth, he was filled with pride. This comes
out in two details. First, he says to his wives, “Hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken
unto my speech” (Gen. 4:23). Second, in his arrogant self-importance — “If Cain shall be
avenged sevenfold, truly LAMECH seventy and seven fold” (Gen. 4:24). This appears to
144
Types of the Antichrist
mean that Lamech had slain a man for wounding him, and mad with passion, he jeered
ironically at God’s dealings with Cain. Seventh, in the fact that the very next thing recorded
after the brief notice of Lamech is the birth of Seth (the one from whom, according to the
flesh, Christ descended) who set aside the line of Cain — for on his birth Eve exclaimed,
“God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel whom Cain slew” (Gen. 4:25) — thus
we have a beautiful foreshadowing of the millennial reign of the Lord Jesus following the
overthrow of the Antichrist.
3. Nimrod. This personal type of the Antichrist is deeply interesting and remarkable
full in its details. His exploits are recorded in Gen. 10 and 11, and it is most significant that
his person and history are there introduced at the point immediately preceding God’s call
of Abraham from among the Gentiles and His bringing him into the promised land. Thus
will history repeat itself. Just before God again gathers Abraham’s descendants from out of
the lands of the Gentiles (many, perhaps the majority of whom, will be found dwelling in
Chalden, in Assyria, the “north country” see Isa. 11:11; Jer. 3:18, etc.) there will arise one
who will fill out the picture here typically outlined by Nimrod.
Let us examine the details of this type. First, the meaning of his name is most suggestive.
Nimrod signifies “The Rebel.” A fit designation was this for a man that foreshadowed the
Lawless One, who shall oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God (2 Thess. 2:4),
and who shall “stand up against the Prince of princes” (Dan. 8:25). Second, we are told that
he was a son of Cush — “And Cush begat Nimrod” (Gen. 10:8), and Cush was a son of Ham,
who was curst by Noah. Nimrod, then, was not a descendant of Shem, from whom Christ
sprang, nor of Japheth; but he came from Ham. It is remarkable that these men who typified
the Antichrist came from the evil line. Third, we are told that Nimrod “began to be a mighty
one in the earth” (Gen. 10:8). Four times over is this term “mighty” connected with this one
who prefigured him “whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs
and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). But observe that it is first said, “He began to be mighty,”
which seems to suggest the idea that he struggled for the pre-eminence and obtained it by
mere force of will. How this corresponds with the fact that the Man of Sin first appears as
“the little horn” and by force of conquest attains to the position of King of kings needs only
to be pointed out. It is also significant that the Hebrew word for “mighty” in Gen. 10:9 is
“gibbor” which is translated several times “Chief” and “Chieftain.” Fourth, it is also added,
“Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord” which means that he pushed his designs in
brazen defiance of his Maker. The words “mighty hunter before the Lord” are found twice
in Gen. 10:9. This repetition in so short a narrative is highly significant. If we compare the
expression with a similar one in Gen. 6:11, — “The earth also (in the days of Noah) was
corrupt before God” — the impression conveyed is that this “Rebel” pursued his impious
designs in open defiance of the Almighty. The contents of Gen. 11 abundantly confirm this
interpretation. In like manner, of the Antichrist it is written, “And the King shall do according
145
Types of the Antichrist
to his will, and he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god (ruler), and shall
speak marvelous things against the God of gods” (Dan. 11:36). Fifth, Nimrod was a “Man
of Blood.” In 1 Chron. 1:10 — “And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be mighty upon the
earth.” The Chaldea paraphrase of this verse says, “Cush begat Nimrod who began to prevail
in wickedness for he slew innocent blood and rebelled against Jehovah.” This, coupled with
the expression “a mighty Hunter before the Lord,” suggests that he relentlessly sought out
and slew God’s people. As such, he accurately portrayed the bloody and deceitful Man (Psa.
5:6), the violent Man (Psa. 140:1). Sixth, Nimrod was a King — “the beginning of his kingdom
was Babel” (Gen. 10:10. Thus he was King of Babylon, which is also one of the many titles
of the Antichrist (Isa. 14:4). In the verses which follow in Gen. 10 we read, “He went out
into Assyria and builded Ninevah, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,” etc. (Gen. 10:11).
From these statements it is evident that Nimrod’s ambition was to establish a world empire.
Seventh, mark his inordinate desire for fame. His consuming desire was to make for himself
a name. Here again the antitype marvellously corresponds with the type, for the Man of Sin
is expressly denominated “King over all the children of pride” (Job 41:34).
What is recorded in Gen. 10 about Nimrod supplies the key to the first half of Gen. 11
which tells of the building of the Tower of Babel. Gen. 10:10 informs us that the beginning
of Nimrod’s kingdom was Babel. In the language of that day Babel meant “the gate of God,”
but afterwards, because of the judgment which the Lord there inflicted, it came to mean
“Confusion.” That at the time Nimrod founded Babel this word signified “the gate (the figure
of official position) of God,” intimates that he not only organized an imperial government
over which he presided as king, but that he also instituted a new and idolatrous system of
worship. If the type be perfect, and we are fully assured it is so, then, as the Lawless One will
yet do, Nimrod demanded and received Divine honors. In all probability, it was at this point
that idolatry was introduced.
Nimrod is not directly mentioned in Gen. 11, but from the statements made about him
in chap. 10 there cannot be any doubt that he was the “Chief” and “King” who organized
and headed the movement and rebellion there described: “And they said, Go to, let us build
us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we
be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth” (11:4). Here we behold a most blatant
defiance of God, a deliberate refusal to obey His commands given through Noah — “Be
fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth” (9:1). But they said, “Let us make us a name
lest we be scattered upon the face of the whole earth.” As we have seen, Nimrod’s ambition
was to establish a world-empire. To accomplish this two things, at least, were necessary.
First, a center, a great headquarters; and second, a motive for the inspiration and encouragement
of
his
followers.
The
former
was
furnished
in
the
city
of
Babylon:
the
latter
was
to
be
supplied
in
the
“let
us
make
us
a
name.”
It
was
inordinate
desire
for
fame.
The
idea
of
the
146
Types of the Antichrist
Tower (considered in the light of its setting) seems that of strength, a stronghold, rather
than eminence.
To sum up. In Nimrod and his schemes we behold Satan’s initial attempt to raise up an
universal ruler of men. In his inordinate desire for fame, in the mighty power that he wielded,
in his ruthless and brutal methods, in his blatant defiance of the Creator, in his founding
of the kingdom of Babel, in his assuming to himself Divine honors, in the fact that the Holy
Spirit has placed the record of these things just before the inspired account of God’s bringing
Abraham into Canaan — pointing forward to the re-gathering of Israel in Palestine, immediately
after
the
overthrows
of
the
Lawless
One

and
finally,
in
the
Divine
destruction
of
his
kingdom

described
in
the
words,
“Let
Us
go
down
and
there
confound
their
language”
(Gen.
11:7),
which
so
marvellously
pictures
the
descent
of
Christ
from
heaven
to
vanquish
His
impious
rival

we
cannot
fail
to
see
that
we
have
a
wonderfully
complete
typical
picture
of
the
person,
the
work,
and
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist.
4. Chedorlaomer. The history of this man is recorded in Gen. 14 which is a chapter of
deep interest to the student of typology. The chapter opens with the words “And it came to
pass in the days of.” “This is an expression which occurs six times (in the Hebrew) and always
marks a time of trouble ending in blessing — cf Ruth 1:11; Isa. 7:1; Jer. 1:3; Ester 1:1; 2 Sam.
21:1” (Companion Bible). Such is plainly the case here. The first half of Gen. 14 depicts
Tribulation conditions, and this is followed by a scene foreshadowing millennial glory. The
time when Chedorlaomer lived is the first point in the type. His history is recorded just before
the first mention of Melchizedek, the priest-king, who came forth and blessed Abraham —
an unmistakable foreshadowment of Christ in millennial glory, blessing Israel. Second, the
name of this man is highly significant. Gesenius, in his lexicon, says of the word “a handful
of sheaves”[hellip]perhaps its true etymology should be sought in the ancient “Persian.”
The latter is doubtless correct, for “Elam,” of which Chedorbaomer was king (Gen. 14:1),
is the ancient name for Persia. Col. Rawlinson searched for his name on the tablets of ancient
Assyria, and there he found that his official title was, “Ravager of the west!” Thus was he a
true type of the coming one who shall wade through a sea of blood to his coveted position
as Emperor of the world. Third, it is indeed remarkable to find that just as Rev. 13:1 shows
us that the empire of which the Antichrist will be the Head (see our notes on this verse in
Chapter 11) includes within it the territory and perpetuates the characteristics of the earlier
empires (Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome), so dominions: “And it came to pass in the
days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and
Tidal king of nations.” Now “Shinar” is one of the names of Babylon (see Dan. 1:2); “Elam”
is the ancient name of Persia’ “Ellasar” is translated “Hellas” in the Sept., which is the ancient
name of Greece; while “Tidal king of the nations” evidently stands for Rome, the last of the
world empires. Fourth, but what is even more striking, is the fact that in Gen. 14:5 Chedorlamoer
is

seen at the head of the kings mentioned in v. 1. They act as his vassals, and
147
Types of the Antichrist
thus bow to the superiority of this one who was evidently a King of kings. Fifth, Chedorlaomer
was a warrior of renown. He was the Attila, the Napoleon of his day. He defeated in battle
the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and brought them into subjection and servitude (see
14:2-4). Later, they rebelled, and gathering his forces together he went forth, vanquished,
and slew them (14:9, 10). Thus did he foreshadow the Destroyer of the Gentiles (Jer. 4:7).
Sixth, in Gen. 14:12 we read, “And they took Lot, Abraham’s brother’s son, who dwelt in
Sodom, and his goods, and departed.” This prefigured the persecution of Israel by Antichrist
and his subordinates in a coming day. Finally, we learn how that Abraham and his servants
pursued Chedorlaomer and his forces, and that “Chedorlaomer and the kings that were
with him” were slain “in the kings dale” (14:17), which strikingly adumbrated the future
overthrow of Antichrist and the kings who shall be with him, in the dale of Megiddo (see
Rev. 19:19).
5. Pharaoh. We have in mind the Pharaoh of the book of Exodus. His history and
character are described at much greater length than the other personal types of the Antichrist
which have been before us, and therefore more parallelisms are to be found here. We shall
aim to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. First, Pharaoh was king of Egypt which, in
Scripture, is the lasting symbol of the world. In like manner, the one whom he so strikingly
prefigured will be Head of the world-kingdom. Second, the Pharaoh of Exodus came from
Assyria (Isa. 52:4); so also will the Antichrist first rise in that land. Third, Ex. 1 presents him
to our view as the merciless persecutor of the Hebrews, embittering their lives by hard
bondage. Fourth, he is next seen as the one who sought to cut off Israel from being a nation,
giving orders that all the male children should be slain in infancy. Fifth, he was the blatant
defier of God. When Moses and Aaron appeared before him and said, “Thus saith the Lord
God of Israel, Let My people go, that they may hold a feast unto Me in the wilderness,” his
arrogant reply was, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go?” (Ex. 5:1,
2). Sixth, God’s two witnesses performed miracles before Pharaoh (Ex. 7:10); so, too, will
God’s two witnesses in the Tribulation period work miracles before the Beast (Rev. 11:6, 7).
Seventh, Pharaoh had magical resources at his disposal (Ex. 7:11), as the Antichrist will have
at his (2 Thess. 2:9). Eighth, Pharaoh made fair promises to the Hebrews, only to break them
(Ex. 8:8, 15). In this, too, he foreshadowed the Antichrist in his perfidy and treachery toward
Israel. Ninth, he met with a drastic end at the hands of God (Psa. 136:15). Tenth, he was
overthrown at the time that Israel started out for the promised land: so Antichrist will be
cast into the Lake of Fire just before Israel enters into everlasting possession of their promised
inheritance. In all of these ten respects (and in others which the student may search out for
himself) Pharaoh was a striking and accurate type of the Antichrist.
6. Abimelech. First, Abimelech signifies “father of the king.” Gideon, deliverer of Israel,
was his father. But his mother was a concubine, and this name was given to him, no doubt,
for the purpose of hiding the shame of his birth. Looking from the type to the antitype —
148
Types of the Antichrist
“Father of the King” — all attention to the satanic origin of the Antichrist. Second, Abimelech
slew seventy of his own brethren (Judges 9:5), and was therefore a bloody persecutor of Israel.
Third, Judges 9:6, 22 tell us that he was “king over Israel.” Fourth, it is significant to note
that he occupied the throne at the time of Israel’s apostasy (see Judges 8:33, 34). Fifth, it is
also most suggestive that we are told he commenced his career at the stone (Judges 9:6), or
pillar, which Joshua erected in Ebal (facing Gerizim), the mount where all the curses of a
broken law were announced — Deut. 11:29; 27:4, 12, 13; Josh. 8:30. Sixth, he was a mighty
warrior, a violent man (see Judges 9:40-50, and cf Psa. 140:1 for the Antichrist as such).
Seventh, he was slain by the sword (Judges 9:54 and see Zech. 11:7; Rev. 13:3 for the antitype).
7. Saul. In at least ten respects Saul foreshadowed the Antichrist. Almost the first thing
told us about Saul is that he was “from his shoulders and upward higher than any of the
people” (1 Sam. 9:2, which is repeated in 10:23). As such he fitly prefigured the coming Superman,
who
in
intelligence,
governmental
power,
and
satanic
might,
will
so
tower
above
all
his
contemporaries
that
men
shall
exclaim,
“Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?”
(Rev.
13:4).
Second,
Saul
was
king
of
Israel
(1
Sam.
10:24),
so
also
will
the
Antichrist
be.
Third,
Saul
was
a
priestking,
blatantly
performing
the
office
of
the
Levite
(see
1
Sam.
13:9,
and
cf
Ezek.
21:25,
26
R.
V.). Fourth, the time of his reign was immediately before that of David, as that of the Antichrist
will
immediately
precede
that
of
David’s
Son
and
Lord.
Fifth,
he
was
a
mighty
warrior
(see
1
Sam.
11:11;
13:1-4;
15:4;
7:8).
Sixth,
he
was
a
rebel
against
God
(1
Sam.
15:11).
Seventh,
he
hated
David
(1
Sam.
18:7,
8,
11;
26:2,
etc.).
Eighth,
he
slew
the
servants
of
God
(1
Sam.
22:17,
18).
Ninth,
he
had
intercourse
with
the
powers
of
evil
(1
Sam.
29).
Tenth,
he
died
by
the
sword
(1
Sam.
31:4).
8. Goliath. First, his name means “Soothsayer” which at once connects him with the
powers of evil. Second, he was a giant, and thus, like Saul, prefigured the Super-man. Third,
he was the enemy of Israel. Fourth, his consuming egotism was displayed in his blatant
challenge, “I defy the armies of Israel” (1 Sam. 17:10). Fifth, the mysterious number 666
(the number of the Antichrist) is connected with Goliath. Note the three sixes. (a) He was
six cubits high (1 Sam. 17:4). (b) Six pieces of armour are enumerated — helmet, coat of
mail, greaves, target, staff, and shield (1 Sam. 17:5-7). (c) His spear’s head weighed six
hundred shekels of iron (1 Sam. 17:7). Sixth, he was slain by the sword (see 1 Sam. 17:51).
Seventh, he was slain by David — type of Christ. In each of these respects he foreshadowed
the Antichrist.
9. Absalom. First, the meaning of his name is very significant. “Absalom” means “father
of peace.” A careful reading of his history reveals the fact that, again and again, he posed as
a man of peace, while war was in his heart. So the Antichrist will pose as the promised Prince
of peace, and for a time it will appear that he has actually ushered in the Millennium. But
ere long his violent and bloody character will be revealed. Second, Absalom was the son of
David, and therefore a Jew. Third, but Absalom was a son of David by Maacah, the daughter
149
Types of the Antichrist
of the Gentile king of Jeshur (2 Sam. 3:3). So, too, will the Antichrist be a veritable king
among men. Fifth, Absalom was a man of blood (2 Sam. 13, etc.). Sixth, Absalom sought to
obtain the kingdom by flatteries (2 Sam. 15:2-6); cf Dan. 11:21, 23. Seventh, he cloaked his
rebellion by a pretense of religion (read 2 Sam. 15:7, 8). Eighth, he was the immediate cause
of the faithful followers of David being driven from Jerusalem into the wilderness (2 Sam.
15:14-16). Ninth, he reared up a pillar unto himself (2 Sam. 18:18), which clearly foreshadowed

the image which the Antichrist will cause to be set up unto himself. Tenth, he met
with a violent end (2 Sam. 18:14).
There are quite a number of others who foreshadowed the Antichrist in one or more
of the outstanding features of his character and career. For instance, there is Balak who,
accompanied by Baalam the prophet sought to curse and destroy Israel — a striking foreshadowing
of

the Beast with his ally the False Prophet. There is Adoni-zedek, mentioned
in Joshua 10, and who headed a federation of ten kings; it is remarkable that his name signifies
“lord of righteousness” which is what the Antichrist will claim to be as he comes forth on
the white horse (Rev. 6). Then there is Adoni-kam, with whom is associated the mystical
number 666 — see Ezra 2:13; and how profoundly significant that his name signifies “the
Lord hath risen.” We believe that this mystic number in connection with the Antichrist will
apply to him only after his resurrection — and six the number of man! Sennacherib (2 Kings
18) prefigured the Antichrist in a number of ways: as the king of Assyria, the blatant defier
of God, smitten by the sword, etc. Haman, four times denominated “the Jews’ enemy” (Esther

3:10, etc.), and termed “the adversary” (Esther 7:6), was another typical character.
Nebuchadnezzar, king of kings, who demanded universal worship, who set up an image to
himself, and decreed that all should worship it under pain of death, etc., manifestly pointed
forward to the Man of Sin, and so we might continue. Almost every prominent feature of
the Antichrist’s person and career was foreshadowed by some Old Testament character.
The subject is intensely interesting, and we trust that many of our readers will be encouraged
to pursue it further for themselves. In closing this chapter we shall look at one New Testament
type of the Antichrist.
10. Herod. At the beginning of the New Testament there meets us a typical foreshadowing
of the Antichrist. We refer to what is recorded in Matt. 2. The description there furnished
of Herod obviously contains a prophetic adumbration of his great prototype. Notice, first,
that three times over he is denominated “the king” (vv. 1, 3, 9), as such he prefigured the
last great king, before the appearing of the King of kings. Second, observe his hypocrisy.
When the “wise men,” who had followed the star which heralded the Saviour’s birth, were
summoned into Herod’s presence, we are told that he said unto them, “Go and search diligently
for
the
young
child;
and
when
ye
have
found
Him,
bring
me
word
again,
that
I
may
come
and
worship
Him
also”
(v.
8).
That
nothing
could
have
been
further
from
his
mind
is
plain
from
his
subsequent
acts.
But,
nevertheless,
he
first
posed
as
a
devout
worshipper.
150
Types of the Antichrist
Such is the role that the Antichrist will first fill in Palestine. Third, next he threw off his religious
mask
and
displayed
his
wicked
heart:
“Then
Herod,
when
he
saw
that
he
was
mocked
of
the
wise
men,
was
exceeding
wroth,
and
sent
forth,
and
slew
all
the
children
that
were
in
Bethlehem,”
etc.
(v.
16).
Similarly
will
the
Antichrist
act
in
Jerusalem.
Three
and
one
half
years
before
his
end
comes
he
will
discard
his
religious
pretensions
and
stand
forth
in
his
true

character. Fourth, in this edict of slaying the young children in Bethlehem and the
coasts thereof, he was aiming, of course, at Christ Himself. Thus did he accurately foreshadow
that one who will yet fulfill the terms of Gen. 3:15, where we read of a double “enmity” —
between Satan and the woman (Israel), and between her Seed (Christ) and the Serpent’s
“seed” (the Antichrist). In the fifth place, we may also discover in Herod’s destruction of
the children, a forecast of the fiendish assaults which the Antichrist will make upon the
Jews, when he seeks to cut them off from being a nation. In the sixth place, we may note
how the consequence of Herod’s cruelty will reappear in the future — “In Ramah was there
a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her
children, and would not be comforted, because they are not” (Matt. 2:18). This is a quotation
from Jer. 31:15. But like most, if not all, prophecies, this will receive another and final fulfillment

at the close of the Tribulation period. Our authority for this is found in the words
which immediately follow in Jer. 31: “Thus saith the Lord, Refrain thy voice from weeping,
and thine eyes from tears: for thy work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord; and they shall
come again from the land of the Enemy. And there is hope in thine end, saith the Lord, that
thy children shall come again to their own border.” Thus it is clear that “bitter weeping and
lamentation” will again be heard in Ramah just before Christ returns and restores Israel.
Seventh, the accuracy of the typical picture supplied by Matt. 2 may be discovered in the
failure of Herod to destroy the Christ-child. Just as God foiled Herod, so will He yet bring
to nought the wicked designs of the Antichrist; and just as we read of Christ coming and
dwelling at Nazareth after the death of Herod, so Christ shall again dwell in that land after
the death of the false King. Surely, this remarkable typical picture of the Antichrist should
cause us to search more diligently for other esoteric allusions to him in the New Testament.
151
Babylon and the Antichrist
Babylon and the Antichrist
Babylon and the Antichrist
We arrive now at a branch of our subject upon which the Lord’s people are in evident
need of instruction: they have less light here than on most prophetic themes. And perhaps
we should not be surprised at this. The very name Babylon means confusion, and widely
prevails the confusion concerning it. Yet here and there God has raised up individuals who
have borne faithful testimony to the teaching of His Word concerning the past and future
of Babylon, and to their witness the writer acknowledges his indebtedness. In view of the
ignorance which generally obtains we shall proceed the more cautiously. We here propose
to examine carefully the principal scriptures in the Old Testament bearing upon our present
theme.
“Babylon was a mighty city of old; its beginnings were in Shinar in the days shortly after
the flood; it played an important part in the history of Israel and of Judea; it was the head
of the kingdoms of the earth in the days of Nebuchadnezzar; after its capture by the Medes
and Persians it fell from its high estate, but for some centuries after Christ it was still a city
of importance, and the head of a district. In the New Testament it is first mentioned by Peter
(1 Pet. 5:13), and here in the book that tells of the events that occur in the Day of the Lord
we read of it as a city again dominating the world, and that at a time when Israelites are
again prominent in the story of the earth. Here, too, Babylon reappears in its ancient dual
aspect, political and social, the first city of earth and also the leader of the worship and religion
of the world powers. The site of old Babylon is known at the present day; it covers a wide
extent of ground, and parts of it are inhabited, as for instance Hillah, where there are some
five or six thousand people. When the long-talked-of Euphrates Valley Railway becomes a
reality, Babylon will be one of the most important places on the line” (Col. VanSomeron —
“The Great Unfolding”). This quotation supplies a brief but fairly comprehensive outline
of our subject.
The earliest mention of Babel in scripture is in connection with the name of him who
first after the deluge attained to greatness in the earth — greatness apart from God. Nimrod
was the grandson of Ham, who called down upon him the curse of his father, Hoah. “The
sons of Ham were Cush[hellip]and Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the
earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord, and the beginning of his kingdom was Babel,
in the land of Shinar” (Gen. 10:7-10). Let the reader turn back to the previous chapter for
our comments on Nimrod as a type of the Antichrist. “Thus mightiness in the earth and
commencement of kingly rule are first mentioned in connection with one, the seat of whose
power was Babylon and the land of Shinar. Nimrod — Nebuchadnezzar — Antichrist, are,
as we shall see, the three great names connected with that region and with that city” (B.W.
Newton: “Babylon; Its Revival and Final Destruction” — 1859).
152
Babylon and the Antichrist
The first mention of anything in scripture always calls for the most particular attention,
inasmuch as the initial occurrence of any term or expression in the Word of God invariably
defines its meaning and forecasts its subsequent significance and scope. The passage just
quoted from Gen. 10 is inseparably connected with and is in fact the key to what is found
in Gen. 11. There we learn that the land of Shinar is mentioned as the place where men first
united in confederate action against God. God had commanded that men should spread
abroad — Gen. 9:1. But they, in blatant defiance, preferred to centralize. They determined
to make for themselves a name, saying, “Go to, Let us build us a city and a tower, whose top
may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the
face of the whole earth” (Gen. 11:4). And this, we are told, was “In the land of Shinar” (11:2).
But the Lord interfered, came down, confounded their speech, and scattered them — “And
they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did
there confound the language of all the earth,” etc. (Gen. 11:8, 9). Thus we see that at the
beginning, the land of Shinar and the city of Babylon were the scene of confederate evil, and
of judgment from the hand of God.
Shinar, then, was the land around Babel. Now, though the building of the city of Babylon
was checked during the days of Nimrod, yet his kingdom was not overthrown. In Gen. 14:1
we read of “Amraphal king of Shinar.” It would appear from several scriptures that “the
land of Chaldea” — the capital of which was the city of Babylon — is but another name for
“the land of Shinar.” In Dan. 5:30 Belshazzar is termed “the king of the Chaldeans,” while
in 7:1 he is called “the king of Babylon” — cf Isa. 47:1; Jer. 50:8; 51:54; Ezek. 12:13. In addition
to these passages, Dan. 1:2, 3 seems to positively establish this conclusion, for there we are
expressly told that the Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar’s day was situated in “the land of Shinar!”
This serves to confirm the fact that Chaldea or Babylonia was the most ancient of the early
empires. It was from “Ur” of Chaldea (Gen. 11:28) that Abram was called; and it was “the
Chaldeans” who plundered Job (Job 1:17); and in Josh. 7:21 we read of the “goodly Babylonish
garment” which tempted Achan, among the spoils of Jericho. In striking accord with this
is the statement found in Jer. 5:16, where the Holy Spirit terms the Babylonians as “ancient”
as well as a “mighty” nation. After the days of Joshua, Babylon was not directly referred to
again till the days of Esar-Haddan, of whom it is said, “And the king of Assyria brought
men from Babylon, and from Cutthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim,

and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they
possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof” (2 Kings 17:24, and cf Ezra 4:2). Closely
connected with the land of Shinar is Assyria. For a time the supremacy alternated between
Assyria and Babylonia, until in the days of Nabapolasser, the father of Nebuchadnezzar,
Ninevah was conquered and Assyria became subject to Babylon.
But though Shinar and its capital are referred to in Gen. 10 and 11, and though there
are occasional allusions to them in the centuries that followed, it was not until Israel’s
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Babylon and the Antichrist
apostasy had been fully manifested that we find Babylon coming into the place of prominence
and dominion. “Until Jerusalem had been sufficiently tried, to see whether she would prove
herself worthy of being God’s city, Babylon was kept in abeyance. The founder of Babylon’s
greatness was that great king who was raised up to scourge Jerusalem, and who commenced
the ‘Times of the Gentiles’, by receiving from God that endowment of power which was
taken from Israel, and remains vested in the Gentiles, till Jerusalem shall be forgiven and
cease to be trodden down. It was Nebuchadnezzar who ‘walked in the palace of the kingdom
of Babylon. The king spoke and said, Is not this great Babylon which I have built for the
house of the kingdom by the might of my power and for the honor of my majesty?’ (Dan.
4). The greatness of Babylon dates only from Nebuchadnezzar” (B.W.N.).
The fifth chapter of Daniel tells how Belshazzar, the successor of Nebuchadnezzar, was
slain by Darius, who took over the kingdom. Neither the city nor the kingdom was then
destroyed, and so far from it being made desolate and without inhabitant, it remained for
long centuries a city without inhabitant, it remained for long centuries a city of note. Two
hundred years after its capture by Darius, Alexander the Great, after his conquest over the
Persians, selected Babylon as the intended capital of his vast dominion, and, in fact, died
there. In the first century of the Christian era Babylon still stood, for Peter refers to a church
there! (See 1 Pet. 5:13). Several of the church “Fathers” refer to Babylon, and at the beginning
of the sixth century A.D. the famous Babylonian Talmud was issued by the Academies of
Babylonia. Mr. Newton tells us that “Ivan Hankel in A.D. 917 speaks of Babylon as a small
village. Even in the tenth century, therefore, it had not wholly disappeared.” Slow and almost
undiscernible was its decline and decay. Even in this day there is still a small town, Hillah,
standing on the original site of ancient Babylon. What, then, of the future?
That there will yet be another Babylon, a Babylon eclipsing the power and glory of that
of Nebuchadnezzar’s day, has long been the firm conviction of the writer. Nor are we by
any means alone in this conviction. A long list of honored names might be given of those
who have arrived, independently, at the conclusion that the Scriptures plainly teach that
Babylon is going to be rebuilt. But there is no need to buttress our conviction by an appeal
to human authority. Better than the faith of the reader rest on the Word of God, than in the
wisdom of the best of men. Before we set forth some of the many scripture proofs on which
our conviction rests, let us ask, Would it not be passing strange if Babylon had no place in
the End-time? Scripture tells us that Jerusalem, which has been so long trodden down by
the Gentiles, is to be restored by human agency, and have a re-built temple (Matt. 24:15).
Egypt and Assyria have yet an honored future before them, as is clear from Isa. 19:23, 24.
Moab, Edom, and Seir are to figure in the coming day, as is intimated in Num. 24:17, 18.
Greece awaits her final judgment from God (Zech. 9:13). And so we might go on. Why,
then, should Babylon be exempted from the general renovation of the East?
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Babylon and the Antichrist
But we are not left to logical deductions, the Word of God expressly affirms that Babylon
will play a prominent part at the Time of the End. The empire over which the Antichrist
will reign is described in the identical symbols which were applied to the four world-kingdoms
of
Dan.
7.
In
Dan.
7:3
Daniel beheld “four great beasts” come up from the sea, and in
Dan. 7:17 we are told “these great beasts, which are four, are four kings (or kingdoms) which
shall arise out of the earth.” These four beasts or kingdoms were the Babylonian, the MedoPersian,
the
Grecian,
and
the
Roman.
Dan.
7:4
says “The first was like a lion.” 7:5 says “The
second was like a bear.” 7:6 says the third was “like a leopard.” 7:7 says the fourth was
“dreadful and terrible.” Now, in Rev. 13:1, 2, where we have a symbolical description of the
empire which the Antichrist shall head, we are told that John saw “a Beast rise up out of the
sea,” and then it is added, “the Beast[hellip]was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the
feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion.” Of the fourth beast of Dan. 7 we read,
“It had ten horns” (7:7); so in Rev. 13:1 the Beast there has “ten horns.” Who, then, can
doubt that Rev. 13:1, 2 is given for the express purpose of teaching us that the four great
world-kingdoms of the past — not merely the fourth but all of the four — are to be revived
and restored at the Time of the End? But as this point is disputed by some, we tarry to advance
further proof.
It is to be noted that the Beast (kingdom) of Rev. 13:1 is said to have “seven heads.” This
has puzzled many of the commentators, but once it is seen that the Beast of Rev. 13:1, 2 is
a symbolic description, first of a composite kingdom, made up of and perpetuating the features
of
the
four
world-empires
of
old;
and
second,
a
symbolic
description
of
the
one
who
shall
head
it,
all
difficulty
disappears.
That
we
have
here
in
Rev.
13:1,
2
a composite kingdom
is clear from the “seven heads.” Now note that in Dan. 7 the first, second and fourth kingdoms
are not said to have more than one head, but the third has “four heads” (Dan. 7:6). Thus
the beasts of Dan. 7 have, three of them one head each, and the third four heads, or seven
in all; which tallies perfectly with Rev. 13:1. But even this does not exhaust the proofs that
the four kingdoms of Dan. 7 are to be restored, and play their final parts immediately before
the Millennium.
If the reader will turn to Dan. 2, which is parallel with Dan. 7 — the “image in its four
parts” (the head, the breast and arms, the belly and thighs, the legs and feet) corresponding
with the four beasts — it will be found that when we come to v. 45, which speaks of Christ
(under the figure of “the Stone cut out of the mount without hands”) returning to earth to
destroy the forces of evil, and then set up His kingdom, we discover that the Stone “brake
in pieces the iron (Rome), the brass (Greece), the clay (apostate Israel), the silver (MedoPersia),
and
the
gold
(Babylon).”
What
we
desire
the
reader
to
note
particularly
is
that
the
Stone
strikes
not
only
the
iron,
but
the
brass,
clay,
silver,
and
gold;
in
fact,
v.
35
tells us, expressly,
they
shall
be
“broken
to
pieces
together!”
If,
then,
they
are
destroyed
together,
they
must
all
be
on
the
scene
at
the
time
of
Christ’s
return
to
earth
to
inaugurate
His
millennial
155
Babylon and the Antichrist
reign, and if so, each of them must have been revived and restored!! As our present inquiry
concerns not the renovation of Persia, Greece and Rome, but only that of Babylon, we shall
confine ourselves to the scriptures which speak of the last mentioned.
1. Isa. 13 and 14 contain a remarkable bearing directly on the theme before us. It is
termed in the opening verse. “The burden of Babylon.” It tells of the terrible judgment which
God shall send on this city. It speaks of the total and final destruction of it. It declares that
“Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when
God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.” It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt
in from generation to generation (vv. 19, 20). Now the one point pertinent to our present
inquiry is, Whether Isa. 13 describes the doom which befell the Babylon of Belshazzar’s day,
or the judgment which shall overtake the Babylon of the coming day. Upon this point there
is, for those who desire to be subject to God’s Word, no room for uncertainty. The sixth
verse expressly declares that this “burden of Babylon” is to receive its fulfillment in “the Day
of the Lord.” This, we need hardly add, is the name for that day which follows the present
Day of Salvation (2 Cor. 6:2). If the reader will consult a concordance he will find that “the
Day of the Lord” never refers to a period now past, but always has reference to one which
is yet future! If any doubt remains as to whether or not Isa. 13 is speaking of a future day,
the contents of v. 10 should forever remove it. There we are told that “the stars of heaven
and the constellation thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going
forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.” All students of prophecy will see at
a glance that these cosmic phenomena are w hat are to be witnessed during the Tribulation
period — cf. Matt. 24:29. There is not a hint anywhere either in Scripture or (so far as we
are aware) in secular history, that such disturbances among the heavenly bodies occurred
at the captivity of Babylon by Darius. And it is at that time, in “the Day of the Lord” when
the sun is darkened and the moon shines not, that Babylon is overthrown (v. 19). This one
scripture is quite sufficient to establish the futurity of Babylon and its coming overthrow.
2. The 14th of Isaiah reads right on from 13, completing the “burden of Babylon” there
begun. It supplies further proof that there is to be another Babylon. The chapter opens with
a declaration of Israel’s coming restoration. It declares “the Lord will have mercy on Jacob,
and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land” (v. 1). It goes on to say, “It shall
come to pass in the day that the Lord shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear,
and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve, That thou shalt take up this
taunting speech against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the
golden city ceased!” (vv. 3, 4). Should the quibble be raised that these verses are speaking
of the restoration of Israel to Palestine following the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar’s time, it
1 There is no room for a quibble about the meaning of “Babylon,” for v. 19 expressly terms it “The beauty of
the Chaldees’ excellency.”
1
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Babylon and the Antichrist
is easily silenced. The verses that follow those just quoted make it unmistakably clear that
this prophecy yet awaits its fulfillment. Thus we read in vv. 7, 8, “The whole earth is at rest,
and is quiet: they break forth into singing. Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars
of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.” The whole
earth never has been “at rest” since the days of Cain (except it were during the brief period
when the Word tabernacled among men). But it will be during the Millennium! Notice, too,
that following the overthrow of “the golden city,” Israel exclaims, “Since thou art laid down,
(laid low) no feller (no cutter off) is come up against us!” This establishes, unequivocally,
the time of which this prophecy treats. Long after the days of Belshazzar, the Romans came
up against Israel and cut them off. But none shall do this again when the last king of Babylon
is destroyed!
Above, we have quoted to the end of the 8th verse of Isa. 14. In the 9th verse the
prophet suddenly turns from Babylon to its last king. Verses 9 to 20 contain a striking portrait
of the lofty arrogance and fearful doom of the Man of Sin. Then, in verse 21, the “burden”
returns again to the subjects of the Antichrist: “Prepare slaughter for his children for the
iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the
world with cities. For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off from
Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the Lord. I will also make it a
possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction,
saith
the
Lord
of
hosts”
(vv.
21-23).
Finally,
the
prophet
concludes
with
a
parting
word
concerning
the
Antichrist:
“The
Lord
of
hosts
hath
sworn,
saying,
Surely
as
I
have
thought,
so
shall
it
come
to
pass;
and
as
I
have
purposed,
so
shall
it
stand:
That
I
will
break
the
Assyrian
in
my
land,
and
upon
my
mountains
tread
him
under
foot:
then
shall
his
yoke
depart
from
off
them,
and
his
burden
depart
from
off
their
shoulders.
This
is
the
purpose
that
is
purposed
upon
the
whole
earth:
and
this
is
the
hand
that
is
stretched
upon
all
the
nations.
For
the
Lord
of
hosts
hath
purposed,
and
who
shall
disannul
it?
And
His
hand
is
stretched
out,
and
who
shall
turn
it
back?”
(vv.
24-27).
Well
has
it
been
said,
“These
are
remarkable
and

significant words, and certainly we cannot say they have been fulfilled. Will any one
affirm that God’s purpose which He hath purposed upon the whole earth was accomplished
when Babylon was overthrown by the Medes and Persians? Did the hand that was stretched
out over all the nations, then fulfill its ultimate designs? Was the Assyrian then trodden
under foot in THE LAND, AND ON THE MOUNTAINS OF ISRAEL, and, that at a time
when the yoke of bondage is finally broken from off the neck of Israel? If this were so we
should no longer see Jerusalem trodden down now. ‘The times of the Gentiles’ would have
ended. Israel would be gathered, and Jerusalem be ‘a praise in the earth’. The concluding
words of this prophecy, therefore, might alone convince us that it yet remains to be fulfilled”
(B.W.N.).
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Babylon and the Antichrist
3. We appeal next to the 50th chapter of Jeremiah. The opening verses contain a
prophecy which certainly has not received its complete fulfillment in the past. It declares,
“The words that the Lord spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by
Jeremiah the prophet. Declare ye among the nations, and publish, and set up a standard;
publish, and conceal not: say, Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, Merodach is broken in
pieces; her idols are confounded, her images are broken in pieces. For out of the north there
cometh up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell
therein: they shall remove, they shall depart, both man and beast. In those days, and in that
time, saith the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together,
going and weeping: they shall go, and seek the Lord their God. They shall ask the way to
Zion with their faces thitherward, saying, Come, and let us join ourselves to the Lord in a
perpetual covenant which shall not be forgotten” (vv. 1-5). Mark carefully three things in
these verses. First, it is announced that the land of Babylon shall be made so desolate that
neither man nor beast shall dwell therein. Second, the time for this is defined as being when
Israel and Judah together (and since the days of Rehoboam they have never been united)
shall “seek the Lord.” Third, it is when Israel and Judah shall join themselves to the Lord in
“a perpetual covenant!” Still more explicit is the time-mark in v. 20: “In those days, and in
that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none;
and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found.”
4. The whole of Jer. 51 should be carefully studied in this connection. Much in it we
reserve for consideration in the two chapters which will follow this. Here we simply call attention
to
vv.
47-49:

“Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon the
graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be confounded, and all her slain shall
fall in the midst of her. Then the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for
Babylon: for the Spoiler shall come upon her from the north, saith the Lord. As Babylon
hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth.” Surely
little comment is needed here. When did the slain “of all the earth” (i.e. of all nations) fall
in the midst of Babylon? And when did heaven and earth and all that is therein rejoice at
her overthrow? “When Babylon passed into the hands of the Medes there was little occasion
for such joy. It made little difference to the earth whether Babylon was reigned over by
Chaldeans, or by Persians, or Greeks, or Romans. There was little cause for thanksgiving in
such transfer of authority from one proud hand to another. But if there be a fall of Babylon
that is to be immediately succeeded by the kingdom of Him, of whom it is said, ‘All nations
shall call Him blessed’[hellip]then there is indeed sufficient reason why heaven and earth,
and all that is therein should sing” (B.W.N.).
5. “Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail:
for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt
go even to Babylon; there shalt thou be delivered; there the Lord shall redeem thee from the
158
Babylon and the Antichrist
hand of thine enemies” (Micah 4:10). In the light of such scriptures as Micah 5:3, Matt. 24:8
(“sorrows” literally means “birth-pangs”), etc., there can be no room for doubt as to the
time to which this prophecy refers. It is at the close of the Great Tribulation. And at that
time a remnant of Israel will be found in Babylon and they shalt be delivered by the Lord.
6. Both the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah as will as the Apocalypse speak of the
immediateness of the blow which is to destroy Babylon. “Come down, and sit in the dust,
O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the
Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate[hellip]therefore hear now
this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart I am,
and none else besides me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children:
But these two things shall come to thee in a moment, in one day, the loss of children, and
widowhood: they shall come upon thee in thy perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries,
and for the great abundance of thine enchantments” (Isa. 47:1, 8, 9). “Babylon is suddenly
fallen and destroyed:; howl for her” (Jer. 51:8). “Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that
mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come” (Rev. 18:10). There has been nothing in
the past history of Babylon which in any wise corresponds with these prophecies.
7. Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Revelation each declare that Babylon shall be burned with
fire. “And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency shall be
as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorah” (Isa. 13:19). “The mighty men of Babylon
have forborne to fight, they have remained in their holes: their might hath failed; they become
as women: they have burned her dwelling places; her bars are broken[hellip]Thus saith the
Lord or hosts; the broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall
be burned with fire” (Jer. 51:30, 58). “And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning,
saying, What city is like unto this great city!” (Rev. 18:18). We know of nothing in either
Scripture or secular history which shows that Babylon was burned in the past.
“But it will be said, perhaps, How can this be? Has not Babylon already been smitten?
Has it not already been swept with the besom of destruction? Our answer is — Not at the
time and with the concomitant circumstances specified in the passage just quoted. It is true
indeed that the Euphratean countries have been smitten — sorely smitten under the hand
of God. God is wont in His goodness to give premonitory blows. He is accustomed to warn
before He finally destroys. Egypt, Jerusalem, and many other places, have all experienced
premonitory desolations, and so has Babylon. Its present ruin (which came on it slowly,
and if I may so speak, gently), is a memorial of what God’s righteous vengeance can do, and
a warning of what it will more terribly do, if human pride in contempt of all His admonitions,
shall again attempt to rear its goodly palaces when He has written desolation. But if it be
the habit of God thus graciously to warn, it is equally the habit of man to say, ‘The bricks
are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stone; the sycamores are cut down, but we will
change them into cedars.’ Unbidden, the hand of man revived what God had smitten (that
159
Babylon and the Antichrist
is what happened in Chicago and San Francisco! A.W.P.). Without therefore undervaluing
the lesson given by past visitations of God’s judgments — without hiding, but rather seeking
to proclaim the reality and extent of the ruin, His holy hand has wrought, we have also to
testify, that the hand of man uncommissioned from above will, sooner or later, reconstruct
the fabric of its greatness — its last evil greatness, on the very plains which teem with the
memorials of a ruin entailed by former and yet unrepented of transgressions. Egypt, Damascus,

Palestine, and in a measure, Jerusalem, are already being revived. And if these and
neighboring countries which have been visited by inflictions similar to those which have
fallen on Babylon, are yet to revive and flourish with an evil prosperity at the time of the
end, why should Babylon be made an exception?” (B.W.N.).
That the Antichrist will be intimately connected with the land of Chaldae is clear from
a number of scriptures, notably, those which speak of him as “the Assyrian” and “the king
of Babylon.” But as this is a disputed point we are obliged to pause and make proof of it.
Let us turn, then, first to Isa. 10 and 11 which form one continuous prophecy. We can not
now attempt even an outline of this long and interesting prediction, but must merely single
out one or two statements from it which bear on the point now before us.
In the fifth verse of Isa. 10, the Lord addresses the Antichrist as follows: “O Assyrian,
the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation.” This intimates, as
pointed out in a previous chapter, that the Son of Perdition is but a tool in the hands of the
Almighty, His instrument for threshing Israel. His consuming egotism and haughtiness
come out plainly in the verses that follow (7-11). But when God has accomplished His
purpose by him, He “will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the
glory of his high looks” (v. 12). How this serves to identify him with the “little horn” of Dan.
7:20, the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:4! — cf further his proud boastings recorded in Isa. 10:13,
14. In v. 23 is another statement which helps us to fix with certainty the period of which the
prophet is speaking, and the central actors there in view: “For a consummation, and that
determined, shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, make in the midst of all the earth” (R.V.). The
words “consummation” and “that determined” occur again in Dan. 9:27 — “He (Antichrist)
shall make it (the temple) desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall
be poured upon the Desolator.” The “King of Assyria” and “the Desolator” are thus shown
to be the same. In Isa. 10, vv. 24 and 25 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God of hosts,
O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a
rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For et a very little
while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction.” Clearly this is
parallel with Dan. 11:36: “And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt
himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against
the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished.” In the 11th chapter
of Isaiah there is a statement even clearer, a proof conclusive and decisive: “And He shall
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Babylon and the Antichrist
smite the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the
wicked” (11:4). These very words are applied to the Man of Sin in 2 Thess. 2:8.
In Isa. 14 we have a scripture which very clearly connects the Antichrist with Babylon.
The opening verses (which really form a parenthesis) tell of the coming restoration of Israel
to Jehovah’s favor, and then in v.4 they are bidden to take up “a taunting speech (marginal
rendering) against the King of Babylon.” The taunting speech begins thus: “How hath the
Oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! the Lord hath broken the staff of the Wicked”
(vv. 4, 5). As to who is in view here there is surely no room for doubt. He is Israel’s Oppressor
in the End-time; he is the Wicked One. In the verses which follow there are many marks by
which he may be positively identified. In v. 6 this “King of Babylon” is said to be “He who
smote the people (i.e. Israel) in wrath with a continual stroke.” In v. 12 he is called “Lucifer
(Day-star), Son of the morning,” a title which marks him out as none other than the Son of
Perdition. Whatever backward reference to the fall of Satan there may be in this verse and
the ones that follow, it is clear that they describe the blasphemous arrogance of the Antichrist.
In v. 13 we read, “For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my
throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the
sides of the north.” Then, in vv.15 and 16 we are told, “Yet thou shalt be brought down to
hell, to the sides of the Pit. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider
thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms?”
Clearly it is the Man of Sin that is here in view.
In Isa. 30 we have another scripture which links Antichrist with Babylonia. Beginning
at v.27 we read: “Behold, the name of the Lord cometh from afar, burning with His anger,
and the burning thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring
fire: And his breath, as an over-flowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift
the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people,
causing them to err. Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and
gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the Lord, to
the mighty One of Israel.” Clearly it is the very end of the Tribulation period which is here
in view. The reference is to the return of the Lord to earth in great power and glory, when
He shall overthrow those who are gathered together against Him, and put an end to the
awful career of the Antichrist. Continuing, we find this passage in Isa. 30 closes as follows:
“For through the voice of the Lord shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which, smote with a
rod. And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the Lord shall lay upon
him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it. For
Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; He hath made it deep and large:
the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone,
doth kindle it” — cf “the breath of the Lord” here with Isa. 11:4. For further references to
Antichrist and Assyria see Isa. 7:17-20; 8:7, etc.
161
Babylon and the Antichrist
The next two chapters will be devoted to a consideration of Babylon in the New Testament,
when
Rev.
17
and 18 will come before us. May the Lord in His grace give us the wisdom
we so sorely need, and preserve the writer and reader from all error.
162
Antichrist and Babylon
Antichrist and Babylon
Antichrist and Babylon
In the last chapter we confined ourself to the Old Testament, in this and the one that
follows we shall treat mainly of Babylon in Rev. 17 and 18, though, of necessity, we shall
examine these in the light of Old Testament passages. In the previous chapter, we briefly
reviewed the Old Testament evidence which proves there is to be a re-built Babylon, over
which the Antichrist shall reign during the Time of the End. Now as both the Old and New
Testaments have one and the same Divine Author, it cannot be that the latter should conflict
with the former. “If the Old and New Testaments treat of the circumstances which are immediately
to

precede the Advent of the Lord in glory, the substantive facts of that period
must be alike referred to in both. If the Old Testament declares that Babylon and ‘the land
of Shinar’ is to be the focus of influential wickedness at the time of the end, it it impossible
that the Revelation, when professedly treating of the same period, should be silent respecting
such wickedness, or respecting the place of its concentration. If the Old Testament speaks
of an individual of surpassing power who will connect himself with this wickedness, and be
the king of Babylon, and glorify himself as God, it is not to be supposed that the Revelation
should treat of the same period and be silent respecting such an event. If, therefore, in the
Old Testament, the sphere be fixed — the locality named — the individual defined — it is
impossible that the Revelation, when detailing the events of the same period, should alter
the localities, or change the individuals. There cannot be two sovereign individuals, nor two
sovereign cities in the same sphere at the same time. If the mention of the ‘Land of Shinar’,
and of ‘Assyria’, and of ‘the king of Babylon’, be intended in the Old Testament to render
our thoughts fixed and definite, why should similar terms, applied in the Revelation to a
period avowedly the same, be less definite?” (B.W.Newton).
Of Rev. 17 and 18 it has been well said, “There is, perhaps, no section of the Apocalypse
more fraught with difficulty than the predictions concerning Babylon. Enigmatical and inconsistent
with
each
other
as,
at
first
sight,
they
seem
to
be,
we
need
to
give
careful
attention
to
every
particular,
and
much
patient
investigation
of
other
scriptures,
if
we
would
penetrate
their
meaning
and
possess
ourselves
of
their
secret”
(Mr.
G.H.
Pember,
M.A.).
In
prosecuting
our
present
study
we
cannot
do
better
than
borrow
again
from
the
language
of
Mr.
Pember,
“Nor
is
the
present
necessarily
brief
and
imperfect
essay
written
in
any
spirit
of
dogmatic
certainty
that
it
solves
the
mystery;
but
only
as
the
conclusion,
so
far
as
light
has
been
already
vouchsafed,
to
one
who,
having
received
mercy
of
the
Lord,
has
been
led
to
much
consideration
of
this
and
kindred
subjects.”
An exposition of the Revelation or any part thereof should be the last place for dogmatism.

Both at the beginning and close of the book the Holy Spirit expressly states that the
Apocalypse is a “prophecy” (1:3; 22:19), and prophecy is, admittedly, the most difficult
branch of Scripture study. It is true that during the last century God has been pleased to
163
Antichrist and Babylon
give His people not a little light upon the predictive portions of His Word, nor is the Apocalypse
to
be
excepted.
Yet,
the
more
any
one
reads
the
literature
on
the
subject,
the
more
should
he
become
convinced
that
dogmatism
here
is
altogether
unseemly.
During
the
last
fifteen
years
the
writer
has
made
it
a
point
to
read
the
Revelation
through
carefully
at
least
three
times
a
year,
and
during
this
period
he
has
also
gone
through
over
thirty
commentaries
on
the
last
book
of
the
Bible.
A
perusal
of
the
varied
and
conflicting
interpretations
advanced
have

taught him two things. First, the wisdom of being cautious in adopting any of the
prevailing views; second, the need of patient and direct waiting on God for further light. To
these may be added a third, namely, the possibility, yea, the probability, that many of the
prophecies of the Revelation are to receive a double, and in some cases, a treble, fulfillment.
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable.” This applies equally to
the Prophets as to the Epistles, and it was just as true five hundred years ago as it is today.
That being so, the right understanding of the final fulfillment of the prophecies in the Revelation

cannot be the only value that book possesses. There must also be that in it which
had a pertinent and timely message for the people of God of this dispensation in each generation.
There
must
be
that
in
which
strengthened
the
faith
of
those
saints
who
read
it
during
the
“Dark
Ages,”
and
that
which
enabled
them
to
detect
and
keep
clear
from
the
which
opposed
to
God
and
His
Christ.
In
other
words,
its
prophecies
must
have
received
a
gradual
and
partial
fulfillment
all
through
the
centuries
of
the
Christian
era,
though
their
final
fulfillment

be yet future. Such is the case with Rev. 17 and 18. Ever since John received the
Revelation there has always existed a system which, in its moral features, has corresponded
to the Babylon of the 17th chapter. There exists such a system today; there will exist such a
system after the Church is raptured to heaven. And there will also come into existence another
and
final
system
which
will
exhaust
the
scope
of
this
prophecy.
The position which the Apocalypse occupies in the Sacred Canon is surely indicative
of the character of its contents. The fact that it is placed at the close, at once suggests that it
treats of that which concerns the end of things. Moreover, it is taken for granted that the
student of this sixty-sixth book of the Bible is already acquainted with the previous sixtyfive

books. Scripture is self-interpreting, and we may rest assured that whatever appears
vague or difficult in the last book of Scripture is due to our ignorance of the meaning of the
books preceding, and particularly of the Prophets. In the Apocalypse the various streams
of prediction, which may be traced through the Old Testament Scriptures, are seen emptying
themselves in the sea of historical accomplishment. Or, to change the figure, here we are
given to behold the last act of the great Dispensational Drama, the earlier acts of which were
depleted in the writings of the seers of Israel. And yet, as previously intimated, these final
scenes have already had a preliminary rehearsal during the course of the Christian centuries.
It will thus be seen that we are far from sharing the views of those who limit the
prophecies of the Revelation to a single fulfillment. We believe there is much of truth in
164
Antichrist and Babylon
both the Historical and Futurist interpretations. We are in entire accord with the following
words from the pen of our esteemed brother, Mr. F.C. Jennings: “How many of the controversies
that
have
ruled,
alas,
amongst
the
Lord’s
people,
have
been
due
to
a
narrow
way
of
limiting
the
thoughts
of
God,
and
seeking
to
confine
or
bend
them
by
our
own
apprehension
of
them.
How
often
two,
or
more,
apparently
opposing
systems
of
interpretation
may
really
both
be
correct;
the
breadth,
the
length,
and
height,
and
depth,
of
the
mind
of
God,
including
and
going
beyond
both
of
them.”
Let
us
now
come
more
directly
to
our
present
theme.
The first time that Babylon is mentioned in the Apocalypse is in 14:8: “And there followed
another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations
drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.” Now what is there here to discountenance
the natural conclusion that “Babylon” means Babylon? Two or three generations ago, students
of prophecy received incalculable help from the simple discovery that when the Holy Spirit
spoke of Judea and Jerusalem in the Old Testament Scriptures He meant Judea and Jerusalem,
and not England and London; and that when He mentioned Zion He did not refer to the
Church. But strange to say, few, if any of these brethren, have applied the same rule to the
Apocalypse. Here they are guilty of doing the very thing for which they condemned their
forebears in connection with the Old Testament — they have “spiritualised.” They have
concluded, or rather, they have accepted the conclusions of the Reformers, that Babylon
meant Papal Rome, ultimately being refined to signify apostate Christendom. But what is
there in Rev. 14:8 which gives any hint that “Babylon” there refers to the Papal system? No;
we believe that this scripture means what it says, and that we need not the annals of secular
history to help us to understand it. What then? If to regard “Jerusalem” as meaning Jerusalem
be a test of intelligence in Old Testament prophecy, shall we be counted a heretic if we understand
“Babylon”
to
mean
Babylon,
and not Rome or apostate Christendom?
The next reference to Babylon is in Rev. 16:18, 19: “And there were voices, and thunders,
and lightenings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon
the earth, so mighty and earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three
parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God,
to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.” The remarks just made
above apply with equal force to this passage too. Surely it is a literal city which is in view,
and which is divided into three parts by a literal earthquake. If it does not mean this then
the simple reader might as well turn from the Apocalypse in dismay. More than a hint of
the literalness of this great city Babylon is found in the context, were we read of the river
Euphrates (v. 12). This is sufficient for the writer: whether or not it is for the reader, we
must leave with him.
We come now to Rev. 17, and as soon as we read its contents we are at once struck with
the noticeable difference there is between it and the other passages which have just been
before us. Here the language is no longer to be understood literally, but symbolically; here
165
Antichrist and Babylon
the terms are not plain and simple, but occult and mysterious. But God, in His grace, has
provided help right to hand. He tells us that here is “mystery” (v. 5). And what is more, He
explains most (if not all) of the symbols for us — see vv. 9, 12, 15, 18. With these helps furnished
it
ought
not
to
be
difficult
to
grasp
the
general
outline.
The central figures in Rev. 17 are “the great whore,” the “scarlet-colored Beast,” and the
“ten horns.” The Beast is evidently the first Beast of Rev. 13. The “ten horns” are stated to
be “ten kings” (v. 12). Who, then, is figured by “the great Whore?” There are a number of
statements made concerning “the great Whore” — “the woman” — “the mother of harlots”
— which are of great help toward supplying an answer to this question. First, it is said that
she “sitteth upon many waters” (v. 1), and in v. 15 these are said to signify “peoples, and
multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” Second, it is said, “The kings of the earth have
committed fornication” with her (v. 2). Third, she is supported by “a scarlet-colored Beast”
(v. 3), and from what is said of this Beast in v. 8 it is clear that he is the Antichrist, here
viewed at the head of the last world-empire. Fourth, the woman “was arrayed in purple and
scarlet color and decked with gold and precious stones” (v. 4). Fifth, “Upon her forehead
was a name written — Mystery: Babylon the great,” etc. (v. 5). Sixth, the woman was
“drunken with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs” (v. 6). Seventh, in
the last verse it is said, “And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth
over the kings of the earth.” These seven points give an analysed summary of what is here
told us about this “woman.”
Now the interpretation which has been most widely accepted is, that the “Whore” of
Rev. 17 pictures the Roman Catholic system. Appeal is made to the fact that though she
poses as a virgin, yet has she been guilty of the most awful spiritual fornication. Unlike the
blessed One who, in His condescension and humiliation, had “not where to lay His head,”
Romanism has coveted silver and gold, and has displayed herself in meretricious luxury.
She has had illicit intercourse with the blood of saints. Other parallelisms between the woman
of Rev. 17 and the Roman Catholic system may be pointed out. What, then, shall we say to
these things?
The points of correspondence between Rev. 17 and the history of Romanism are too
many and too marked to be set down as mere co-incidences. Undoubtedly the Papacy has
supplied a fulfillment of the symbolic prophecy found in Rev. 17. And therein has lain its
practical value for God’s people all through the dark ages. It presented to them a warning
too plain to be disregarded. It was the means of keeping the garments of the Waldenses (and
many others) unspotted by her filth. It confirmed the faith of Luther and his contemporaries,
that they were acting according to the revealed will of God, when they separated themselves
from that which was so manifestly opposed to His truth. But, nevertheless, there are other
features in this prophecy which do not apply to Romanism, and which compel us to look
elsewhere for the complete and final fulfillment. We single out but two of these.
166
In Rev. 17:5 Babylon is termed “the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.”
Is this an accurate description of Romanism? Were there no “harlot” systems before her?
Is the Papacy the mother of the “abominations of the earth?” Let scripture be allowed to interpret
scripture.
In
1
Kings
11:5-7
we read of “Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and
after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites[hellip]then did Solomon build an high
place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that was before Jerusalem, and for
Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon!” The Papacy had not come into existence

when John wrote the Revelation, so that she cannot be held responsible for all the
“abominations” which preceded her. Again; in Rev. 17:2 we read of “the great Whore” that
“the kings of the earth have committed fornication” with her. Is that applicable in its fulness
to Rome? Have the kings of Asia and the kings of Africa committed fornication with the
Papacy? It is true that the Italian pontiffs have ruled over a wide territory, yet it is also true
that there are many lands which have remained untouched by their religious influence.
It is evident from these two points alone that we have to go back to something which
long antedates the rise of the Papacy, and to something which has exerted a far wider influence
than
has
any
of
the
popes.
What,
then,
is
this
something?
and
where
shall
we
look
for
it?

The answer is not hard to find: the word “Babylon” supplies us with the needed key.
Babylon takes us back not merely to the days of Nebuchadnezzar, but to the time of Nimrod.
It was in the days of the son of Cush that “Babylon” began. And from the Plain of Shinar
has flown that dark stream whose tributaries have reached to every part of the earth. It was
then, and there, that idolatry began. In his work on “The Two Babylons”
Dr. Hislop has
proven conclusively that all the idolatrous systems of the nations had their origin in what
was founded by that mighty Rebel, the beginning of whose kingdom was Babel (Gen. 10:10).
But into this we cannot now enter at length. We refer the reader back to our comments on
Nimrod in chapter 13. Babylon was founded in rebellion against God. The very name
Nimrod gave to his city, proves him to have been an idolator — the first mentioned in
Scripture — for Bab-El signified “the gate of God;” thus he, like his anti-type, determined
to exalt himself above all that is called God (2 Thess. 2:4). This, then, was the source and
origin of all idolatry. Pagan Rome, afterwards Papal Rome, was only one of the polluted
streams from this corrupt source — one of the filthy “daughters” of this unclean Mother of
Harlots. But to return to Rev. 17.
In v. 5 we read, “And upon her forehead was a name written — mystery: Babylon the
great, the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” We believe that the English
translators have misled many by printing (on their own authority) the word “mystery” in
large capital letters, thus making it appear that this was a part of “the woman’s name.” This
we are assured is a mistake. That the “mystery” is connected with the “Woman” herself and
1 A book of intense interest for the antiquarian, but dull and wearisome for the average reader.
Antichrist and Babylon
1
167
Antichrist and Babylon
not with her “name” is clear from v. 7, where the angel says unto John, “I will tell thee the
mystery of the Woman, and of the Beast which carrieth her.”
The word “mystery” is used in the New Testament in two ways. First, as a secret, unfathomable
by
man
but
explained
by
God:
see
Matt.
13:11;
Rom.
16:25,
26;
Eph.
3:3,
6
etc.
Second, the word “mystery” signifies a sign or symbol. Such is its meaning in Eph. 5:32,
where we are told that a man who is joined to his wife so that the two become “one flesh”
is a “great mystery, (that is, a great sign or symbol) of Christ and the Church.” So, again, in
Rev. 1:20 we read of “the mystery (sign or symbol) of the seven stars,” etc.
As we have seen, the term “mystery” has two significations in its New Testament usage,
and we believe it has a double meaning in Rev. 17:5, where it is connected with the “Woman.”
It signifies both a symbol and a secret, that is, something not previously revealed. It should
also be noted that, in keeping with this, the name given to the Woman is a dual one —
“Babylon the great,” and “the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” Who, then,
is symbolized by the Woman with this dual name? V. 18 tells us, “And the Woman which
thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.” Now to get the
force of this it is essential that we should bear in mind that, in the Apocalypse, the words
“is” and “are” almost always (in the symbolical sections) signify “represent.” Thus, in 1:20
“the seven stars are the seven churches” means “the seven stars represent the seven churches;”
and “the seven candlesticks are the seven churches,” signifies, “the seven candlesticks represent
the
seven
churches.”
So
in
17:9
“the seven heads are (represent) seven mountains;”
17:12 “the ten horns are (represent) ten kings;” 17:15 “the waters[hellip]are (represent)
peoples,” etc. So in 17:18 “the woman which thou sawest is that great city” must mean, “the
woman represents that great city.” What, then, is signified by the “great city?”
In keeping with what we have just said above, namely, that the term “mystery” in Rev.
17:5 has a two-fold significance, and that the woman has a dual name, so we believe “that
Great City” has a double force and application. First, it signifies a literal city, which shall
yet be built in the Land of Shinar, on the banks of the Euphrates. Proof of this was furnished
in our last chapter so that we need not pause here to submit the evidence. Six times (significant
number!)
is
“Babylon”
referred
to
in
the
Apocalypse,
and
nowhere
is
there
a
hint
that
the
name
is
not
to
be
understood
literally.
In
the
second
place,
the
“great
city”
(unnamed)
signifies
an
idolatrous
system
— “mother of harlots” a system of idolatry which originated
in the Babylon of Nimrod’s day, and a system which is to culminate and terminate in another
Babylon in a day soon to come. This we think is clear and on the surface. What, then, is the
secret here disclosed, which had hitherto been so closely guarded?
In seeking the answer to our last question it is important to note that there is another
“Woman” in the Revelation, between whom and this one in chapter 17 there are some
striking comparisons and some vivid contrasts. Let us note a few of them. First, in Rev. 12:1
we read of “a Woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her
168
Antichrist and Babylon
head a crown of twelve stars,” which symbolically signifies that she occupies a position of
authority and rule (cf Gen. 37:9); so also the Woman of chapter 17 is pictured as “ruling
over the kings of the earth” (v. 18). Second, this Woman of Rev. 12 is a mother, for she gives
birth to the Man-child who shall rule all nations (v. 5); so the Woman of chapter 17 is “the
Mother of harlots.” Third, in 12:3 we read of a great red Dragon “having seven heads and
ten horns,” and he persecutes the Woman (v. 14); but in striking contrast, the Woman of
chapter 17 is seen supported by a scarlet-colored Beast “having seven heads and ten horns”
(v. 3). Fourth, in Rev. 19:7 the Woman of chapter 12 is termed the Lamb’s Wife (v. 7);
whereas the Woman of chapter 17 is the Devil’s Whore. Fifth, the Wife of Rev. 19 is “arrayed
in fine linen, clean and white” (v. 8); but the Whore of chapter 19 is arrayed in purple and
scarlet, and has in her hand a golden cup “full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication”
(v.
4).
Sixth,
the
Lamb’s
Wife
is
also
inseparably
connected
with
a
great
city,
even
the
holy
Jerusalem
(21:10);
so
the
Whore
of
Rev.
17
is connected with a great city, even Babylon.
Seventh, the chaste Woman shall dwell with the Lamb forever; the Whore shall suffer endless
torment in the Lake of Fire.
Once we learn who is symbolized by the chaste Woman, we are in the position to
identify the corrupt Woman, who is compared and contrasted with her. As to whom is signified
by
the
former,
there
is
surely
little
room
for
doubt

it
is
the
faithful
portion
of
Israel.
She
is
the
one
who
gave
birth
to
the
Man-child

i.e.
Judah,
in
contrast
from
the
unfaithful
ten
tribes,

who because of idolatry were, at the time of the Incarnation, is captivity. So in
Rev. 19 and 21 there are a number of things which show clearly (to any unprejudiced mind)
that the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife, is redeemed Israel, and not the Church. For example, in
Rev. 19:6, 7, when praise bursts forth because the marriage of the Lamb is come, a great
multitude cry, “Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and rejoice,
and give honor to Him for the marriage of the Lamb is come.” “Alleluia” (which occurs
nowhere in the New Testament but in this chapter) is a peculiarly Hebrew expression,
meaning “Praise the Lord.” In the second place, the word for “marriage” (gamos) or “wedding-feast”
is
the
same
as
is
used
in
Matt.
22:2,
3,
8,
11,
12,
where,
surely,
it
is
Israel
that
is
in
view.
In
the
third
place,
note
that
we
are
told
“His
wife
hath
made
herself
ready”
(v.
7).
Contrast
this
with
Eph.
5:26,
where
we
learn
that
Christ
will
make
the
Church
ready

see
Matt.
23:39
for Israel making herself ready. In the fourth place, in 19:8 we read, “And to her
was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, for the fine linen is
the righteousness of saints.” The Church will have been arrayed years before the time contemplated
here.
In
the
fifth
place,
note
it
is
said
that
“the
marriage
of
the
Lamb
is
come”
(v.
7),

just as He is on the point of leaving heaven for earth (v. 11; but the Church will have
been with Him in the Father’s house for at least seven years (probably forty years, or more)
when that hour strikes. In the sixth place, in Rev. 21:9, 10 the Lamb’s Wife is inseparably
connected with that great city, the holy Jerusalem, and in the description which follows we
169
are told that on the twelve gates of the city were written “the names of the twelve tribes of
the children of Israel” (v. 12)! Surely that is conclusive evidence that it is not the Church
which is in view. In the seventh place, in Rev. 21:14 we are told that in the twelve foundations
of the City’s wall were “the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb” (cf Matt. 19:28!). Is
it thinkable that the name of the apostle Paul would have been omitted if the Church were
there symbolically portrayed?
2
Antichrist and Babylon
If, then, the Chaste Woman of Rev. 12, 19, 21, symbolizes faithful Israel, must not the
Corrupt Woman (who is compared and contrasted with the former) represent faithless Israel?
But if so, why connect her so intimately with Babylon, the great city? It will help us here to
remember that the Chaste Woman of the Apocalypse is also indissolubly united to a city.
In Rev. 21:9 we read that one of the seven angels said to John, “Come hither, I will show
thee the bride, the Lamb’s Wife.” And immediately following we read, “And he carried me
away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy
Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God.” Thus, though separate, the two are intimately
connected. The Bride will dwell in the holy Jerusalem. So here in Rev. 17, though distinct,
the Whore is intimately related to the City, Babylon. One of the many proofs related to the
Harlot of Rev. 17 is apostate Israel is found in Isa. 1, where we read, “How is the faithful city
become an harlot!” (v. 21). In the verses which follow it will be seen that the Lord of hosts
is addressing Israel, and describing conditions which will prevail in the End-time. After indicting
Israel
for
her
sins,
the
Lord
declares,
“I
will
ease
Me
of
Mine
adversaries,
and
avenge
Me
of
Mine
enemies.”
Clearly,
this
has
reference
to
the
Tribulation
period.
Then
the
Lord
continues,
“And
I
will
turn,
Mine
hand
upon
thee,
and
purely
purge
away
thy
dross,”
etc.,
and
then
He
adds,
“Afterwards
thou
shalt
be
called,
The
city
of
righteousness,
the
faithful
city.”
How
clear
it
is
then
that
God
calls
Israel
“an
harlot”
for
her
unfaithfulness.
For
further
proofs
see
Jer.
2:20;
3:6,
8;
Ezek.
16:15;
20:30;
43:8,
9;
Hosea
2:5,
etc.
We would next call attention to some of the scriptures which prove that there will be
Israelites dwelling in Babylon and the land of Assyria at the End-time. In Jer. 50:4-7 we read,
“In those days, and in that time, saith the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and
the children of Judah together, going and weeping: they shall go, and seek the Lord their
God. They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces thitherward, saying, Come, and let us
join ourselves to the Lord in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten,” etc. Clearly
these verses treat of the closing days of the time of “Jacob’s trouble.” Immediately following
we read, “Remove out of the midst of Babylon, and go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans”
2 He that hath the Bride (John 3:29), spoken by John the Baptist — the “friend of the Bridegroom” —
demonstrates that “the Bride” was in view during our Lord’s ministry unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
The believing Remnant who “received” Him, form the nucleus and were representative of redeemed Israel,
millennial Israel, the Bride of the Lamb.
170
Antichrist and Babylon
(v. 8). Then, in the next verse, a reason is given, showing the urgency of this call for the
faithful Jews in Babylon to come out: “For lo, I will raise and cause to come up against
Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country: and they shall set themselves
in array against her; from thence she shall be taken” (v. 9). Again, in Jer. 51:44, the Lord
says, “And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which
he hath swallowed up: and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him: yea, the
wall of Babylon shall fall.” And then follows the Call for the faithful Jews to separate themselves
from
the
mass
of
their
apostate
brethren
in
Babylon

“My
people,
go
ye
out
of
the
midst
of
her,
and
deliver
ye
every
man
his
soul
from
the
fierce
anger
of
the
Lord.”
Isa.
11:11;
27:13;
Micah
4:10,
all
show
that
Israel
will
be
intimately
connected
with
Babylon
in
the
Endtime.
It was of incalculable help to students of the past when they discovered that Israel is the
key which unlocks prophecy, and that the Nations are referred to only as they affect the
fortunes of Jacob’s descendants. There were other mighty peoples of old besides the Egyptians
and the Chaldeans, but the holy Spirit has passed them by, because their history had no
bearing on that of the chosen Nation. The same reason explains why the empires of Babylon,
Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, do occupy such a prominent notice in the book of Daniel
— they were the enemies into whose hands God delivered His wayward people. These
principles have received wide recognition by prophetic students, and therefore it is the more
strange that so few have applied them in their study of the final prophetic book. Israel is the
key to the Revelation, and the Nations are only mentioned therein as they immediately affect
Israel’s fortunes. The ultimate design of the Apocalypse is not to take notice of such men
as Nero and Charlemagne and Napoleon, nor such systems as Mohammedanism and the
Papacy. Nor would so much be said about Babylon unless this “great city” was yet to be the
home of apostate Israel. After these preliminary considerations, which though length were
necessary, we are now prepared to examine a few of the details supplied by Rev. 17 and 18.
Nor can we now do more than offer a bare outline, and even that will require a further
chapter on Rev. 18.
“And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me,
saying unto me, Come hither; I will show thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth
upon many waters: with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication” (Rev. 17:1,
2). The “great whore,” in the final accomplishment of this prophecy, describes apostate Israel
in the End-time — i.e. Daniel’s seventieth week. The figure of an unfaithful woman to represent
apostate
Israel
is
a
common
one
in
the
Scriptures:
see
Jer.
2:20;
3:6;
Ezek.
16:15;
20:30;
43:8,
9;
Hosea
2:5,
etc.
She
is
here
termed
“the
great
whore”
for
two
reasons:
first,
because
(as
we
shall
show
later)
she
will,
at
the
end,
worship
Mammon
as
she
never
has
in
the
past;
second,

because of her idolatrous alliance with the Beast. The apostle is here shown her
171
Antichrist and Babylon
“judgment.” This is in contrast from what we have in Rev. 12, where we learn that the chaste
“Woman” will be preserved. That apostate Israel will yet sit “upon many waters” (“peoples,”
etc., v. 15), and that the kings of the earth will commit fornication with her, we reserve for
consideration in the next chapter.
“So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a
scarlet colored Beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And
the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious
stones, and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of
her fornication” (vv. 3 and 4 ). The Woman seated on the Beast does not signify that she
will rule over him, but intimates that he will support her. The ultimate reference here is to
the Devil’s imitation of the Millennium, when the Jews (even now rapidly coming into
prominence) shall no longer be the tail of the Nations, but the head. How the Devil will
bring this about will appear when we examine Rev. 18. As the result of the Beast’s support
(v. 3), apostate Israel will be lifted to heights of worldly power and glory (v. 4).
“And upon her forehead was a name written, mystery: BABYLON THE GREAT, THE
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH” (v. 5). In a re-built
Babylon will culminate the various systems of idolatry which had their source in the first
Babylon of Nimrod’s day. It is in this city that the most influential Jews will congregate at
the Time of the End. From there, Jewish financiers will control the governments of earth.
That apostate Israel, in Babylon, should be clothed in “purple and scarlet” (emblems of
royalty and earthly glory) before the Kingdom of Messiah is set up, was indeed a “mystery”
(secret) disclosed by none of the Prophets, but now made known in the Revelation.
“And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the
martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with a great wonder” (v. 6, R.V.) The final
reference is, again, to apostate Israel in the End-time. The most relentless enemies of the
godly Jews will be their own apostate brethren — cf our notes on Luke 18 in chapter 9. The
second half of v. 6, correctly rendered in the R.V., “And when I saw her I wondered with a
great wonder,” ought to show us that it is not Romanism which is here in view. Why should
John, who was himself then suffering from the hatred of Rom (Pagan) wonder at Rome
(Papal) being clothed with governmental power and glory, and drunken with the blood of
saints? But that the kings of the earth (her worst enemies for three thousand years) should
commit fornication with Israel, and that the apostate portion of the Nation should be
drunken with the blood of their own brethren according to the flesh, was well calculated to
fill him with amazement.
“And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery
of the woman, and of the Beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns”
(v. 7). It should be noted that in the interpretation which follows, far more is said about “the
Beast” than about “the Woman.” We believe the chief reason for this is because the 18th
172
Antichrist and Babylon
verse tells us the Woman represents “that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the
earth,” and the City receives fuller notice in the chapter that follows — Rev. 18.
“And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on
which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the
other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the Beast
that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition” (vv.
9-11). Here is the mind which hath wisdom (v. 9): “This repetition of 13:18 identifies and
connects these two chapters. The word rendered ‘mind’ in 17:9 and ‘understanding’ in 13:18
is the same. This ‘wisdom’ is, to understand that, though a ‘Beast’ is seen in the vision, it is
not a wild beast that is meant, but one great final super-human personality; namely, a man
energized by satanic power” (Dr. E.W. Bullinger).
The 9th verse should end with the word “wisdom”: what follows belongs to v. 10. The
R.V., which in this verse follows a number of reliable translations, renders thus: “The seven
heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth, and they are seven kings.” This at
once disposes of the popular interpretation which regards these seven mountains s referring
to the seven hills on which the city of Rome was built. The Holy Spirit expressly tells us that
the seven mountains are (represent) seven kings. Of these seven kings it is said, “five are
fallen, and one is (i.e. the sixth existed when John wrote the Apocalypse), and the other (the
seventh) is yet to come: he must continue a short space.” And then in v. 11 we read, “And
the Beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven, and he goeth
into perdition.” Upon those verses we cannot do better than give extracts from Mr. Newton’s
“Thoughts on the Apocalypse.”
173
Antichrist and Babylon
“This passage is evidently intended to direct our thoughts to the various
forms of executive government or kingship which have existed, or shall exist
in the prophetic earth, until the hour when the sovereignty of the world shall
become the sovereignty of the Lord and of His Christ. We might expect to
find such a reference in a chapter which professedly treats of him who is to
close the history of human government by the introduction of a new and
marvellous form of power — a form new as to its mode of administration
and development, yet not unconnected with the past, for it will be constructed
upon principles drawn from the experience of preceding ages, and will have
the foundations of its greatness laid by the primeval efforts of mankind. He
will be the eighth; but he is of (ek) the seven.
The native energy and intrepidity of him who is said to have been a
mighty hunter before the Lord — an energy essential to men who were setting
in a forlorn and unsubdued earth, surrounded by beasts of the forest and
countless other difficulties and dangers, very naturally gave the first form to
kingship, and hence its parentage may be said to spring. ‘The beginning of
his kingdom was Babel’. The supremacy of Nimrod was not derived from
any previously existing system. He neither inherited his power from others,
nor did he, like Nebuchadnezzar afterwards, receive it as a gift from God.
He earned it for himself, by the force of his own individual character — but
it was without God. Great progress was made in the kingdom which he
founded in the land of Shinar, in civilization and refinement; for we early
read of the godly Babylonish garment, and of the s kill and learning of the
Chaldees; but their domination was repressed and kept, as it were, in abeyance
by the hand of God, until the trial of Israel, His people, had been fully made,
that it might be seen whether they would prove themselves worthy of supremacy
in
the
earth.
The form of government in Israel was a theocracy; as was seen in the
reigns of David and Solomon, who were types (imperfect types indeed) of
Him that is to come. The monarch was independent of and uncontrolled by
those whom he governed, but he was dependent upon God, who dwelt in
the temple, ever near to be consulted, and whose law was given as the final
standard of appeal. He stood between God and the people, not to be their
functionary and slave — not to be the expression of their judgments, and
the reflection of their will; but as set over them by principles which he himself
had received from above. But the possession of power like this, held in
companionship with God, required a holiness that was not found in man in
the flesh, and therefore it was soon forfeited. Divine sanction, however, has
174
Antichrist and Babylon
many times since been coveted, and the name of ‘the Lord’s anointed’ assumed.
The
last

great king of the Gentiles, indeed, will do more than this,
for he will take the place of Divinity itself, and sit upon the mount of the
congregation on the sides of the north, saying he is like the Most High. But
all this is unauthorized assumption.
The third form is developed when the Gentile dynasty was formally
constituted by God in the person of Nebuchadnezzar. He, like the monarchs
of Israel, had absolute sovereignty granted to him — but God was not with
him in it. He and his successors received it as delegated power to be exercised
according to their own pleasure, though in final responsibility to God. It is
not necessary here to pursue the painful history of the Gentiles. It is sufficient
to say, as regards the history of power, that the Gentile monarchs from the
beginning, not knowing God so as to lean upon Him, and too weak to stand
alone; exposed to the jealousy and hatred of those whom they governed —
a jealousy not unfrequently earned by their own evil, found it necessary to
lean upon something inferior to themselves: and thus the character of power
has been deteriorated from age to age, until at last the monarchy of these
latter days has consented not only to own the people as the basis and source
of its power, but has also submitted to be directed in the exercise of that
power by given rules prescribed by its subjects.
The native monarchy of Nimrod, the theocracy of Israel, the despotic
authority of Nebuchadnezzar, the aristocratic monarchy of Persia, and the
military monarchy of Alexander and his successors, had all passed away
when John beheld this vision. All these methods had been tried — none had
been found to answer even the purposes of man; and now another had arisen,
the half military, half popular monarchy of the Caesars, — the iron empire
of Rome. ‘Five have fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and
when he cometh he must continue a little space’.
175
That other (though it cannot yet be said to have come so as to fulfill this
verse)
3
Antichrist and Babylon
(we are rather inclined to believe that the ‘seventh’ is commercialism,
that is, the moneyed-interests in control — A.W.P.) and, with one brief ex-
ception, the last form that is to be exhibited before the end shall come, and
it is under this form that the system of Babylon is matured. It is obvious that
a monarchy, guided not by the people numerically, but by certain classes of
the people, and those classes determined by the possession of property, must
be the form adapted for the accumulation of wealth, and the growth of
commercial power; for it gives (which pure democracy has ever failed to do),
the best security fro property without unduly fettering the liberty of individual
enterprise.”
For lack of space we are obliged to pass over the intervening verses now, and in closing
this chapter we offer a brief word on v. 18. “And the woman which thou sawest is that great
city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.” This verse tells us that the Whore represents
a City. This city is named in 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2; 10, 21; and it is surely significant that it
is thus named in the Apocalypse six times — the number of man; whereas the new Jerusalem
is referred to three times (3:12; 21:2; 10) the Divine number. Babylon, must therefore be
understood literally, otherwise we should have the anomaly of a figure representing a figure.
But from the very fact that we are here told the Woman represents the City, we learn that
she is not literal, but figurative. In the next chapter we shall further review Rev. 17 and offer
some comments on Rev. 18.
3 It will not have come in the sense of this verse, until it pervades the Roman world. When all the ten kingdoms
have been constitutionalized, it may be said to have come.
176
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
In our last chapter we sought to show that in Rev. 17 “the great Whore,” and “Babylon
the great,” though intimately connected, are yet distinct; the former being the representative
of the latter. While allowing, yea insisting upon it, that many features of the symbolic
prophecy contained in Rev. 17 have had a striking fulfillment already, still that in which all
its varied terms are to find their complete realization is yet future. We also reminded our
readers that Israel supplies the solution to most of the problems of prophecy, and this is
becoming more and more evident as the last prophetic book in the Bible is receiving wider
and closer study. Fifty years ago the majority of the commentators “spiritualised” the first
half of Rev. 7 and made the twelve tribes of Israel, there mentioned, to refer to the Church.
But this has long since been discredited. So, the popular interpretation of Rev. 12 which had
the “woman” there a figure of the Church has also been abandoned by many. An increasing
number of Bible students are recognizing the fact that “the Lamb’s Wife,” “the Bride” of
Rev. 19 and 21 also contemplates Israel rather than the Church. That the Church is the Bride
(a statement nowhere affirmed in Scripture) has been sedulously proclaimed by the Papacy
for over a thousand years, and the tradition has been echoed throughout Protestantism.
But, as we have said, there is a steadily increasing number who seriously question this, yea,
who are bold to repudiate it, and declare in its stead that the new Israel, saved Israel, will be
“the Bride.” As this truth becomes more clearly discerned, we believe it will also be apparent
that the great Whore is not the apostate church but apostate Israel.
The future of Israel is a wide subject, for numerous are the scriptures which treat of it.
It is, moreover, a subject of profound interest, the more so because what is now prophetic
is so soon to become historic. The Zionist movement of the last twenty-five years is something
more than the impracticable ideal of a few visionaries; it is steadily preparing the way for
the re-establishment of the Jews in Palestine. It is true that the Zionists have been frowned
upon by many in Jewry, and that, for a very good reason. God’s time is not yet fully ripe,
and He has permitted the mercenary spirit of many of Jacob’s descendants to hold it, temporarily,
in
check.
The
millions
of
Jews
now
comfortably
settled
and
prospering
in
this
land,
and

in the capitals of the leading European countries, are satisfied with their present lot.
The love of money outweighs sentimental considerations. Zionism has made no appeal to
their avarice. To leave the markets and marts of New York, London, Paris, and Berlin in
order to become farmers in Palestine is not sufficiently alluring. Mammon is now the god
of the vast majority of the descendants of those who, of old, worshipped the golden calf.
At present, it is (with few exceptions) only those who are oppressed in greater Russia,
Hungary, etc. who are really anxious to be settled in Palestine. But soon there will be a
change of attitude. Even now there are faint indications of it. As Palestine becomes more
thickly populated, as the prospects of security from Turkish and Arabian depredations grow
177
brighter, as the country is developed and the possibilities of commercial aggrandizement
loom on the horizon, the better class of Jews will be quick to see and seize the golden opportunity.
Few
American
Jews
are
anxious
to
emigrate
to
Palestine
when
there
is
nothing
more
than

a spade and a hoe at the end of the journey. But as hospitals, colleges, universities,
banking houses are opened, and all the commercial adjuncts of civilization find a place in
the land of David, then rapidly increasing numbers of David’s descendants will turn their
faces thitherward. High finance is the magnet which will draw the covetous Hebrews.
Once Palestine becomes a thorough Jewish State it is not difficult to forecast the logical
corollary. We quote from the excellent exposition on Zechariah by Mr. David Baron — his
comments on the fifth chapter.
1
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
1 Mr. Baron is probably the ablest and most widely known and esteemed Hebrew Christian alive today.
178
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
“Without any spirit of dogmatism, and without entering at this place
into the question of the identity and significance of the Babylon in the Revelation

— whether mystical or actual — we would express our conviction
that there are scriptures which cannot, according to our judgment, be satisfactorily

explained except on the supposition of a revival and yet future
judgment of literal Babylon, which for a time will be the center and embodiment
of
all
the
elements
of
our
godless
civilization,
and
which
especially
will
become
the
chief
entrepot
of
commerce
in
the
world.
To this conviction we are led chiefly by the fact that there are prophecies
in the Old Testament concerning the literal Babylon which have never in the
past been exhaustively fulfilled, and that Scripture usually connects the final
overthrow of Babylon with the yet future restoration and blessing of Israel.
And it is very striking to the close observer of the signs of the times how
things at the present day are rapidly developing on the very lines which are
forecast in the prophetic scriptures. ‘The fears and hopes of the world —
political, commercial, and religious, writes one in a monthly journal which
lies before me, are at the present day being increasingly centered upon the
home of the human race — Mesopotamia[hellip]As the country from which
the father of the Jewish nation emigrated to the land of promise, it is also
occupying the thoughts and aspirations of the Jews.’
Whatever may be the outcome of the negotiations which have been carried
on
recently
with
the
Turkish
Government
by
the
Jewish
Territorialists
for

the establishment of a Jewish automonous State in this very region, in
which many Zionists and other Jews were ready to join, there is so much
truth in the words of another writer that when once a considerable number
of such a commercial people as the Jews are re-established in Palestine, ‘the
Euphrates would be to them as necessary as the Thames to London or the
Rhine to Germany. It would be Israel’s great channel of communication with
the Indian seas, not to speak of the commerce which would flow towards the
Tigris and the Euphrates from the central and northern districts of Asia! It
would be strange, therefore, if no city should arise on its banks of which it
might be said that her merchants were the great men of the earth’”
Zech. 5 is most intimately connected with Rev. 18, and a grasp of the former is of such
importance in studying the latter that we must here give it a brief consideration. But first
let us outline in the fewest possible words the contents of the first four chapters of Zechariah.
After a brief introduction we learn, first, that God’s eye is ever upon Israel (1:7-17). Second,
that His eye is also upon her enemies and desolators (1:18-21). Third, assurance is given of
her future blessing (2) and of her cleansing (3). Fourth, we learn of the blessings which shall
179
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
follow her restoration (4). Fifth, we are taken back to behold the punishment of apostate
Israel: the “flying roll” symbolizes the destruction of wicked Jews (5:1-4). Then follows the
vision of “the Ephah” in 5:5-11 — let the reader please turn to it.
We cannot do more than now call attention to the prominent features in this vision.
First, the prophet sees as “ephah” (or bath) which was the largest measure for dry goods
among the Jews. It would, therefore, be the natural symbol for Commerce. Next, we note
that twice over it is said that the ephah “goeth forth” (vv. 5, 6). As the whole of the preceding
visions concern Jerusalem and her people, this can only mean that the center of Jewish
commerce is to be transferred from Palestine elsewhere. Next, we are told that there was a
“woman” concealed in the midst of the ephah (v. 7). We say “concealed,” for in vv. 5 and 6
the “woman” is not seen — the leaden cover (cf v.8) had to be lifted before she could be
beholden. The writer is satisfied that this hidden woman in the ephah is “the Woman” which
is fully revealed in Revelation 17 and 18. Next, we are told that “wickedness” (lawlessness)
was cast into the ephah, before its cover was closed again. Then, in what follows, we are
shown this ephah, with the “woman” and “wickedness” shut up therein, being rapidly conveyed
from
Palestine
to
“the
land
of
Shinar”
(v.
11).
The
purpose
for
this
is
stated
to
be,
“to
build
a
house,”
i.e.
a
settled
habitation.
Finally,
we
are
assured,
“it
shall
be
established,
and
set
there
(in
the
land
of
Shinar)
upon
her
own
base.”
This
vision
or
prophecy
contains
the
germ
which
is
afterwards
expanded
and
developed
in
such
detail
in
Rev.
17
and 18, where
it is shown that “the house” which is established for this system of commerce is “Babylon
the great.” Let it be remembered that this vision is found in the midst of a series of prophecies
which have to do with, first the faithful, and then the faithless in Israel, and we have another
clear and independent proof that the Corrupt Woman of the Apocalypse is none other than
apostate Israel!
In his helpful and illuminative work on the Babylon of the future, the late Mr. Newton
devoted a separate chapter to Zech. 5. His remarks are so excellent that we cannot forbear
from making an extract:
180
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
“If human energy is to be permitted again to make the Euphrtean regions
the scene of its operation — if prosperity is to be allowed for a brief moment
to re-visit the Land of Babylon, it might be expected that the Scriptures would
somewhere allude, and that definitely, to such an event. And we find it to be
so. The Scripture does speak of an event yet unaccomplished, of which the
scene is to be the Land of Babylon. The passage to which I refer is at the close
of the fifth chapter of Zechariah.
That the event predicted in this remarkable passage remains still unaccomplished,

is sufficiently evident from the fact of Zechariah’s having
prophesied after Babylon had received that blow under which it has gradually
waned. Zechariah lived after Babylon had passed into the hands of the Persians,
and
since
that
time,
it
is
admitted
by
all,
that
declination

not
establishment

has
marked
its
history.
From
that
hour
to
the
present
moment
there
has
been
no
preparation
of
an
house,
no
establishment
of
anything

much
less
of
an
Ephah
in
the
Land
of
Shinar.
But
an
Ephah
is
to
be
established
there,
and
a
house
to
be
built
for
it
there,
and
there
it
is
to
be
set
firmly
upon
its
base.
An Ephah is the emblem of commerce. It is the symbol of the merchants.
In the passage before us the Ephah is described as ‘going forth’, that is, its
sovereign influence is to pervade the nations, and to imprint on them a
character derived from itself, as the formative power of their institutions. In
other words, commerce is for a season to reign. It will determine the arrangements,
and
fix
the
manners
of
Israel,
and
of
the
prophetic
earth.
The
appearance
of
every
nation
that
falls
under
its
control
is
to
be
mercantile.
He
said,
moreover,
this
is
their
appearance
(or
aspect)
throughout
all
the
earth.”
The theme is of deep interest, and we are tempted to enter at length into details. But
that is scarcely necessary. Every one who has a general knowledge of the past, and who is
at all in touch with political conditions in the world today, knows full well the radical change
which the last two or three centuries have witnessed. For a thousand years the Church (the
professing church) controlled the governments of Europe. Following the Reformation, the
aristocracy (the nobility) held the reins. During the first half of last century democratic
principles obtained more widely. But in the last two or three generations the governmental
machines of this country and of the leading European lands have been run by the Capitalists.
Of late, Labor has sought to check this, but thus far with little success. In the light of Zech.
5 and Rev. 18 present-day conditions are profoundly significant. It is commerce which is
more and more dominating the policies and destinies of what is known as the civilized
world. “If we turn our eyes abroad upon the world, we shall find that the one great object
before the nations of the earth today is this image of commerce, drawing them with all the
181
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
seductive influence a siren woman might exercise upon the heart of men. The one great aim
on the part of each is to win the favor of this mighty mistress. The world powers are engaged
in a Titanic struggle for commercial supremacy. To this end mills are build, factories founded,
forests felled, lands sown, harvests reaped, and ships launched. Because of this struggle for
mastery of the world’s market the nations reach out and extend their borders” (Dr. Haldeman).

The recent war was caused by commercial jealousies. The root trouble behind the
“reparation” question, the “Strait’s” problem the cancellation or demanding repayment of
United States loans to Europe, each go back to commercial considerations.
Sixty years ago it was asked, “Is not commerce the sovereign influence of the day? If we
were asked to inscribe on the banners of the leading nations of the earth, an emblem characteristically

expressive of their condition, could we fix on any device more appropriate
than an ephah?” With how much greater pertinency may this be said today! And how this
is preparing the way for and will shortly head up in what is portrayed in Rev. 18, it is not
difficult to see. There we read, “Thy merchants were the great men of the earth” (v. 23). This
was not true four hundred years ago: for then the ecclesiastics were “the great men of the
earth.” Now was it true one hundred years ago, for then the nobility were “the great men of
the earth.” But today. Ah! Ask the man on the street to name half a dozen of the great men
now alive, and whom would he select? And who are behind and yet one with the “merchants?”
Is it not the financiers? And who are the leading ones among them? Who are the ones that
are more and more controlling the great banking systems of the world? And, as every wellinformed

person knows, the answer is, Jews. How profoundly significant, then, that the
head on the image in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream (which symbolized the Babylon Empire)
should be of gold, and that the final Babylon should be denominated “the golden city” (Isa.
14:4). And how all of this serves, again, to confirm our interpretation of Rev. 17, namely,
that “the great Whore” with “the golden cup in her hand” (17:4) is apostate Israel, whose
final home shall be that “great city,” soon to be built on the banks of the Euphrates. Not yet
is it fully evident that the wealth of the world is rapidly filling Hebrew coffers — only a
glimpse of the “woman” in “the midst of the Ephah” was obtained before it became established
in
the
Land
of
Shinar.
But
it
cannot
be
long
before
this
will
become
apparent.
At
the
End-time
it
will
fully
appear
that
“the
woman[hellip]is
(represents)
that
great
city”
(17:18).
This
explains
the
words
of
Rev.
17:5,
where
we
learn
that
the
words
“Babylon
the
great”
are
written
upon
“her
forehead”

it
will
be
obvious
then
to
all!
Apostate
Israel,
then
controlling
the
wealth
of
the
world,
will
personify
Babylon.
And what part will the Antichrist play in connection with this? What will be his relation
to Babylon and apostate Israel? The Word of God is not silent on these questions, and to it
we now turn for the Divine answer. As to Antichrist’s relation to Babylon, Scripture is very
explicit. He will be “the King of Babylon” (Isa. 14:4); the “King of Assyria” (Isa. 10:12). As
to his relation to apostate Israel, that is a more intricate matter and will require more detailed
182
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
consideration. We shall therefore devote a separate chapter (the next one) to this interesting
branch of our subject. Here we shall deal briefly with what Rev. 17 and 18 say thereon.
Rev. 17 presents the relation of apostate Israel to the Antichrist in three aspects. First,
she is supported by him. This is brought before us in 17:3, where we are shown the corrupt
Woman seated upon the scarlet-colored Beast. This, we believe, is parallel with Dan. 9:27,
which tells us that “the Prince that shall come” will make a Covenant with Israel. This covenant,
league,
or
treaty,
will
insure
her
protection.
It
is
significant
that
Dan.
9:27
tells us the
covenant is made by the one who is then at the head of the revived Roman Empire, which
corresponds with the fact that Rev. 17:3 depicts him as a “scarlet colored Beast[hellip]having
seven heads and ten horns.” It is the Antichrist no longer in his “little horn” character, but
as one that has now attained earthly glory and dominion. As such, he will, for a time, uphold
the Jews and protect their interests.
Second, Rev. 17 depicts apostate Israel as intriguing with “the kings of the earth.” In v.
2 we read that the kings of the earth shall commit fornication with her. Note how this, as
an item of importance, is repeated in 18:3. This, we believe, is what serves to explain 17:16
which, in the corrected rendering of the R.V. reads, “And the ten horns which thou sawest
and the Beast, these shall hate the Harlot, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall
eat her flesh, and shall burn her utterly with fire.” What it is which causes the Beast to turn
against the Harlot and hate and destroy her is her unfaithfulness to Him. Not content with
enjoying the protection the Beast gives to her, apostate Israel will aspire to a position of
rivalry with the one over the ten horns. That she succeeds in this we learn from the last verse
of the chapter — “And the woman which thou sawest is (represents) that great city, which
reigneth over the kings of the earth.” As to how apostate Israel will yet reign over the kings
of the earth we hope to show in the next chapter.
Third, Rev. 17 makes it known that apostate Israel will ultimately be hated by “the Beast
and his ten horns”(v. 16). The 12th verse tells us that the ten horns are “ten kings.” This has
presented a real difficulty to many. In 17:16 it says that the ten horns (kings) and the Beast
hate the Whore, and make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh (that is, appropriate
to themselves her substance, her riches), and burn her with fire; whereas in 18:9 we read,
“The kings of the earth who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall
bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning.” Yet the
solution of this difficulty is very simple. The difficulty is created by confusing “the kings of
the earth” with the “ten horns,” whose kingdoms are within the limits of the old Roman
Empire (see Dan. 7:7). The “kings of the earth” is a much wider expression, and includes
such kingdoms as North and South America, China and Japan, Germany and Russia, etc.,
all in fact, outside the bounds of the old Roman Empire. It is the intriguing of apostate Israel
with “the kings of the earth” which brings down upon her the hatred of the Beast and his
“ten kings.”
183
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
In closing this chapter we wish to call attention to some of the many and striking verbal
correspondences between Rev. 17 and 18 and the Old Testament Prophets: —
1. In Rev. 17:1 we are told the great Whore “sitteth upon many waters.”
In Jer. 51:13 Babylon (see previous verse) is addressed as follows: “O thou that dwellest
upon many waters.”
2. In Rev. 17:2 it is said that, “The inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with
the wine of her fornication.”
In Jer. 51:7 we read, “Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord’s hand, that made all
the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine.”
3. In Rev. 17:4 the great Whore has “a golden cup in her hand.”
In Jer. 51:7 Babylon is termed “a golden cup in the Lord’s hand.”
4. In Rev. 17:15 we are told, “The waters which thou sawest, where the Whore sitteth,
are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.”
In Jer. 51:13 we read, “O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures.”
5. Rev. 17:16 tells us that Babylon shall be burned with fire — cf 18:8.
So in Jer. 51:58 we read, “The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her
high gates shall be burned with fire.”
6. In Rev. 17:18 we are told that the woman who represents the great city “reigneth over
the kings of the earth.”
In Isa. 47:5 Babylon is denominated “the lady of kingdoms.”
7. Rev. 18:2 tells us that after her fall, Babylon becomes “the habitation of demons, and
the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.”
Isa. 13:21 says, “But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be
full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there.”
8. Rev. 18:4 records God’s call to the faithful Jews — “Come out of her My people.”
In Jer. 51:45 God also says, “My people, go ye out of the midst of her.”
9. In Rev. 18:5 it is said, “Her sins have reached unto heaven.”
In Jer. 51:9 it reads, “For her judgment reacheth unto heaven.”
10. In Rev. 18:6 we read, “Reward her as she rewarded you.”
In Jer. 50:15 it says, “Take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do unto her.”
11. In Rev. 18:7 we find Babylon saying in her heart, “I sit a queen, and am no widow,
and shall see no sorrow.”
In Isa. 47:8 we also read that Babylon says in her heart, “I am, and none else beside me;
I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children.”
12. In Rev. 18:8 we read, “Therefore shall her plagues come in one day.”
Isa. 47:9 declares, “But these two things shall come to thee in a moment, in one day.”
184
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
13. In Rev. 18:21 we read, “And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone,
and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown
down, and be found no more at all.”
So in Jer. 51:63, 64 we are told, “And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading
this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of the Euphrates: And
thou shalt say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I bring upon
her.”
14. In Rev. 18:23 we read, “And the light of the candle shall shine no more at all in thee,
and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee.”
In Isa. 24:8, 10 it is said of Babylon, “The mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of them that
rejoice endeth, the joy of the heart ceaseth[hellip]the City of Confusion is broken down:
every house is shut up, that no man may come in[hellip]all joy is darkened, the mirth of the
land is gone.”
15. In Rev. 18:24 we read, “And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints,
and of all that were slain upon the earth.”
In Jer. 51:49 we read, “As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so Babylon shall
fall the slain of all the earth.”
These parallelisms are so plain they need no comments from us. If the reader still insists
that the Babylon of Rev. 17 and 18 is the ultimate development of the Papacy as it envelopes
apostate Christendom, it is useless to discuss the subject any farther. But we believe that the
great majority of our readers — who have no traditions to uphold — will be satisfied that
the Babylon of the Apocalypse is the Babylon of Old Testament prophecy, namely, a literal,
re-built city in “the land of Nimrod” (Micah 5:6), a city which shall be the production of
covetousness (“which is idolatry” — Col. 3:5), and a city which shall yet be the home of
apostate Israel.
185
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel and the Antichrist
It is a ground for thanksgiving that during the last three or four generations the people
of God have given considerable attention to the prophecies of Scripture which treat of the
future of Israel. The old method of “spiritualizing” these predictions, and making them apply
to the Church of the present dispensation, has been discarded by the great majority of premillennarians.
With
a
steadily
increasing
number
of
Bible
students
it
is
now
a
settled
question
that

Israel, as a nation, shall be saved (Rom. 11:26), and that the promises of God to the
fathers will be literally fulfilled under the Messianic reign of the Lord Jesus (Rom. 9:4). Jerusalem,
which
for
so
many
centuries
has
been
a
by-word
in
the
earth,
will
then
be
known
as
“the
city
of
the
great
King”
(Matt.
5:35).
His
throne
shall
be
established
there,
and
it
shall
be
the
gathering
point
for
all
nations
(Zech.
8:23;
14:16-21).
Then
shall
the
despised
descendants
of
Jacob
be
“the
head”
of
the
nations,
and
no
longer
the
tail

(Deut. 28:13); then shall
the people of Jehovah’s ancient choice be the center of His earthly government; then shall
the Fig Tree, so long barren, “blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit” (Isa.
27:6). All of this is common knowledge among those who are in any-wise acquainted with
dispensational truth.
But the same Word of Prophecy which announces the glorious future awaiting the
children of Israel, also contains another chapter in the history of this peculiar people; a
chapter yet unfulfilled, setting forth a period in their history darker and sadder than any of
their past experiences. Both the Old and New Testaments plainly tell of a season of suffering
for the Jews which will be far more acute than even their afflictions of old. Dan. 12:1 says,
“And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that
same time.” And in Matt. 24:21, 22 we read, “For there shall be a great tribulation, such as
was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those
days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved.”
The reasons or causes of this future suffering of Israel are as follows. First, God has not
fully visited upon Israel’s children the sins of their fathers. “When Solomon and her kings
had by transgression lost their blessings, and the glory of the reign of Solomon had faded
away, the supremacy, which was taken from them, was given to certain Gentile nations,
who were successively to arise and bear rule in the earth, during the whole period of Israel’s
rejection. The first of these was the Chaldean Empire under Nebuchadnezzar. The period
termed by our Lord the ‘Times of the Gentiles’, commences with the capture of Jerusalem
by Nebuchadnezzar. It is a period coincident from its beginning to its close, with the
treading down of Jerusalem. ‘Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles till the Times
of the Gentiles be fulfilled’. Nebuchadnezzar therefore, and the Gentile empires which have
succeeded him, have only received their pre-eminence in consequence of Jerusalem’s sin;
and the reason why they were endowed with that pre-eminence was, that they might chasten
186
Jerusalem; and when they shall have fulfilled that purpose, they shall themselves be set aside
and be made, because of their own evil, ‘like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors’. In
this we have another evidence that the earthly dispensations of God revolve around the Jews
as their center” (B.W.Newton).
A further reason or cause of the future sufferings of Israel lies in the rejection of their
Messiah. First and foremost Christ was “a Minister of the Circumcision, for the truth of
God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers” (Rom. 15:8). He was sent “but unto
the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt. 15:24). And in marvelous grace He tabernacled
among them. But He was not wanted. “He came unto His own, and His own received Him
not” (John 1:11). Not only did they receive Him not, they “despised and rejected Him;” they
“hated Him without a cause.” So intense was their enmity against Him that with one voice
they cried, “Away with Him, crucify Him.” And not until His holy blood had been shed,
and He had died the death of the accursed, was their awful malice against Him appeased.
And for this they have yet to answer to God. Vengeance is His, and He will repay. Not yet
has the murder of God’s Son been fully avenged.
1
Israel and the Antichrist
It could not be during this “Day of Salvation.”
But
the
Day
of
Salvation
will
soon
be
over,
and
it
shall
be
followed
by
“the
great
Day
of His Wrath” (Rev. 6:17; Joel 2:11). Then will God visit the earth with His sore judgments,
and though the Nations shall by no means escape the righteous retribution due them for
their part in the crucifixion of Christ, yet, the ones who will be punished the most severely
will be they who took the lead in that crime of crimes.
The form which God’s judgment will take upon the Jews is to be in full accord with the
unchanging law of recompense — what they have sown, that shall they also reap. This was
expressly affirmed by our Lord Jesus: “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me
not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). Because they
rejected God’s Christ, Israel shall receive the Antichrist. The same thing is stated in 2 Thess.
2:7 — “For this cause (i.e. because they received not the love of the Truth, that they might
be saved) God shall send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie.” The immediate

reference here, we believe, is to the Jews, though the principle enumerated will also
have its wider application to apostate Christendom. The chief reason why God suffers the
Man of Sin to come on the scene and run his awful course, is in order to inflict punishment
upon guilty Israel. This is clearly taught in Isa. 10:5, where of the Antichrist God says, “O
Assyrian, the rod (the instrument of chastisement) of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand
is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, against the people of
My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them
1 What they suffered in A.D. 70 was, first, for the sins of their fathers, see Luke 11:50; and second, for the
murder of Christ, see Matt. 22:7.
187
Israel and the Antichrist
down like the mire of the street,” and cf our brief comments on Jer. 6:26, 27 and 15:8 in
chapter 9.
It must be borne in mind that the Jews are to return to Palestine and there re-assume a
national standing whilst yet unconverted. There are a number of passages which establish
this beyond question. For example, in Ezek. 22:19-22 we are told, “Therefore thus saith the
Lord God; because ye are all become dross, behold, therefore I will gather you into the midst
of Jerusalem, as they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of
the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My
fury, and I will leave you there, and melt you. Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you in
the fire of My wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof.” The first six verses of Isa.
18 describe how the Lord will gather the Jews to Jerusalem, there to be the prey of “fowls
and beasts.” The closing chapters of Zechariah lead to the inevitable conclusion that the
Jews return to their land in unbelief, for if their national conversion takes place in Jerusalem
(Zech. 12:10), they must have returned to it unconverted.
When the Antichrist is manifested, great companies of the Jews will already be in
Palestine, and in a flourishing condition. What, then, will be his relations with them? It is
by no means easy to furnish a detailed answer to this question, and at best we can reply but
tentatively. Doubtless, there are many particulars respecting this and all other related subjects,
which will not be cleared up until the prophecies concerning them have been fulfilled. We,
today, occupy much the same position with regard to the predictions concerning the Antichrist,
as
the
old
Testament
saints
did
to
the
many
passages
which
foretold
the
coming
of
the
Christ.
Their
difficulty
was
to
arrange
those
passages
in
the
order
they
were
to
be
fulfilled,
and

to distinguish between those which spoke of Him in humiliation and those which
foretold His coming glory. A similar perplexity confronts us. To ascertain the sequence of
the prophecies relating to the Antichrist is a real problem. Even when we confine ourselves
to those passages which speak of him in his connections with Israel, we have to distinguish
between those which concern only the godly remnant, and those which relate to the great
apostate mass of the Nation; and, too, we have to separate between those prophecies which
concern the time when Antichrist is posing as the true Christ, and those which portray him
in the final stage of his career, after he has thrown off his mask of religious pretension.
It would appear that the first thing revealed in prophecy concerning the Antichrist’s
dealings with Israel is the entering into a “covenant” with them. This is mentioned in Dan.
9:27: “And he shall confirm the covenant (make a firm covenant, R.V.) with many for one
week” i.e. seven years. The many here can be none other than the mass of the Jewish people,
for they are the principal subjects of the prophecy. The one who makes this covenant is the
“Prince that shall come” of the previous verse, the Head of the restored Roman Empire.
Thus the relations between this Prince, the Antichrist, and the mass of the Jews shall, at the
first, be relations of apparent friendship and public alliance. That this covenant is not forced
188
Israel and the Antichrist
upon Israel, but rather is entered into voluntarily by them, as seeking Antichrist’s patronage,
is clear from Isa. 28:18, where we find God, in indignation, addressing them as follows —
“And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell shall
not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down
by it.” And this, we believe, supplies the key to Dan. 2:43.
Nebuchadnezzar’s vision of the great image and the interpretation given to Daniel,
outlines the governmental history of the earth as it relates to Palestine, further details being
supplied in the other visions found in the book of Daniel. “The earthly dispensations of God
revolve around Jerusalem as their center. The method which it hath pleased God to adopt
in giving the prophetic history of these nations, is in strict accord with this principle. As
soon as they arose into supremacy and supplanted Jerusalem, prophets were commissioned,
especially Daniel, to delineate their course. We might perhaps, have expected that their
history would have been given minutely and consecutively from its beginning to its close.
But instead of this, it is only given in its connection with Jerusalem; and as soon as Jerusalem
was finally crushed by the Romans and ceased to retain a national position, all detailed history
of the Gentile Empires is suspended. many a personage most important in the world’s history
has since arisen. Charlemagne has lived, and Napoleon — many a monarch, and many a
conqueror — battles have been fought, kingdoms raised and kingdoms subverted — yet
Scripture passes silently over these things, however great in the annals of the Gentiles. Because
Jerusalem has nationally ceased to be, 1800 years ago, the detail of Gentile history was suspended-
it
is
suspended
still,
nor
will
it
be
resumed
until
Jerusalem
re-assumes
a
national
position.

Then the history of the Gentiles is again minutely given, and the glory and
dominion of their last great King described. He is found to be especially connected with
Jerusalem and the Land[hellip]The subject of the book of Daniel as a whole, is the indignation
of God directed through the instrumentality of the Gentile Empires upon Jerusalem” (B.W.
Newton “Aids to Prophetic Enquiry,” first Series).
The method which the Holy Spirit has followed in the book of Daniel is to give us, a
general outline of Gentile dominion over Jerusalem, and this is found in the vision of the
Image in chapter 2; and second, to fill in this outline, which is given in the last six chapters
of that book. It is with the former we are now more particularly concerned. Much of the
prophetic vision of Dan. 2 has already become history. The golden head (Babylon), the silver
breast and arms (Medo-Persia), the brazen belly and thighs (Greece), the iron legs (Rome),
have already appeared before men. But the feet of the Image, “part of iron and part of clay,”
have to do with a time yet future. The break between the legs and feet corresponds with the
break between the sixty-ninth and seventieth “weeks” of Dan. 9:24-27. The present dispensation

comes in as a parenthesis during the time that Israel is outside the Land, dispersed
among the Gentiles.
189
Israel and the Antichrist
What, then, is represented by the “iron and the clay” toes of the feet of the Image? If we
bear in mind that this portion of the Image exactly corresponds to the seventieth week, we
have an important key to the interpretation. Dan. 9:26, 27 treats of the seventieth week —
the “one week” yet remaining. These verses speak of the Prince (of the restored Roman
Empire) making a seven years’ Covenant with the Jews. Thus the prophecy concerning the
seventieth week presents to us two prominent subjects — the Romans, at whose head is the
Antichrist, and apostate Israel, with whom the Covenant is made. Returning now to Dan.
2 we find that when interpreting the king’s dream about the Image, the prophet declares
that the “iron” is the symbol for the “fourth kingdom” (v. 40), which was Rome, who succeeded
Babylon,
Persia,

and Greece; the “feet” with their ten toes forecasting this Empire
in its final form. Thus, we have Divine authority for saying that the “iron” in the feet of the
Image represent the peoples who shall yet occupy the territory controlled by the old Roman
Empire. In a word, the “iron” symbolizes the Gentiles — specifically those found in the
lands which shall be ruled over by the “ten kings.”
Who, then, is symbolized by “the clay?” Here we are obliged to part company with the
commentators, who unanimously take the clay to be the figure of democracy. So far as we
are aware none of them has offered a single proof text in support of their interpretation,
and as the Word is the only authority, to it we must look. Assured that Scripture is its own
interpretor, we turn to the concordance to find out what the “clay” signifies elsewhere, when
used symbolically. In Isa. 64, which records the Cry of the Remnant at the End-time, we
find them saying, “But now, O Lord, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our
Potter; and we are all the work of Thy hand.” Again, in Jer. 18 the same figure is employed.
There the prophet is commanded to go down to the potter’s house, where he beheld him
manufacturing a vessel. The vessel was marred in the hands of the potter, so he “made it
again another vessel.” Clearly, this is a picture of Israel in the past and in the future. The
interpretation is expressly fixed in v. 6: “O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter?
saith the Lord. Behold, as the clay is in the potter’s hand, so are ye in Mine hand, O house
of Israel.” How clear it is then that “clay” is God’s symbol for Israel.
2
In its final form, then, the revived Roman Empire — the kingdom of Antichrist — will
be partly Gentilish and partly Jewish. And is not this what we must expect? Will not that be
the character of the kingdom of that One which the Antichrist will counterfeit? Such scrip-
2 That the Hebrew word for “clay” in these passages is a different one from that employed in Dan. 2 is exactly
what a reflecting mind would naturally expect. Isa. 64 and Jer. 18 treat of the Israel that shall be restored,
whereas Dan. 2 speaks of the apostate portion of Israel, irrevocablly given up to judgment. In striking accord
with this, we may add, that the word used in Isa. 64 and Jer. 18 refers to clay in its native and mouldable stage;
but the word in Dan. 2 signifies “burnt clay” which denotes its final condition: here, as always, “burning” tells
of Divine judgment!
190
Israel and the Antichrist
tures as Psa. 2:6-8; Isa. 11:10; 42:6; Rev. 11:15, etc., make plain the dual character of the
kingdom over which our Lord will reign during the Millennium. That the Antichrist will
be intimately related to both Jews and the Gentiles we have proven again and again in the
previous chapters — Rev. 9:11 is quite sufficient to establish the point. Therefore, we should
not be surprised to find that that part of the Image which specifically depicts the kingdom
over which the Man of Sin shall reign, should be composed of both “iron” and “clay.” It
would be passing strange were it otherwise. It is indeed striking to note that the “clay” is
mentioned in Dan. 2 just nine times — the number of judgment!
In Dan. 2:43 we read, “And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall
mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another even as
iron is not mixed with clay” — a verse that has sorely puzzled the expositors. We believe
that the reference is to the coming intimacy between Jews and Gentiles. The apostate Jews
(members of the Corrupt Woman) shall “mingle themselves with the seed of men” — the
Gentiles. This is amplified in Rev. 17, where we read of the great Whore, “with whom the
kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been
made drunk with the wine of her fornication.” “But they shall not cleave one to another”
(Dan. 2:43) is explained in Rev. 17:16 — “And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the
Beast, these shall hate the Whore, and shall make her desolate and naked,” etc.! There is a
remarkable verse in Hab. 2 which confirms our remarks above, and connects the Antichrist
himself with the “clay.” The passage begins with the third verse, which, from its quotation
in Heb. 10:37, 38 we know, treats of the period immediately preceding our Lord’s return.
In vv. 4 and 5 we have a description of the Antichrist, and then in v. 6 we read, “Shall not
all these take up a parable against him, and a taunting proverb against him, and say, Woe
to him that increaseth that which is not his! how long? and to him that ladeth himself with
thick clay.” The reference is clearly to this “proud Man’s” fellowship with apostate Israel.
We are satisfied that Hab. 2:6-8 is parallel with Isa. 14:9-12. Isa. 14 gives us a glimpse of the
Antichrist being scoffed at in Hell, by the “chief ones of the earth” because he, too, was unable
to escape their awful fate. So in Hab. 2, after stating that he “gathereth unto him all nations”
(v. 5) the prophet goes on to say “Shall not all these take up a taunting proverb against him.”
The taunt is, that though he had leagued himself with the mass of Israel (laden himself with
thick clay), yet it will be “the remnant” of this same people that shall “spoil” him (v. 8).
Another scripture which shows that in the End-time apostate Israel will no longer be
divided from and hated by the Gentiles is found in Isa. 2, where we are told, “They strike
hands with the children of strangers” (v. 6 R.V.). As the context here is of such deep interest,
and as the whole chapter supplies us with a most vivid picture of the Jews in Palestine just
before the Millennium, we shall stop to give it a brief consideration. The first five verses
present to us a millennial scene, and then, as is so frequently the case in the prophecies of
Isaiah, we are taken back to be shown something of the conditions which shall precede the
191
Israel and the Antichrist
establishing of the Lord’s house in the top of the mountains. This is clear from the twelfth
verse, which defines this period, preceding the Millennium as “the Day of the Lord.” The
section, then, which describes the conditions which are to obtain in Palestine immediately
before the Day of the Lord dawns, begins with v. 6. We there quote from v. 5 to the end of
v. 10:—
“For thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob, because they be filled with customs
from the east, and are soothsayers like the Palestines, and they strike hands with the children
of strangers. Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end to their treasures;
their
land
also
is

full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots. Their land
also is full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers
have made. And the mean man is bowed down, and the great man is brought low: therefore
forgive them not. Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, from before the terror of
the Lord, and from the glory of His majesty.” This most interesting passage shows us that
apostate Israel will be on terms of intimacy with the Gentiles; that she will be the mistress
of vast wealth; that she will be given up to idolatry. Their moral condition is described in
vv. 11 to 17 — note the repeated references to “lofty looks,” “haughtiness of men,” “high
and lifted up,” etc.
If Zech. 5 be read after Isa. 2:6-9 we have the connecting link between it and Rev. 17.
Isa. 2 shows us the Jews as the owners of fabulous wealth, as being in guilty fellowship with
“strangers,” and as universally given to idolatry. Zech. 5 reveals the emigration of apostate
Israel )the woman in the midst of the Ephah) and the transference of her wealth to the land
of Shinar. Rev. 17 and 18 give the ultimate outcome of this. Here we see apostate Israel in
all her corrupt glory. She is pictured, first, as sitting upon many waters (v. 1), which signified
“peoples, and multitudes, and nations and tongues” (v. 15). These will support her by contributing

to her revenues. The huge bond issues made by the nations to obtain loans, are
rapidly finding their way into Jewish hands; and doubtless it is the steadily accumulating
interest from these which will soon make them the wealthiest nation of the world. That
which has half bankrupted Europe will soon be used to array the Woman in purple and
scarlet color and gold and precious stones and pearls (v. 4).
Second, the Woman is seen sitting upon the Beast (v. 3), which means that the Antichrist
will use his great governmental power to insure her protection. How this harmonizes with
Dan. 9:27, where we read of him making a seven-year Covenant with them, needs not to be
pointed out. Then will poor blinded Israel believe that the Millennium has come. No longer
the people of the weary foot and homeless stranger, but mistress of the greatest city in the
world. No longer poor and needy, but possessor of the wealth of the earth. No longer the
“tail” of the nations, but reigning over them as their financial Creditor and Dictator. No
longer despised by the great and mighty, but sought after by the kings of the earth. Nothing
withheld that the flesh can desire. The false Prince of Peace their benefactor. Yes, blinded
192
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel will verily conclude that at long last the millennial era has arrived, and such will be
the Devil’s imitation of that blessed time which shall be ushered in by the return of God’s
Son to this earth.
But not for long shall this satanic spell be enjoyed. Rudely shall it be broken. For, third,
Rev. 17 shows us the ten horns and the Beast turning against the Whore, stripping her of
her wealth, and despoiling her of her glory (v. 6). This, too, corresponds with Old testament
prophecy, for there we read of the Antichrist breaking his Covenant with Israel! As we are
told in Psa. 55:20, “He hath put forth his hands against such as be at peace with him: he has
broken his covenant,” cf Isa. 33:8. And this very breaking of the Covenant is but the fulfillment
of
the
Divine
counsels.
Thousands
of
years
ago,
Jehovah
addressed
Himself
through
Isaiah
to
apostate
Israel,
saying,
“And
your
Covenant
with
Death
shall
be
disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand;
when
the
overflowing
scourge
shall
pass
through,
then
ye
shall
be
trodden
down
by
it.”
Concerning Antichrist’s relations with the godly Jewish Remnant, that has already been
discussed in previous chapters, as also his final attack upon Jerusalem and his defeat and
overthrow in the Valley of Armageddon. Apostate Israel, the Beast, and all his Gentile followers
shall
be
destroyed.
The
faithful
remnant
of
Israel,
and
those
Gentiles
who
befriend
them
in
the
hour
of
their
need,
shall
have
their
part
in
the
millennial
kingdom
of
David’s
Son
and
Lord
(Matt.
25).
Thus
has
God
been
pleased
to
unveil
the
future
and
make
known
to
us
the
things
which
“must
shortly
come
to
pass.”
May
it
be
ours
to
reverently
search
the
more
sure
Word
of
Prophecy
with
increasing
interest,
and
may
an
ever-deepening
gratitude
fill
our
hearts
and
be
expressed
by
our
lips,
because
all
who
are
now
saved
by
grace
through
faith
shall
be
with
our
blessed
Lord
in
the
Father’s
House,
when
the
Great
Tribulation
with
all
its
attendant
horrors
shall
come
upon
the
world.
193
The Antichrist
The Antichrist
The Antichrist
194
Conclusion
Conclusion
In bringing to a close this book on the Antichrist, we are conscious that “there remaineth
yet very much land to be possessed” (John 13:1). We have sought to present as comprehensive
an outline of the subject as our present light and somewhat limited space would permit. But
little more than an outline has been given. Abundant scope is still left for the interested
reader and student to work out and fill in the details for himself. This, we trust, is what many
will do. The subject, though solemn, is one full of interest.
No doubt the subject is new, and hence, mysterious to some of our readers. These we
would ask to turn back to the first chapter, and re-read the whole book. That God will yet
permit the Devil to bring forth his satanic Masterpiece, who shall defy God and persecute
His people, should scarcely be surprising. In each succeeding age there has been a Cain for
every Abel; a Jannes and Jambres for every Moses and every John the Baptist. It has been
so during this dispension: the sowing of the Wheat, was followed by the sowing of the Tares.
It will be so in the Tribulation period: not only will there be a faithful remnant of Israel, but
there shall be an unfaithful company of that people, too. And just before the Christ of God
returns to this earth to set up His kingdom, God will suffer His arch-enemy to bring forth
the false christ, who will establish his kingdom.
And God’s hour for this is not far distant. It was when “the iniquity of the Amorites”
was come to the “full” (Gen. 15:16) that God gave orders for their extermination (Deut. 7:1,
2). And Israel’s transgressions (Dan. 8:23) and the transgressions of Christendom (2 Thess.
2:11, 12), will only have come to “the full” when those who rejected the Christ of God, shall
have received the christ of Satan. Then, shall God say to His avenging angel, “Thrust in thy
sickle, and reap: for the time has come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe”
(Rev. 14:15). It is this which makes the subject so solemn.
What God has been pleased to make known concerning the Antichrist is not revealed
in order to gratify carnal curiosity, but is of great moment for our daily lives. In the first
place, a proper apprehension of these things should cause us to seriously search our hearts,
and to examine carefully the foundation upon which our hopes are built, to discover
whether or not they rest on the solid Rock Christ Jesus, or whether they stand upon nothing
more stable than the shifting sands of human feelings, human resolutions, human efforts
after self-improvement. Incalculably serious is the issue at stake, and we cannot afford to
be uncertain about it. A mere “hope I am saved” is not sufficient. Nothing short of the full
assurance of faith ought to suffice.
Unspeakable solemn is what we read of in 2 Thess. 2:8-12: “And then shall that Wicked
be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy
with the brightness of His coming: even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan,
with all power and signs and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness
Conclusion
195
in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.
And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie:
That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”
There are three points in the above verses by which the writer and the reader may test
himself. First, have I “believed the Truth?” “Thy Word is the Truth.” Have I set to my seal
that God is true? Have I applied the Word of God to myself, and taken it to my own heart?
Have I personally received the Saviour that it reveals?
Second, do I have “pleasure in unrighteousness?” There is a vast difference between
doing an act of unrighteousness, and having “pleasure” therein. Scripture speaks of Moses
“choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasure of sin
for a season” (Heb. 11:25). And again, it speaks of some who “knowing the judgment of
God that they who commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have
pleasure in them that do them” (Rom. 1:32). So it is here in the passage before us. They who
“believe not the Truth,” have “pleasure in unrighteousness.” And here is one of the vital
differences between an unbeliever and a genuine believer. The latter may be overtaken by
a fault, his communion with Christ may be broken, he may sin grievously, but if he does,
he will have no “pleasure” therein! Instead, he will hate the very unrighteousness into which
he has fallen, and mourn bitterly for having done that which was so dishonoring to his Saviour.
Third, have I “received the love of the Truth?” Do I read God’s Word daily, not simply
as a duty, but as a delight; not merely to satisfy conscience, but because it rejoices my heart;
not simply to gratify an idle curiosity, that I may acquire some knowledge of its contents,
but because I desire above everything else to become better acquainted with its Author. Can
I say with the Psalmist, “I will delight myself in Thy statutes[hellip]Thy commandments
are my delights” (Psa. 119:16,143). The wicked love the darkness; but God’s people love the
light!
Here, then, are three tests by which we earnestly entreat every reader to honestly examine
himself, and see whether he be in the faith. Awful beyond words is the only alternative, for
Scripture declares of those who have “believed not the Truth,” who have “pleasure in unrighteousness,”
and
who
have
“received
not
the
love
of
the
Truth,”
that
“for
this
cause
God
shall

send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie: that they all might be
damned.”
Again; if we diligently search the Scriptures to discover what they teach concerning the
Antichrist — his personality, his career, his ways, etc. — the more we are informed about
him the better shall we be prepared to detect the many antichrists who are in the world
today, now preparing the way for the appearing and career of the Man of Sin. There is no
reason why we should be ignorant of Satan’s devices. There is no valid excuse if we are de-
Conclusion
196
ceived by his “false apostles,” who transform themselves into the apostles of Christ (2 Cor.
11:13). Christians ought not to be misled by the many false prophets who are gone out into
the world (1 John 4:1). Nor will they be, if they study diligently those things which God has
recorded for our enlightenment and to safeguard us against the subtle deceptions of the
great Enemy.
Again; as we give diligent heed to the prophetic Word, as we take its solemn warnings
to heart, the effect must be that we shall separate ourselves from everything which is antiChristian.

“Be not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath
righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And
what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?
And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living
God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and
they shall be My people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith
the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you” (2 Cor. 6:14-17).
This call is not directed toward Christians separating themselves from their fellowChristians.
How
could
it
be?
Scripture
does
not
contradict
itself.
God’s
Word
explicitly
says,
“Not
forsaking
the
assembling
of
ourselves
together,
as
the
manner
of
some
is;
but
exhorting
one
another:
and
so
much
the
more,
as
ye
see
the
day
approaching”
(Heb.
10:25).
But
the
same
Word
which
tells
us
not
to
forsake
the
assembling
of
ourselves
together,
commands
us
to
have
“no
fellowship
with the unfruitful works of darkness” (Eph. 5:11). God forbid that
His people should be found helping forward the plans of the Prince of Darkness.
Finally, as we read prayerfully the teaching of Scripture concerning this Coming One,
who shall embark upon the most awful course that has ever been run on their earth; as we
learn of how he will ascend the Throne of the World, and be the director and dictator of
human affairs; as we discover how he will employ the mighty power, with which Satan invests
him, to openly defy God and everything which bears His name; and, as we are made aware
of the unspeakably dreadful judgments which God will pour upon the world at that time,
and the fearful doom which shall overtake the Antichrist and all his followers; our heart will
be stirred within us, and we shall not hesitate to lift up our voices in warning. The world is
in complete ignorance of what awaits it. The nations know not what is in store for them.
Even Israel discern not the dark night which lies before them. But as God instructs us concerning
what
He
is

about to do, it is positively criminal to remain silent. The voices of all
whom God has been pleased to enlighten ought to be raised in solemn and united testimony
to the things which God has declared “must shortly come to pass.”
Conclusion
197
Indexes
Indexes
Indexes
198
Index of Scripture References
Index of Scripture References
Index of Scripture References
Genesis
1:2   2:24   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   4:5   4:7   4:9   4:10   4:13   4:17-19   4:19   4:23  
4:23   4:23   4:24   4:24   4:25   5:24   6:11   9:1   9:1   10   10   10   10   10   10   10:7-10   10:8  
10:8   10:9   10:9   10:10   10:10   10:10   10:11   11   11   11   11   11   11   11:2   11:4   11:4  
11:7   11:8   11:9   11:28   14   14   14:1   14:1   14:1   14:2-4   14:5   14:9   14:10   14:12   14:17  
15:16   27:35   37:9   49:17   49:18
Exodus
1   5:1   5:2   7:10   7:11   8:8   8:15   15:11   25:20
Numbers
24:17   24:17   24:18   24:18   24:22   33
Deuteronomy
7:1   7:2   7:26   11:29   27:4   27:12   27:13   28:13   28:50   28:50   32   32:28   32:31   32:32  
32:35   32:35
Joshua
7:21   8:30   10
Judges
6   8:33   8:34   9:5   9:6   9:6   9:22   9:40-50   9:54   12:6   14   14:12
Ruth
1:11
1 Samuel
7:8   9:2   10:23   10:24   11:11   13:1-4   13:9   15:4   15:11   17:4   17:5-7   17:7   17:10   17:51  
18:7   18:8   18:11   22:17   22:18   26:2   29   31:4
2 Samuel
3:3   13   15:2-6   15:7   15:8   15:14-16   18:14   18:18   21:1
1 Kings
10:1   10:1   11:5-7   11:5-7
2 Kings
2:4   10:14   17:24   18
1 Chronicles
1:10   22:12
2 Chronicles
2:12
Ezra
2:13   4:2
Esther
1:1   3:10   7:6
199
Index of Scripture References
Job
1:17   26:13   41   41   41   41:1   41:2   41:3   41:4   41:10   41:14   41:24   41:25   41:26   41:28  
41:33   41:34   41:34
Psalms
2   2   2   2   2:1-3   2:2   2:3   2:4   2:5   2:6   2:6-8   5   5   5:2   5:2   5:5   5:6   5:6   5:6   5:6   5:7  
5:10   7   7   7:1   7:2   7:4-6   8   8   8:2   9   9:4   9:5   9:15   9:16   9:17   10   10   10:1   10:1  
10:2   10:2   10:2   10:2   10:2-11   10:3   10:3   10:4   10:4   10:4   10:4   10:5   10:6   10:6   10:7  
10:8   10:8   10:8   10:9   10:9   10:9   10:9   10:10   10:10   10:11   10:12   10:12-15   10:14  
10:15   10:16-18   10:17   10:18   10:18   14:1   17   17:12   17:13   18:10   18:10   36   36:2   36:3  
36:4   37   37:12   37:13   37:35   39:1   39:8   43   44   50   50:3   50:5   50:7-14   50:16   50:16-22  
50:17   50:18-20   50:21   50:22   52   52   52:1   52:1   52:1   52:1-4   52:1-7   52:2   52:3   52:4  
52:5   52:7   52:7   52:7   52:7   52:7   55   55   55   55:3   55:11-13   55:20   55:20   55:20   55:21  
55:21   55:21   55:21   55:23   69:4   71   71:4   72   72:2-4   74   74   74:1-11   74:8-10   74:8-10  
74:10   78:49   83   83   83:1-4   83:1-4   83:3-8   83:4   83:5   83:6-8   83:8   110:6   110:6   110:6  
119   136:15   140   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:4   140:4   140:8   140:10  
140:11   140:11
Proverbs
1:6
Ecclesiastes
1:9
Isaiah
1   1:21   2   2   2:5   2:6   2:6   2:6-9   2:10   2:11   2:17   4:2   4:2   5   7:1   7:17-20   8:7   9:6  
9:6   9:6   9:7   10   10   10   10   10   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:6   10:7-11   10:12   10:12  
10:12   10:12   10:12   10:12   10:13   10:14   10:20   10:20   10:23   10:24   10:24   10:25   10:25  
10:26   10:28-32   10:32   11   11   11:4   11:4   11:4   11:4   11:10   11:11   11:11   11:14   11:14  
13   13   13   13   13   13:10   13:19   13:19   13:19   13:19   13:20   13:21   14   14   14   14   14  
14   14   14   14   14   14:1   14:3   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:5   14:6  
14:7   14:8   14:9   14:9-12   14:11-20   14:12   14:12   14:12   14:12   14:13   14:13   14:14   14:14  
14:15   14:16   14:16   14:16   14:17   14:18   14:18   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:20  
14:20   14:20   14:21   14:21-23   14:24-27   14:25   16   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:5  
18   18   19:23   19:24   22:21   22:22   22:23   22:23   22:25   22:25   22:25   24:8   24:10   25:5  
26   26:20   26:21   27:1   27:1   27:1   27:1   27:6   27:13   28   28:14   28:15   28:18   28:18  
28:18   28:18   28:18   28:18   30   30   30:27   30:31-33   30:33   30:33   33   33:2   33:8   33:8  
37   37:6   37:7   37:7   38   42:6   47:1   47:1   47:5   47:8   47:8   47:9   47:9   52:4   53   53:3  
53:7   53:7   53:7   54:4-7   57:3   57:9   57:9   59:19   60:2   60:2   63:3   63:9   64   64   64   66  
66:3   66:15
Jeremiah
200
Index of Scripture References
1:3   2:20   2:20   3:6   3:6   3:8   3:18   4:5-7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:13   4:29   5:16  
6:24   6:26   6:26   6:26   6:27   6:27   14:1   14:2   15   15:8   15:8   15:21   18   18   18   18:6  
25:15   25:29   25:33   25:38   30:7   30:7   30:14   30:23   31   31   31   31:15   50:1-5   50:4-7  
50:8   50:8   50:8   50:9   50:15   50:20   51   51   51   51:6   51:7   51:7   51:8   51:9   51:13   51:13  
51:24-26   51:27-30   51:30   51:31   51:32   51:33   51:44   51:45   51:45   51:45   51:47-49  
51:49   51:49   51:54   51:58   51:58   51:63   51:64
Lamentations
4:11   4:12   5:10
Ezekiel
10:5   12:13   16:15   16:15   20:30   20:30   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25-27  
21:25-27   21:25-27   21:26   21:26   21:26   21:26   22:19-22   28   28   28   28:2   28:2   28:2-10  
28:2-10   28:3   28:3   28:4   28:4   28:4   28:4   28:5   28:7   28:8   28:10   28:12   28:12-19  
28:12-19   28:17   36   38:2   43:8   43:8   43:9   43:9
Daniel
1:2   1:2   1:3   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2:35   2:40   2:40   2:43   2:43   2:43   2:44   2:45   2:45  
4   4:23   5:30   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7:1   7:3   7:3   7:4   7:4   7:5  
7:5   7:6   7:6   7:6   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8  
7:8-11   7:11   7:13   7:14   7:17   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20-27   7:21   7:21   7:21  
7:21-23   7:21-26   7:23   7:23   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:25   7:25   7:25   7:25   8   8   8  
8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8:8   8:8   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9-12   8:9-12   8:10   8:11   8:11   8:11  
8:14   8:19   8:19   8:21   8:22   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23-25   8:23-25   8:23-25  
8:23-25   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25  
9   9:11-14   9:24   9:24   9:24   9:24   9:24-27   9:25   9:25   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26  
9:26   9:26   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27  
9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27  
9:27   11   11   11   11   11   11   11   11:2   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21  
11:21   11:21   11:21-24   11:21-45   11:22   11:22   11:22   11:23   11:23   11:23   11:23   11:23  
11:23-31   11:25   11:26   11:27   11:28   11:31   11:32   11:32-45   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36  
11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:37   11:37  
11:37   11:38   11:38   11:38   11:39   11:40   11:40   11:40-42   11:41   11:41   11:42   11:43  
11:43   11:44   11:44   11:44   11:45   11:45   11:45   12:1   12:1   12:7   12:11   12:11
Hosea
2:5   2:5   8:10   10:15   12:7   12:7
Joel
2   2   2:1-11   2:2   2:8   2:11   2:11   2:20   2:20   3:9-14
Amos
3:11   3:11   3:11   3:14   8   8:4-6   8:7-13
Micah
201
Index of Scripture References
4:10   4:10   4:10   4:11   5:3   5:5   5:6   5:6   5:6
Nahum
1:11   1:12   1:15   1:15
Habakkuk
2   2   2:4   2:4   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:6   2:6-8   2:8
Zechariah
1:7-17   1:18-21   2   2:8   3   3:8   4   5   5   5   5   5   5   5:1-4   5:5   5:5   5:5-11   5:6   5:6   5:7  
5:8   5:11   6:12   6:13   6:13   6:13   8:23   9:13   11:7   11:16   11:16   11:17   11:17   11:17  
11:17   11:17   11:17   11:17   11:17   12:10   13:2   13:2   13:3   13:4   13:5   13:5   13:6   13:8  
14   14:2   14:3   14:7   14:12   14:13   14:16-21
Malachi
3:1   3:1
Matthew
2   2   2   2:1   2:1   2:3   2:8   2:9   2:16   2:18   4:6   4:8   5:35   7:28   9:28   10:23   12   12:4  
12:14   12:22   12:23   12:24   12:34   12:41-43   12:43   12:43   12:43   12:43-45   12:43-45  
12:44   13:11   13:24   13:24   13:25   13:38   13:54   15:24   16:16   19:28   21   21:19   22:2  
22:3   22:7   22:8   22:11   22:12   23:37   23:38   23:39   23:39   24   24   24   24:3   24:4   24:5  
24:8   24:8   24:11   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:16   24:16   24:16-21  
24:21   24:22   24:22   24:23-26   24:24   24:25   24:26   24:26   24:28   24:29   24:31   24:31   25  
25:31   25:41   25:41   25:41   26:24   26:71
Mark
1:24   13:19   13:20   16:12
Luke
4:14   4:16   8:31   11:50   12:35   12:36   14:31   18   18   18   18   18:3   18:4   18:5   18:6   18:26  
19:41-44   21   21   21:25   24:51
John
1:11   1:11   1:34   2:14   2:16   3:6   3:13   3:29   4:23   5:16   5:17   5:18   5:30   5:32   5:33   5:36  
5:39   5:40   5:41   5:42   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43  
5:43   5:43   5:43   5:44   6:38   6:70   6:70   8:40   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44  
8:44   10:3   10:11   11:51   13:1   14:6   14:6   14:10   15   15:26   16:13   16:14   17:4   17:5  
17:12   17:12   17:12   18:9
Acts
1:23   1:25   1:25   2:1-4   2:3   2:22   4   4:24-26   4:28   7:18   27:22
Romans
1:3   1:16   1:32   2:9   3:23   7:23   9:4   9:17   11:26   15:4   15:8   16:25   16:26
1 Corinthians
2:10   10:20
2 Corinthians
202
Index of Scripture References
2:11   5:1   6:2   6:14-17   11:13   11:13   11:14   11:14
Galatians
1:6   1:7   4:4   4:4   4:24
Ephesians
2:2   3:3   3:6   4:30   5:11   5:26   5:32
Philippians
2:8   2:10   2:13
Colossians
2:3   3:5
1 Thessalonians
4:16   5:3   5:3   5:3
2 Thessalonians
2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2:1   2:1-12   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3  
2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4  
2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:6   2:6   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:8   2:8   2:8  
2:8   2:8   2:8   2:8   2:8-12   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:11   2:11   2:11   2:11  
2:11   2:11   2:11   2:11   2:12   2:12   2:12   2:12   2:13
1 Timothy
2:5   3:16   3:16   4:1
Hebrews
7:1   7:2   7:26   8:5   8:8   8:8   9:8   9:9   10:7   10:9   10:25   10:37   10:38   11:25
James
5:9
1 Peter
5:6   5:13   5:13
2 Peter
2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4
1 John
2:18   2:18   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:28   3:12   4:1   4:3   4:3   4:3
Revelation
1:3   1:3   1:20   1:20   2:9   2:13   2:24   3:7   3:10   3:12   4:8   5:5   5:6   5:6   6   6   6   6   6   6  
6   6   6   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:4   6:4   6:4   6:4   6:5   6:8   6:8   6:8   6:8   6:10   6:17   6:17  
7   7:3   7:3   8:3   8:10   9   9   9   9   9   9:1   9:1   9:2   9:2   9:3   9:7   9:7   9:8   9:11   9:11   9:11  
9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:19   10:1   10:1   11:6   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7  
11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:15   12   12   12   12   12   12   12:1   12:3   12:3   12:3   12:5  
12:6   12:6   12:6   12:7   12:9   12:9   12:14   12:14   12:14   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13  
13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13:1   13:1   13:1  
13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2  
203
Index of Scripture References
13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:3   13:3   13:3  
13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3-8   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4  
13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5  
13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:6   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:8   13:8   13:8  
13:11   13:11   13:11   13:11   13:11-14   13:11-15   13:11-16   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12  
13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12-15   13:13   13:13   13:13   13:13   13:14   13:14  
13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:15   13:15   13:15  
13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:16   13:16   13:16   13:16  
13:16   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:18   13:18   13:18   14:1   14:1  
14:8   14:8   14:8   14:9   14:9-11   14:10   14:15   14:18   14:19   14:19   14:20   15:2   16   16:2  
16:2   16:10   16:12   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:14   16:14   16:14   16:14   16:14  
16:14   16:18   16:19   16:19   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17  
17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17  
17   17   17   17:1   17:1   17:1   17:1   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3  
17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:5   17:5   17:5  
17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:6   17:6   17:6   17:6   17:7   17:7   17:8   17:8  
17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:9   17:9   17:9   17:9   17:9-11   17:10   17:11   17:11  
17:11   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:13   17:13   17:13   17:14   17:15   17:15  
17:15   17:15   17:15   17:15   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16  
17:17   17:17   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   18   18   18   18   18   18  
18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18:2   18:2   18:2   18:3   18:4  
18:4   18:5   18:6   18:7   18:8   18:8   18:9   18:10   18:10   18:18   18:21   18:21   18:23   18:23  
18:24   19   19   19   19   19   19:6   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:8   19:8   19:11   19:11  
19:11   19:11   19:12   19:14   19:15   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:20  
19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:21  
19:21   19:21   20   20:1-3   20:1-3   20:3   20:3   20:4   20:10   20:10   20:10   20:10   20:10  
20:10   21   21   21   21:2   21:9   21:9   21:10   21:10   21:10   21:12   21:14   21:27   22:16   22:16  
22:19
204

Bible Dictionary O

Smith’s Bible Dictionary – O

Oak, Oath, Obadiah, Obal, Obed, Obededom, Obil, Oblation, Oboth, Ocran, Oded, Odollam, Offerings, Officer, Og, Oil, Oil Tree, Ointment, Old Testament, Olive, Olives, Mount Of, Olivet, Olympas, Omar, Omega, Or Omega, Omer, Omri, On, Onam, Onan, Onesimus, Onesiphorus, Onias, Onion, Ono, Onycha, Onyx, Ophel, Ophir, Ophni, Ophrah, Orator, Orchard, Oreb, Oreb, The Rock, Oren, Organ, Orion, Ornaments, Personal, Ornan, Orpah, Oshea, Osprey, Ossifrage, Ostrich, Othni, Othniel, Oven, Owl, Ox, Ozem, Ozias, Ozni

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Oak – (Heb. Strong). There is much difficulty in determining the exact meanings of the several varieties of the term mentioned above. Sometimes, evidently, the terebinth or elm is intended and at others the oak. There are a number of varieties of oak in Palestine. (Dr. Robinson contends that the oak is generally intended, and that it is a very common tree in the East. Oaks grow to a large size, reach an old age and are every way worthy the venerable associations connected with the tree. ED.) Two oaks, Quercus pseudo-coccifera and Q. Aegilops, are well worthy of the name of mighty trees; though it is equally true that over a greater part of the country the oaks of Palestine are at present merely bushes.
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Oath – The principle on which an oath is held to be binding is incidentally laid down in (Hebrews 6:16) viz. As an ultimate appeal to divine authority to ratify an assertion. On the same principle, that oath has always been held most binding which appealed to the highest authority, as regards both individuals and communities. As a consequence of this principle, appeals to God’s name on the one hand, and to heathen deities on the other, are treated in scripture as tests of allegiance. (Exodus 23:13; 34:6; 29:12) etc. So also the sovereign’s name is sometimes used as a form of obligation. (Genesis 42:15; 2 Samuel 11:11; 14:19) Other forms of oath, serious or frivolous, are mentioned, some of which are condemned by our Lord. (Matthew 6:33; 23:16-22) and see (James 5:12) (There is, however, a world-wide difference between a solemn appeal to God and profane swearing.) The forms of adjuration mentioned in Scripture are:
• Lifting up the hand. Witnesses laid their hands on the head of the accused. (Genesis 14:22; Leviticus 24:14; 17:7; Isaiah 3:7)
• Putting the hand under the thigh of the person to whom the Promise was made. (Genesis 24:2; 47:29)
• Oaths were sometimes taken before the altar, or, as some understand the passage, if the persons were not in Jerusalem, in a position looking toward the temple. (1 Kings 8:31; 2 Chronicles 6:22)
• Dividing a victim and passing between or distributing the pieces. (Genesis 15:10,17; Jeremiah 34:18) As the sanctity of oaths was carefully inculcated by the law, so the crime of perjury was strongly condemned; and to a false witness the same punishment was assigned which was due for the crime to which he testified. (Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 19:12)
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Obadiah – (servant of the Lord),
• A man whose sons are enumerated in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:21) (B. C. 470.)
• A descendant of Issachar and a chief man of his tribe. (1 Chronicles 7:3) (B. C. 1014.)
• One of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:44) (B. C. 720.)
• A Levite, son of Shemaiah, and descended from Jeduthun. (1 Chronicles 9:16; Nehemiah 12:25)
• The second of the lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:9) (B. C. 1054.)
• One of the Princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:7) (B. C. 909.)
• The son of Jehiel, of the sons of Joab, who came up in the second caravan with Ezra. (Ezra 8:9)
• A priest, or family of priests, who settled the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:5)
• The fourth of the twelve minor prophets. We know nothing of him except what we can gather from the short book which bears his name. The question of his date must depend upon the interpretation of the 11th verse of his prophecy. He there speaks of the conquest of Jerusalem and the captivity of Jacob as having occurred, He probably refers to the captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 688. It must have been uttered at some time in the five years which intervened between B. C. 588 and 583. The book of Obadiah is a sustained denunciation of the Edomites, melting into a vision of the future glories of Zion when the arm of the Lord should have wrought her deliverance and have repaid double upon her enemies.
• An officer of high rank in the court of Ahab. (1 Kings 18:3) He was a devout worshipper of Jehovah, and at the peril of his life concealed over a hundred prophets during the persecution by Jezebel; (1 Kings 18:3-16) (B. C. 904.)
• The father of Ishmaiah who was chief of the tribe of Zebulun in David’s reign. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B. C. Before 1014.)
• A Merarite Levite in the reign of Josiah, and one of the overseers of the workmen in the restoration of the temple. (2 Chronicles 34:12) (B. C. 623.)
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Obal – (stripped bare), son of Joktan, and, like the rest of family, apparently the founder of an Arab tribe. (Genesis 10:28) In (1 Chronicles 1:22) the name is written Ebal.
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Obed – (serving).
• Son of Boaz and Ruth the Moabitess and father of Jesse. (Ruth 4:17) (B. C. 1360.) The circumstances of his birth which make up all that we know about him are given with much beauty in the book of Ruth. The name of Obed occurs only (Ruth 4:17) and in the four genealogies, (Ruth 4:21,22; 1 Chronicles 2:12; Matthew 1:5; Luke 3:32)
• A descendant of Jarha, the Egyptian slave of Sheshan, in the line of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:37,38) (B. C. After 1014.)
• One of David’s mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:47) (B. C. 1046.)
• One of the gate-keepers of the temple; son of Shemaiah the first-born of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:7) (B. C. 1017.)
• Father of Azariah, one of the captains of hundreds who joined with Jehoiada in the revolution by which Athaliah fell. (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B. C. Before 876.)
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Obededom – (servant of Edom).
• A Levite, described as a Gittite, (2 Samuel 6:10,11) that is, probably, a native of the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon in Manasseh, which was assigned to the Kohathites. (Joshua 21:25) (B. C. 1045.) After the death of Uzzah, the ark, which was being conducted from the house of Abinadab in Gibeah to the city of David, was carried aside into the house of Obed edom, where it continued three months. It was brought thence by David. (2 Samuel 6:12; 1 Chronicles 15:25)
• “Obed-edom the son of Jeduthun” (1 Chronicles 16:38) a Merarite Levite, appears to be a different person from the last mentioned. He was a Levite of the second degree and a gate-keeper for the ark, (1 Chronicles 15:18,24) appointed to sound “with harps on the Sheminith to excel. ” (1 Chronicles 15:21; 16:5) (B. C. 1043.)
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Obil – (chief of the camels), a keeper of the herds of camels in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:30) (B. C. 1050.)
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Oblation – [Sacrifice]
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Oboth – (bottles), one of the encampments of the Israelites, east of Moab. (Numbers 21:10; 33:43) Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom. ED).
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Ocran – (troubled), an Asherite, father of Pagiel. (Numbers 1:13; 2:27; 7:72,77; 10:26) (B. C. Before 1658.)
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Oded – (restoring).
• The father of Azariah the prophet, in the reign of Asa. (2 Chronicles 15:1) (B. C. Before 953.)
• A prophet of Jehovah in Samaria, at the time of Pekah’s invasion of Judah. (2 Chronicles 28:9) (B. C. 739.)
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Odollam – [Adullam]
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Offerings – [Sacrifice]
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Officer – It is obvious that most, if not all, of the Hebrew words rendered “officer” are either of an indefinite character or are synonymous terms for functionaries known under other and more specific names, as “scribe,” “eunuch” etc. The two words so rendered in the New Testament denote:
• An inferior officer of a court of justice, a messenger or bailiff, like the Roman viator or lictor. (Matthew 5:25; Acts 5:22)
• Officers whose duty it was to register and collect fines imposed by courts of justice. (Luke 12:58)
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Og – (giant, literally long-necked), an Amoritish king of Bashan, whose rule extended over sixty cities. (Joshua 13:12) He was one of the last representatives of the giant race of Rephaim, and was, with his children and his people, defeated and exterminated by the Israelites at Edrei immediately after the conquest of Sihon. (Numbers 32:33; 3:1-13) Also (1:4; 4:47; 31:4; Joshua 2:10; 9:10; 13:12,30) The belief in Og’s enormous stature is corroborated by an allusion to his iron bedstead preserved in “Rabbath of the children of Ammon. ” (3:11) (B. C. 1461.)
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Oil – Of the numerous substances, animal and vegetable, which were known to the ancients as yielding oil, the olive berry is the one of which most frequent mention is made in the Scriptures.
• Gathering,–The olive berry was either gathered by hand or shaken off carefully with a light reed or stick.
• Pressing. In order to make oil the fruit, was either bruised in a mortar crushed in a press loaded with wood or stones, ground in a mill, or trodden with the feet. The “beaten” oil of (Exodus 27:20; 29:40; Leviticus 24:2; Numbers 28:6) was probably made by bruising in a mortar, It was used:
• As food. Dried wheat, boiled with either butter or oil, but generally the former, is a common dish for all classes in Syria. (Exodus 29:2)
• Cosmetic. Oil was used by the Jews for anointing the body, e. G. After the bath, and giving to the skin and hair a smooth and comely appearance, e. G. Before an entertainment.
• Funereal. The bodies of the dead were anointed with oil. (2 Samuel 14:2)
• Medicinal. Isaiah alludes to the use of oil in medical treatment. (Isaiah 1:6) see also Mark 6:13; Jame 6:14
• For light. The oil for “the light” was expressly ordered to be olive oil, beaten. (Matthew 25:3)
• Ritual. Oil was poured on or mixed with the flour or meal used in offerings. (Leviticus 8:12) Kings, priests and prophets were anointed with oil or ointment.
• In offerings. As so important a necessary of life, the Jew was required to include oil among his firstfruit offerings. (Exodus 22:29; 23:16; Numbers 18:12) Tithes of oil were also required. (12:17) [Olive]

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Oil Tree – (Heb. Ets shemen). The Hebrew words occur in (Nehemiah 8:15) (Authorized Version “pine branches”), (1 Kings 6:23) (“olive tree”) and in (Isaiah 41:19) (“oil tree”). From the passage in Nehemiah, where the ets shemen is mentioned as distinct from the olive tree, if may perhaps be identified with the zackum tree of the Arabs, the Balanites aegyptiaca, a well-known and abundant shrub or small tree in the plain of Jordan. The zackum oil is held in high repute by the Arabs for its medicinal properties. [Olive]
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Ointment – (An oily or unctuous substance, usually compounded of oil with various spices and resins and aromatics, and preserved in small alabaster boxes or cruses, in which the delicious aroma was best preserved. Some of the ointments have been known to retain their: fragrance for several hundred years. They were a much-coveted luxury, and often very expensive. ED.)
• Cosmetic. The Greek and Roman practice of anointing the head and clothes on festive occasions prevailed also among the Egyptians, and appears to have had place among the Jews. (Ruth 3:2)
• Funereal. Ointments as well as oil were used to anoint dead bodies and the clothes in which they were wrapped. (Matthew 26:12)
• Medicinal. Ointment formed an important feature in ancient medical treatment. (Isaiah 1:6; Jeremiah 8:22; John 9:6; Revelation 3:18) etc.
• Ritual. Besides the oil used in many ceremonial observances, a special ointment was appointed to be used in consecration. (Exodus 30:23,33; 29:7; 37:29; 40:9,15) A person whose business it was to compound ointments in general was called an “apothecary. ” (Nehemiah 3:8) The work was sometimes carried on by woman “confectionaries. ” (1 Samuel 8:13)
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Old Testament –
I. TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
A. History of the text. -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the canon. As regards the form in which the sacred writings were little doubt that the text was ordinarily were preserved, there can be written on skins, rolled up into volumes, like the modern synagogue rolls. (Psalms 40:7; Jeremiah 36:14; Ezekiel 2:9; Zechariah 5:1) The original character in which the text was expressed is that still preserved to us, with the exception of four letters, on the Maccabaean coins, and having a strong affinity to the Samaritan character. At what date this was exchanged for the present Aramaic or square character is still as undetermined as it is at what the use of the Aramaic language Palestine superseded that of the Hebrew. The old Jewish tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. [Writing] Of any logical division, in the written text, of the rose of the Old Testament into Pesukim or verses, we find in the Tulmud no mention; and even in the existing synagogue rolls such division is generally ignored. In the poetical books, the Pesukim mentioned in the Talmud correspond to the poetical lines, not to our modern verses. Of the documents which directly bear upon the history of the Hebrew text, the earliest two are the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch and the Greek translation of the LXX. [Samaritan Pentateuch Pentateuch, The; Septuagint] In the (translations of Aquila and the other Greek interpreters, the fragments of whose works remain to us in the Hexapla, we have evidence of the existence of a text differing but little from our own; so also (in the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan. A few centuries later we have, in the Hexapla, additional evidence to the same effect in Origin’s transcriptions of the Hebrew text. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. The care of the Talmudic doctors for the text is shown by the pains with which they counted no the number of verses in the different books and computed which were the middle verses, words and letters in the Pentateuch and in the Psalms. The scrupulousness with which the Talmudists noted what they deemed the truer readings, and yet abstained from introducing them into the text, indicates at once both the diligence with which they scrutinized the text and also the care with which even while knowledging its occasional imperfections, they guarded it. Critical procedure is also evinced in a mention of their rejection of manuscripts which were found not to agree with others in their readings; and the rules given with refer once to the transcription and adoption of manuscripts attest the care bestowed upon them. It is evident from the notices of the Talmud that a number of oral traditions had been gradually accumulating respecting both the integrity of particular passages of the text itself and also the manner in which if was to be read. This vast heterogeneous mass of traditions and criticisms, compiled and embodied in writing, forms what is known as the Masorah, i. E. Tradition. From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish MSS. Was settled.
B. Manuscripts. The Old Testament MSS. Known to us fall into two main classes: synagogue rolls and MSS. For private use of the latter, some are written in the square, others in the rabbinic or cursive, character. The synagogue rolls contain separate from each other, the Pentateuch, the Haphtaroth or appointed sections of the prophets, and the so-called Megilloth, viz. Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. Private MSS. In the square character are in the book form, either on parchment or on paper, and of various sizes, from folio to 12mo. Some contain the Hebrew text alone; others add the Targum, or an Arabic or other translation, either interspersed with the text or in a separate column, occasionally in the margin. The upper and lower margins are generally occupied by the Masorah, sometimes by rabbinical commentaries, etc. The date of a MS. Is ordinarily given in the subscription but as the subscriptions are often concealed in the Masorah or elsewhere, it is occasionally difficult to find them: occasionally also it is difficult to decipher them. No satisfactory criteria have been yet established by which the ages of MSS. Are to be determined. Few existing MSS. Are supposed to be older than the twelfth century. Kennicott and Bruns assigned one of their collation (No. 590) to the tenth century; Deuteronomy Rossi dates if A. D. 1018; on the other hand. One of his own (No. 634) he adjudges to the eighth century. Since the days of Kennicott and Deuteronomy Rossi modern research has discovered various MSS. Beyond the limits of Europe. Of many of these there seems no reason to suppose that they will add much to our knowledge of the Hebrew text. It is different with the MSS. Examined by Pinner at Odessa. One of these MSS. (A, No. 1), a Pentateuch roll, unpointed, brought from Derbend in Daghestan, appears by the subscription to have been written previous to A. D. 580 and if so is the oldest known biblical Hebrew MS. In existence. The forms of the letters are remarkable. Another MS. (B, No. 3) containing the prophets, on parchment, in small folio, although only dating, according to the inscription, from A. D. 916 and furnished with a Masorah, is a yet greater treasure. Its vowels and accents are wholly different from those now in use, both in form and in position, being all above the letters: they have accordingly been the theme of much discussion among Hebrew scholars.
C. Printed text. The history of the printed text of the Hebrew Bible commences with the early Jewish editions of the separate books. First appeared the Psalter, in 1477, probably at Bologna, in 4to, with Kimchi’s commentary interspersed among the verses. Only the first four psalms had the vowel-points, and these but clumsily expressed. At Bologna, there subsequently appeared in 1482, the Pentateuch, in folio, pointed, with the Targum and the commentary of Rashi; and the five Megilloth (Ruth–Esther), in folio with the commentaries of Rashi and Aben Ezra. From Soncino, near Cremona, issued in 1486 the Prophetae priores (Joshua–Kings), folio, unpointed with Kimchi’s commentary. The honor of printing the first entire Hebrew Bible belongs to the above-mentioned town of Soncino. The edition is in folio, pointed and accentuated. Nine copies only of it are now known, of which one belongs to Exeter College, Oxford. This was followed, in 1494, by the 4to or 8vo edition printed by Gersom at Brescia, remarkable as being the edition from which Luther’s German translation was made. After the Brescian, the next primary edition was that contained in the Complutensian Polyglot, published at Complutum (Alcala) in Spain, at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes, dated 1514-17 but not issued till 1522. To this succeeded an edition which has had more influence than any on the text of later times the Second Rabbinical Bible, printed by Bomberg al Venice, 4 vols. Fol. , 1525-6. The editor was the learned Tunisian Jew R. Jacob hen Chaim. The great feature of his work lay in the correction of the text by the precepts of the Masorah, in which he was profoundly skilled, and on which, as well as on the text itself, his labors were employed. The Hebrew Bible which became the standard to subsequent generations was: that of Joseph Athiais, a learned rabbi and printer at Amsterdam. His text Was based on a comparison of the previous editions with two MSS. ; one bearing date 1299, the other a Spanish MS. Boasting an antiquity of 900 years. It appeared at Amsterdam 2 vols. 8 vo, 1661.
D. Principles of criticism. The method of procedure required in the criticism of the Old Testament is widely different from that practiced in the criticism of the New Testament. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of MSS. To that of a good critical judgment and sagacity is greatly diminished. It is indeed to the direct testimony of the MSS. That, in endeavoring to establish the true text, we must first have recourse. The comparative purity of the Hebrew text is probably different in different parts of the Old Testament. In the revision of Dr. Davidson, who has generally restricted himself to the admission of corrections warranted by MS. , Masoretic or Talmudic authority, those in the book of Genesis do not exceed eleven; those in the Psalms are proportionately three times as numerous; those in the historical books and the Prophets are proportionately more numerous than those in the Psalms.
II. QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The New Testament quotations from the Old form one of the outward bonds of connection between the two parts of the Bible. They are manifold in kind. In the quotations of all kinds from the Old Testament in the New. We find a continual variation from the letter of the older Scriptures. To this variation three causes may be specified as having contributed: First, all the New Testament writers quoted from the Septuagint; correcting it indeed more or less by the Hebrew, especially when it was needful for their purpose occasionally deserting it altogether; still abiding by it to so large an extent as to show that it was the primary source whence their quotations were drawn. Secondly, the New Testament writers must have frequently quoted from memory. Thirdly, combined with this there was an alteration of conscious or unconscious design. Sometimes the object of this was to obtain increased force. Sometimes an Old Testament passage is abridged, and in the abridgment so adjusted, by a little alteration, as to present an aspect of completeness, and yet omit what is foreign to the immediate purpose. (Acts 1:20; 1 Corinthians 1:31) At other times a passage is enlarged by the incorporation of a passage from another source: thus in (Luke 4:18,19) although the contents are professedly those, read by our Lord from (Isaiah 61:1). . . We have the words “to set at liberty them that are bruised,” introduced from (Isaiah 58:6) (Sept.); similarly in (Romans 11:8; 29:4) is combined with (Isaiah 29:10) In some cases still greater liberty of alteration assumed. In someplaces,again, the a words of the original are taken up, but employed with a new meaning. Almost more remarkable than any alteration in the quotation itself is the circumstance that in (Matthew 27:9) Jeremiah should be named as the author of a prophecy really delivered by Zechariah; the being that the prophecy is based upon that in (Jeremiah 18:1; Jeremiah 19:1). . . And that without a reference to this original source the most essential features of the fulfillment of Zechariah’s prophecy would be misunderstood.
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Olive – The olive was among the most abundant and characteristic vegetation of Judea. The olive tree grows freely almost everywhere on the shores of the Mediterranean, but it was peculiarly abundant in Palestine. See (6:11; 8:8; 28:40) Oliveyards are a matter of course in descriptions of the country like vines and cornfields. (Judges 15:5; 1 Samuel 8:14) The kings had very extensive ones. (1 Chronicles 27:28) Even now the is very abundant in the country. Almost every village has its olive grove. Certain districts may be specified where at various times this tree been very luxuriant. The cultivation of the olive tree had the closest connection with the domestic life of the Israelites (2 Chronicles 2:10) their trade, (Ezekiel 27:17; Hosea 12:1) and even their Public ceremonies and religious worship. In Solomon’s temple the cherubim were “of olive tree,” (1 Kings 6:23) as also the doors, vs. (1 Kings 6:31,32) and posts. Ver. (1 Kings 6:33) For the various uses of olive oil see Oil. The wind was dreaded by the cultivator of the olive for the least ruffling of a breeze is apt to cause the flowers to fall. (Job 15:33) It is needless to add that the locust was a formidable enemy of the olive. It happened not unfrequently that hopes were disappointed, and that “the labor of the olive failed. ” (Habakkuk 3:17) As to the growth of the tree, it thrives best in warm and sunny situations. It is of moderate height, with knotty gnarled trunk and a smooth ash-colored bark. It grows slowly, but lives to an immense age. Its look is singularly indicative of tenacious vigor, and this is the force of what is said in Scripture of its “greenness, as emblematic of strength and prosperity. The leaves, too, are not deciduous. Those who see olives for the first time are occasionally disappointed by the dusty color of their foilage; but those who are familiar with them find an inexpressible charm in the rippling changes of their slender gray-green leaves. (See Ruskin’s “Stones of Venice,” iii. 175-177.) The olive furnishes the basis of one of Paul’s allegories. (Romans 11:16-25) The Gentiles are the “wild olive” grafted in upon the “good olive,” to which once the Jews belonged, and with which they may again be incorporated, (The olive grows from 20 to 40 feet high. In general appearance it resembles the apple tree; in leaves and sterns, the willow. The flowers are white and appear in June, The fruit is like a plum in shape and size, and at first is green, but gradually becomes purple, and even black, with a hard stony kernel, and is remarkable from the outer fleshy part being that in which much oil is lodged, and not, as is usual, in the almond of the seed. The fruit ripens from August to September. It is sometimes eaten green, but its chief value is in its oil. The wood is hard, fine beautifully veined, and is open used for cabinet work. Olive trees were so abundant in Galilee that at the siege of Jotapata by Vespasian the Roman army were driven from the ascent of the walls by hot olive oil poured upon them and scalding them underneath their armor. Josephus, Wars, 3; 7:28. ED.)
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Olives, Mount Of – “The Mount of Olives” occurs in the Old Testament in (Zechariah 14:4) only. In (2 Samuel 15:30) it is called “Olivet;” in other places simply “the mount,” (Nehemiah 8:15) “the mount facing Jerusalem” (1 Kings 11:7) or “the mountain which is on the east aide of the city. ” (Ezekiel 11:23) In the New Testament the usual form is “the Mount of Olives. ” It is called also “Olivet. ” (Acts 1:12) This mountain is the well-known eminence on the east of Jerusalem, intimately connected with some of the gravest events of the history of the Old Testament and the New Testament, the scene of the flight of David and the triumphal progress of the Son of David, of the idolatry-of Solomon, and the agony and betrayal of Christ. It is a ridge of rather more than a mile in length, running in general direction north and south, covering the whole eastern side of the city. At its northern end the ridge bends round to the west so as to form an enclosure to the city on that side also. On the north a space of nearly a mile of tolerably level surface intervenes between the walls of the city and the rising ground; on the east the mount is close to the walls, parted only by the narrow ravine of the Kidron. It is this portion which is the real Mount of Olives of the history. In general height it is not very much above-the city: 300 feet higher than the temple mount, hardly more than 100 above the so-called Zion. It is rounded, swelling and regular in form. Proceeding from north to south there occur four independent summits, called– 1, “Viri Galilaei:” 2, “Mount of Ascension;” 3, “Prophets”–subordinate to the last and almost a part of it; 4, “Mount of Offence. ”
• Of these the central one -the “Mount of Ascension”–is the most important. Three paths lead from the valley to the summit-one on the north, in the hollow between the two crests of the hill another over the summit, and a third winding around the southern shoulder still the most frequented and the best. The central hill, which we are now considering, purports to contain the sites of some of the most sacred and impressive events of Christian history. The majority of these sacred spots now command little or no attention; but three still remain, sufficiently sacred–if authentic–to consecrate any place. These are:
• Gethsemane, at the foot of the mount;
• The spot from which our Saviour ascended on the summit;
• The place of the lamentation of Christ over Jerusalem, halfway up. Of these, Gethsemane is the only one which has any claim to be authentic. [Gethsemane]

• Next to the central summit, on the southern side is a hill remarkable only for the fact that it contains the “singular catacomb” known as the “Tombs of the Prophets,” probably in allusion to the words of Christ. (Matthew 23:29)
• The most southern portion of the Mount of Olives is that usually known as the “Mount of Offence,” Mons Offensionis. It rises next to that last mentioned. The title “Mount of Offence,” or “Scandal,” was bestowed on the supposition that it is the “Mount of Corruption” on which Solomon erected the high places for the gods of his foreign wives. (2 Kings 23:13; 1 Kings 11:7) The southern summit is considerably lower than the centre one.
• There remains the “Viri Galilaei,” about 400 yards from the “Mount of Ascension. ” It stands directly opposite the northeast corner of Jerusalem, and is approached by the path between it and the “Mount of Ascension. ” The presence of a number of churches and other edifices must have rendered the Mount of Olives, during the early and middle ages of Christianity, entirely unlike what it was in the time of the Jewish kingdom or of our Lord. Except the high places on the summit, the only buildings then to be seen were probably the walls of the vineyards and gardens and the towers and presses which were their invariable accompaniment. But though the churches are nearly all demolished, there must be a considerable difference between the aspect of the mountain now and in those days when it received its name from the abundance of its olive proves. It does not now stand so pre-eminent in this respect among the hills in the neighborhood of Jerusalem. It is only in the deeper and more secluded slope leading up to the northernmost summit that these venerable trees spread into anything like a forest. The cedars commemorated by the Talmud sad the date-palms implied in the name Bethany have fared still worse; there is not one of either to be found within many miles. Two religious ceremonies performed there must have done much to increase the numbers who resorted to the mount. The appearance of the new moon was probably watched for, certainly proclaimed, from the summit. The second ceremony referred to was the burning of the red heifer. This solemn ceremonial was enacted on the central mount, and in a spot so carefully specified that it would seem not difficult to fix it. It was due east of the sanctuary, and at such an elevation on the mount that the officiating priest, as he slew the animal and sprinkled blood, could see the facade of the sanctuary through the east gate of the temple.
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Olivet – (place of olives). (2 Samuel 15:30; Acts 1:12) [Olives, Mount Of, Mount, Mount, Mountain OF]
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Olympas – (heavenly), a Christian at Rome. (Romans 16:15) (A. D. 65.)
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Omar – (eloquent, talkative), son of Eliphaz the first-born of Esau. (Genesis 36:11,15; 1 Chronicles 1:38) (B. C. 1750.)
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Omega, Or Omega – The last letter of the Greek alphabet. It is used metephorically to denote the end of anything (Revelation 1:8,11)
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Omer – [Weights and Measures AND Measures.]
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Omri – (pupil of Jehovah).
• Originally “captain of the host” to Elah, was afterward himself king of Israel, and founder of the third dynasty. (B. C. 926.) Omri was engaged in the siege of Gibbethon situated in the tribe of Dan, which had been occupied by the Philistines. As soon as the army heard of Elah’s death they proclaimed Omri king. Thereupon he broke up the siege of Gibbethon and attacked Tirzah, where Zimri was holding his court as king of Israel. The city was taken, and Zimri perished in the flames of the palace, after a reign of seven days. Omri, however, was not allowed to establish his dynasty without a struggle against Tibni, whom “half the people,” (1 Kings 16:21) desired to raise to the throne. The civil war lasted four years. Comp. (1 Kings 16:15) with 1Kin 16:23 After the defeat sad death of Tibni, Omri reigned for six years in Tirzah. At Samaria Omri reigned for six years more. He seems to have been a vigorous and unscrupulous ruler, anxious to strengthen his dynasty by intercourse and alliances with foreign states.
• One of the sons of Becher the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)
• A descendant of Pharez the son of Judah, (1 Chronicles 9:4)
• Son of Michael, and chief of the tribe of Issachar in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:18) (B. C. 1030.)
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On –
I. (abode or city of the sun), a town of lower Egypt, called BETH-SHEMESH in (Jeremiah 43:13) On is better known under its Greek name Heliopolis. It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite so feet 2 inches high above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty. Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. The first mention of this place in the Bible is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh gave “to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. ” (Genesis 41:45) comp. Ver, Genesis41:60 and Genesis46:20 (On is to be remembered not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt. The two famous obelisks, long called “Cleopatra’s Needles,” one of which now stands in London and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel before the exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On (Heliopolis) by Thothmes III. , B. C. 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II. (Sesostris) two hundred years later. They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A. D. 23, from which they were removed to their present places. ED.)
II. The son of Peleth and one of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben, who took part with Korah, Dathan and Abiram in their revolt against Moses. (Numbers 16:1) (B. C. 1491.) His name does not again appear in the narrative of the conspiracy, nor is he alluded to when reference is made to the final catastrophe.
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Onam – (strong).
• One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir. (Genesis 36:23; 1 Chronicles 1:40) (B. C. 1964.)
• The son of Jerahmeel by his wife Atarah. (1 Chronicles 2:26,28)
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Onan – (strong), the second son of Judah by the Canaanitess, “the daughter of Shua. ” (Genesis 38:4; 1 Chronicles 2:3) “What he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah and he slew him also, as he had slain his elder brother. (Genesis 38:9) His death took place before the family of Jacob went down into Egypt. (Genesis 46:12; Numbers 26:19) (B. C. 1706.)
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Onesimus – (profitable, useful), the name of the servant or slave in whose behalf Paul wrote the Epistle to Philemon. He was a native, or certainly an inhabitant, of Colosse. (Colossians 4:9) (A. D. 58.) He fled from his master end escaped to Rome, where he was led to embrace the gospel through Paul’s instrumentality. After his conversion the most happy and friendly relations sprung up between the teacher and disciple. Whether Paul desired his presence as a personal attendant or as a minister of the gospel is not certain from verse 13 of the epistle.
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Onesiphorus – (bringing profit) is named twice only in the New Testament, viz. (2 Timothy 1:16-18) and 2Tim 4:19 Paul mentions him in terms of grateful love as having a noble courage and generosity in his behalf, amid his trials as a prisoner at Rome, when others from whom he expected better things had deserted him. (2 Timothy 4:16) Probably other members of the family were also active Christians. (2 Timothy 4:19) It is evident from (2 Timothy 1:18) that Onesiphorus had his home at Ephesus. (A. D. 64.)
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Onias – the name of five high priests in the period between the Old and the New Testament.
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Onion – This product is mentioned only in (Numbers 11:5) as one of the good things of Egypt of which the Israel regretted the loss. Onions have been from time immemorial a favorite article of food among the Egyptians, The onions of Egypt are much milder in flavor and less pungent than those of this country.
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Ono – (strong), one of the towns of Benjamin, is first found in (1 Chronicles 8:12) A plain was attached to the town called “the plain of Ono” (Nehemiah 6:2) perhaps identical with the valley of craftsmen” (Nehemiah 11:35)
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Onycha – spoken of in (Exodus 30:34) was one of the ingredients of the sacred perfume. It consists of the shells of several kinds of mussels, which when burned emit a strong odor.
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Onyx – (a nail) is the translation of the Hebrew shoham ; but there is some doubt as to its signification. Some writers believe that the “beryl” is intended; but the balance of authority is in favor of some variety of the onyx. (“The onyx is not a transparent stone, but as the color of the flesh appears through the nail (Greek onyx) on the human body, so the reddish mass which is below shines delicately through the whitish surface of the onyx. There are several varieties. White and reddish stripes alternating form the sardonyx; white and reddish gray, the chalcedony. When polished it has a fine lustre, and is easily wrought into a gem of great beauty. “-Rosenmiller.
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Ophel – (hill), a part of ancient Jerusalem. Ophel was the swelling declivity by which the mount of the temple slopes on its southern side into the valley of Hinnom–a long, narrowish rounded spur or promontory, which intervenes between the mouth of the central valley of Jerusalem (the Tyropoeon) and the Kidron, or valley of Jehoshaphat. Halfway down it on its eastern face is the (“Fount of the Virgin,” so called; and at its foot the lower outlet of the same spring–the Pool of Siloam. In (2 Chronicles 27:3) Jotham is said to have built much “on the wall of Ophel. ” Manasseh, among his other defensive works, “compassed about Ophel. ” Ibid. (2 Chronicles 33:14) It appears to have been near the “water-gate,” (Nehemiah 3:26) and the “great tower that lieth out. ” ver. (Nehemiah 3:27) It was evidently the residence of the Levites. (Nehemiah 11:21)
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Ophir – (abundane).
• The eleventh in order of the sons of Joktan. (Genesis 10:29; 1 Chronicles 1:23) (B. C. After 2450.)
• A seaport or region from which the Hebrews in the time of Solomon obtained gold. The gold was proverbial for its fineness, so that “gold of Ophir” is several times used as an expression for fine gold, (1 Chronicles 29:4; Job 28:16; Psalms 45:9; Isaiah 13:12) and in one passage (Job 22:24) the word “Ophir” by itself is used for gold of Ophir, and for gold generally. In addition to gold, the vessels brought from Ophir almug wood and precious stones. The precise geographical situation of Ophir has long been a subject of doubt and discussion. The two countries which have divided the opinions of the learned have been Arabia and India, while some have placed it in Africa. In five passages Ophir is mentioned by name – (1 Kings 9:28; 10:11; 22:18; 2 Chronicles 8:18; 9:10) If the three passages of the book of Kings are carefully examined, it will be seen that all the information given respecting Ophir is that it was a place or region accessible by sea from Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, from which imports of gold, almug trees and precious stones were brought back by the Tyrian and Hebrew sailors. The author of the tenth chapter of Genesis certainly regarded Ophir as the name of some city, region or tribe in Arabia. It is almost certain that the Ophir of Genesis is the Ophir of the book of Kings. There is no mention, either in the Bible or elsewhere, of any other Ophir; and the idea of there having been two Ophirs evidently arose from a perception of the obvious meaning of the tenth chapter of Genesis on the one hand, coupled with the erroneous opinion, on the other that the Ophir of the book of Kings could not have been in Arabia. (Hence we conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon’s ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet, there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia and, moreover, Ophir may not have been the original place of production of some of them, but the great market for traffic in them.)
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Ophni – (mouldy), a town of Benjamin, mentioned in (Joshua 18:24) the same as the Gophna of Josephus a place which at the time of Vespasian’s invasion was apparently so important as to be second only to Jerusalem. It still survives in the modern Jifna or Jufna, 23 miles northwest of Bethel.
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Ophrah – (fawn).
• A town in the tribe of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:23; 1 Samuel 13:17) Jerome places it five miles east of Bethel. It is perhaps et-Taiyibeh, a small village on the crown of a conspicuous hill, four miles east-northeast of Beitin (Bethel).
• More fully, OPHRAH OF THE ABIEZRITES, the native place of Gideon (Judges 6:11) and the scene of his exploits against Baal, ver. (Judges 6:24) his residence after his accession to power ch. (Judges 9:5) and the place of his burial in the family sepulchre. Ch. (Judges 8:32) It was probably In Manasseh, ch. (Judges 6:15) and not far distant from Shechem, (Judges 9:1,5)
• The son of Meonothai. (1 Chronicles 4:14)
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Orator –
• The Authorized Version rendering in (Isaiah 3:3) for what is literally “skillful in whisper or incantation. ”
• The title applied to Tertullus, who appeared as the advocate of the Jewish accusers of St. Paul before Felix, (Acts 24:1)
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Orchard – [Garden]
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Oreb – (raven), one of the chieftains of the Midianite host which invaded Israel, and was defeated and driven back by Gideon. (Judges 7:25) (B. C. 1362.) Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:26) refers to the magnitude of this disaster. Comp. (Psalms 83:1). . .
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Oreb, The Rock – the “raven’s crag,” the spot, east of Jordan, at which the Midianite chieftain Oreb with thousands of his countrymen, fell by the hand of the Ephraimites, and which probably acquired its name therefrom. It is mentioned in (Judges 7:25; Isaiah 10:26) Perhaps the place called ‘Orbo which in the Bereshith Rabba is stated to have been in the neighborhood of Bethshean, may have some connection with it.
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Oren – (pine tree), one of the sons of Jerahmeel, the first-born of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
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Organ – (Genesis 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31; Psalms 150:4) The Hebrew word thus rendered probably denotes a pipe or perforated wind-instrument. In (Genesis 4:21) it appears to be a general term for all wind-instruments. In (Job 21:12) are enumerated three kinds of musical instruments which are possible under the general terms of the timbrel harp and oryan. Some identify it with the pandean pipe or syrinx an instrument of unquestionably ancient origin, and common in the East. [See Music]
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Orion – (the giant), a large and bright constellation of 80 stars, 17 large ones, crossed by the equinoctial line. It is named after a mythical personage of the Greeks, of gigantic stature and “the handsomest man in the world. ” The Arabs called it” the giant,” referring to Nimrod, the mighty hunter who was fabled to have been bound in the sky for his impiety. (Job 9:9) Also alluded to in (Job 38:31)
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Ornaments, Personal – The number, variety and weight of the ornaments ordinarily worn upon the person form one of the characteristic features of Oriental costume, in both ancient and modem times. The monuments of ancient Egypt exhibit the persons of ladies load with rings, earrings Of vary great size, anklets, armlets, bracelets of the most varied forms, richly-ornamented necklaces, and chains of various kinds. There is sufficient evidence in the Bible that the inhabitants of Palestine were equally devoted to finery. In the Old Testament. Isaiah, (Isaiah 3:18-23) supplies us with a detailed description of the articles with which the luxurious women of his day were decorated. Eliezer decorated Rebekah with “a golden nose-ring of half a shekel (1/4 oz.) Weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels (4 1/2 oz.) Weight of gold. ” (Genesis 23:22) Earrings were worn by Jacob’s wives. (Genesis 35:4) The number of personal ornaments worn by the Egyptians, particularly by the females, 19 incidentally noticed in (Exodus 3:22)
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Ornan – (active). (1 Chronicles 21:15; 2 Chronicles 3:1) [Araunah]
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Orpah – (a gazelle), a Moabite woman wife of Chilion son of Naomi, and thereby sister-in-law to Ruth. (Ruth 2:4,14) (B. C. 1360.)
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Oshea – (salvation). [Joshua]
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Osprey – The Hebrew word occurs in (Leviticus 11:13) and Deuteronomy 14:12 So the name of some unclean bird. It’s probably either the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) or the white-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicella).
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Ossifrage – (the bone-breaker). The Hebrew word occurs, as the name of an unclean bird, in (Leviticus 11:13) and Deuteronomy 14:12 It is probably the lammergeyer, or bearded vulture as it is sometimes called, one of the largest of the birds of prey. It well deserves its name ossifrage, bone breaker, for “not only does he push kids and lambs and even men off the rocks, but he takes the bones of animals that other birds of prey have denuded of the flesh high up into the air and lets them fall upon a stone in order to crack them and render them more digestible even for his enormous powers of deglutition. Marrow-bones are the dainties he loves. This is probably the bird that dropped a tortoise on the bald head of poor old aeschylus. “–N. H. Simpson.
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Ostrich – a large bird, native of African and Arabia, nearly ten feet high, having s long neck and short wings. It seeks retired places, (Job 30:29; Lamentations 4:13) and has a peculiar mournful cry that is sometimes mistaken by the Arabs for that of the lion. (Micah 1:8) In (Job 39:13-18) will be found a description of the bird’s habits. Ostriches are polygamous; the hens lay their eggs promiscuously in one nest, which is merely a hole scratched in the sand; the eggs are then covered over to the depth of about a foot, and are, in the case of those birds which are found within the tropics, generally left for the greater part of the day to the heat of the sun, the parent-birds taking their turns at incubation during the night. The habit of the ostrich leaving its eggs to be matured by the sun’s heat is usually appealed to in order to confirm the scriptural account, “she leaveth her eggs to the earth;” but this is probably the case only with the tropical birds. We believe that the true explanation of this passage is that some of the eggs are left exposed around the nest for the nourishment of the young birds. It is a general belief among the Arabs that the ostrich is a very stupid bird; indeed they have a proverb, “stupid as an ostrich. ” As is well known, the ostrich will swallow almost any substance, iron, stones, and even has been known to swallow “several leaden bullets scorching hot from the mould. ” But in many other respects the ostrich is not as stupid as this would indicate, and is very hard to capture. It is the largest of all known birds, and perhaps the swiftest of all cursorial animals. -The feathers so much prized are the long white plumes of the wings. The best are brought from Barbary and the west coast of Africa.
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Othni – (lion of Jehovah), son of Shemaiah, the first-horn of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:7) (B. C. 1013.)
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Othniel – (lion of God), son of Kenaz and younger brother of Caleb. (Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:13; 3:9; 1 Chronicles 4:13) (B. C. 1460.) The first mention of Othniel is on occasion of the taking of Kirjath-sepher, or Debir as it was afterward called. Caleb promised to give his daughter Achsah to whosoever should assault and take the city. Othniel won the prize. The next mention of him is in (Judges 3:9) where he appears as the first judge of Israel after the death of Joshua, and the deliverer of his countrymen from the oppression of Chushahrishathaim (Judges 3:8- 9)
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Oven – The eastern oven is of two kinds–fixed and portable. The former is found only in towns, where regular bakers are employed. (Hosea 7:4) The latter ia adapted to the nomad state, it consists of a large jar made of clay, about three feet high and widening toward the bottom, with a hole for the extraction of the ashes. Each household possessed such an article, (Exodus 8:3) and it was only in times of extreme dearth that the same oven sufficed for several families. (Leviticus 26:26) It was heated with dry twigs and grass, (Matthew 6:30) and the loaves were placed both inside and outside of it.
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Owl – A number of species of the owl are mentioned in the Bible, (Leviticus 11:17; 14:16; Isaiah 14:23; 34:15; Zephaniah 2:14) and in several other places the same Hebrew word is used where it is translated ostrich. (Job 30:29; Jeremiah 50:39) Some of these species were common in Palestine, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins. (Isaiah 34:11,13-15)
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Ox – There was no animal in the rural economy of the Israelites, or indeed in that of the ancient Orientals generally, that was held in higher esteem than the ox and deservedly so, for the ox was the animal upon whose patient labors depended all the ordinary operations of farming. Oxen were used for ploughing, (22:10; 1 Samuel 14:14) etc. ; for treading out corn, (25:4; Hosea 10:11) etc. ; for draught purposes, when they were generally yoked in pairs, (Numbers 7:3; 1 Samuel 6:7) etc. ; as beasts of burden, (1 Chronicles 12:40) their flesh was eaten, (14:4; 1 Kings 1:9) etc. ; they were used in the sacrifices; cows supplied milk, butter, etc. (32:14; 2 Samuel 17:29; Isaiah 7:22) Connected with the importance of oxen in the rural economy of the Jews is the strict code of laws which was mercifully enacted by God for their protection and preservation. The ox that threshed the corn was by no means to be muzzled; he was to enjoy rest on the Sabbath as well as his master. (Exodus 23:12; 5:14) The ox was seldom slaughtered. (Leviticus 17:1-6) It seems clear from (Proverbs 15:17) and 1Kin 4:23 That cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Palestine. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Palestine. Hence the force of the Psalmist’s complaint of his enemies. (Psalms 22:13)
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Ozem – (power).
• The sixth son of Jesse, the next eldest above David. (1 Chronicles 2:15) (B. C. 1055.)
• Son of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
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Ozias – (strength from the Lord).
• Uzzi, one of the ancestors of Ezra. 2, Esd. 2:2.
• Uzziah, king of Judah. (Matthew 1:8,9)
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Ozni – (hearing), one of the sons of Gad (Numbers 26:16) and founder of the family of the Oznites. (Numbers 26:16)