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Monthly Archives: Desember 2015

Antichrist

The Papacy Not the Antichrist
“I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if another shall come in his
own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). These words were spoken by the Lord Jesus
Christ, and the occasion on which they were uttered and the connection in which they are
found, invest them with peculiar solemnity. The chapter opens by depicting the Saviour
healing the impotent man who lay by the pool of Bethesda. This occurred on the Sabbath
day, and the enemies of Christ made it the occasion for a vicious attack upon Him:
“Therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay Him, because He had done these
things on the Sabbath day” (v. 16). In vindicating His performance of this miracle on the
Sabbath, the Lord Jesus began by saying, “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work” (v. 17).
But this only served to intensify their enmity against Him, for we read, “Therefore the Jews
sought the more to kill Him, because He not only had broken the Sabbath, but said also that
God was His Father, making Himself equal with God” (v. 18). In response, Christ then made
a detailed declaration of His divine glories. In conclusion He appealed to the varied witnesses
which bore testimony to His Deity: — the Father Himself (v. 32); John the Baptist (v. 33);
His own works (v. 36); and the Scriptures (v. 39). Then He turned to those who were opposing
Him and said, “And ye will not come to Me, that ye might have life. But I know you, that
ye have not the love of God in you. I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not:
if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (vv. 40, 42, 43). And this was
immediately followed by this searching question — “How can ye believe which receive
honor (glory) one of another, and seek not the honor (glory) that cometh from God only?”
(v. 44).
Here is the key to the solemn statement which begins this article. These Jews received
glory from one another; they did not seek it from God, for they had not the love of God in
them. Therefore it was that the One who had come to them in the Father’s name, and who
“received not glory from men” (v. 41) was rejected by them. And just as Eve’s rejection of
the word of God’s truth laid her open to accept the serpent’s lie, so Israel’s rejection of the
true Messiah, has prepared them, morally, to receive the false Messiah, for he will come in
his own name, doing his own pleasure, and will “receive glory from men.” Thus will he
thoroughly appeal to the corrupt heart of the natural man.
The future appearing of this one who shall “come in his own name” was announced,
then, by the Lord Himself. The Antichrist will be “received,” not only by the Jews, but also
by the whole world; received as their acknowledged Head and Ruler; and all the modern
pleas for and movements to bring about a federation of the churches and a union of
Christendom, together with the present-day efforts to establish a League of Nations — a
great United States of the World — are but preparing the way for just such a character as is
portrayed both in the Old and New Testaments.
11
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
There will be many remarkable correspondences between the true and the false Christ,
but more numerous and more striking will be the contrasts between the Son of God and
the Son of perdition. The Lord Jesus came down from Heaven, whereas the Antichrist shall
ascent from the bottomless Pit (Rev. 11:7). The Lord Jesus came in His Father’s name,
emptied Himself of His glory, lived in absolute dependence upon God, and refused to receive
honor from men; but the Man of Sin will come in his own name, embodying all the pride
of the Devil, opposing and exalting himself not only against the true God, but against
everything that bears His name, and his deepest craving will be to receive honor and homage
from men.
Now since this parallel, with its pointed contrasts, was drawn by our Lord Himself in
John 5:43, how conclusive is the proof which it affords that the Antichrist will be a single
individual being as surely as Christ was! In further proof of this 1 John 2:18 may be cited:
“Little children, it is the last hour: and as ye heard that Antichrist cometh, even now hath
there arisen many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last hour” (R.V.). Here the
Antichrist is plainly distinguished from the many who prepare his way. The verb “cometh”
here is a remarkable one, for it is the very same that is used of the Lord Jesus Christ in reference
to
His
first
and
second
Advents.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
is

also “the coming one,”
or “he that cometh.” This defines his relation to the world, — which has long been expecting
some Conquering Hero — as “the Coming One” defines the relation of the Christ of God
to His Churches, whose Divinely-inspired hope is the return of the Lord from Heaven.
Nor does this by any means exhaust the proof that the coming Antichrist will be a single
individual being. The expressions used by the apostle Paul in 2 Thess. 2 — “that Man of
Sin,” “The Son of Perdition,” “he that opposeth and exalteth himself,” “the Wicked One
whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth,” “he whose coming is after the
working of Satan” — all these point as distinctly to a single individual as did the Messianic
predictions of the Old Testament point to the person of our Lord Jesus Christ.
Now, in accordance with these texts, and many others which might be quoted, we find
that all the Christian writers of the first six centuries (that is all who make reference to the
subject) regarded the Antichrist as a real person, a specific individual. We might fill many
pages by giving extracts from their works, but three must suffice. The first is taken from a
very ancient document, entitled “The Teaching of the Apostles,” which probably dates back
to the beginning of the second century:—
“For in the last days the false prophets and the destroyers shall be multiplied, and the
sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love shall be turned into hate. For when lawlessness
increases, they shall hate and persecute and deliver up one another; and then shall appear
the world-deceiver as Son of God, who shall do signs and wonders, and the earth shall be
delivered into his hands, and he shall do lawless deeds such as have never yet been done
since the beginning of the world. Then shall the race of men come into the fire of trial, and
12
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
many shall be offended and shall perish, but they who have endured in their faith shall be
saved under the very curse itself.”
Our second quotation is taken from the writings of Cyril, who was Bishop of Jerusalem
in the fourth century:
“This aforementioned Antichrist comes when the times of the sovereignty of the Romans
shall be fulfilled, and the concluding events of the world draw nigh. Ten kings of the Romans
arise at the same time in different places, perhaps; but reigning at the same period. But after
these, the antichrist is the eleventh, having, by his magic and evil skill, violently possessed
himself of the Roman power. Three of those who have reigned before him, he will subdue;
the other seven he will hold in subjection to himself. At first he assumes a character of gentleness
(as
if
a
wise
and
understanding
person),
pretending
both
to
moderation
and
philanthropy;
deceiving,
both
by
lying
miracles
and
prodigies
which
come
from
his
magical
deceptions,
the
Jews,
as
if
he
were
the
expected
Messiah.
Afterwards
he
will
addict
himself
to
every
kind
of
evil,
cruelty,
and
excess,
so
as
to
surpass
all
who
have
been
unjust
and
impious
before
him;
having
a

bloody and relentless and pitiless mind, and full of wily devices against all,
and especially against believers. But having dared such things three years and six months,
he will be destroyed by the second glorious coming from heaven of the truly begotten Son
of God, who is our Lord and Saviour, Jesus the true Messiah; who, having destroyed Antichrist
by
the
Spirit
of
His
mouth,
will
deliver
him
to
the
fire
Gehenna.”
Our last quotation is made from the writings of Gregory of Tours, who wrote at the end
of the sixth century A.D.:—
“Concerning the end of the world, I believe what I have learnt from those who have
gone before me. Antichrist will assume circumcision, asserting himself to be the Christ. He
will then place a statue to be worshipped in the Temple at Jerusalem, as we read that the
Lord has said, ‘Ye shall see the abomination of desolation standing in the holy place’.”
Our purpose in making these quotations is not because we regard the voice of antiquity
as being in any degree authoritative: far from it; the only authority for us is “What saith the
Scriptures?.” Nor have we presented these views as curious relics of antiquity — though it
is interesting to discover the thoughts which occupied some of the leading minds of past
ages. No: our purpose has been simply to show that the early Christian writers uniformly
held that the Antichrist would be a real person, a Jew, one who should both simulate and
oppose the true Christ. Such continued to be the generally received doctrine until what is
known as the Dark Ages were far advanced.
It is not until we reach the fourteenth century (so far as the writer is aware) that we find
the first marked deviation from the uniform belief of the early Christians. It was the
Waldenses, — so remarkably sound in the faith on almost all point of doctrine — who,
thoroughly worn out by centuries of the most relentless and merciless persecutions, published
about the year 1350 a treatise designed to prove that the system of Popery was the Antichrist.
13
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
It should however be said in honor of this people, whose memory is blessed, that in one of
their earliest books entitled “The Noble Lesson,” published about 1100 A.D., they taught
that the Antichrist was an individual rather than a system.
Following the new view espoused by the Waldenses it was not long before the Hussites,
the Wycliffites and the Lollards — other companies of Christians who were fiercely persecuted
by Rome — eagerly caught up the idea, and proclaimed that the Pope was the Man of Sin
and the papacy the Beast. From them it was handed on to the leaders of the Reformation
who soon made an earnest attempt to systematize this new scheme of eschatology. But rarely
has there been a more forceable example of the tendency of men’s belief to be mouled by
the events and signs of their own lifetime. In order to adapt the prophecies of the Antichrist
to the Papal hierarchy, or the line of the Popes, they had to be so wrested that scarcely anything
was
left
of
their
original
meaning.
“The coming Man of Sin had to be changed into a long succession of men. The time of
his continuance, which God had stated with precision and clearness as forty-two months”
(Rev. 13:5), or three years and a half, being far too short for the line of Popes, had to be
lengthened by an ingenious, but most unwarrantable, process of first resolving it into days,
and then turning these days into years.
“The fact that, in the 13th chapter of the Apocalypse, the first Beast or secular power,
is supreme while the second Beast or ecclesiastical power is subordinate, had to be ignored;
since such an arrangement is opposed to all the traditions of the Roman system. Also the
circumstances that the second Beast is a prophet and not a priest, had to be kept in the
background; for the Roman church exalts the priest, and has little care for the prophet.
Then, again, the awful words pronouncing sentence of death upon every one who worshipped
the Beast and his image, and receives his mark in his forehead or in his hand (Rev. 13),
seemed — and no wonder — too terrible to be applied to every Roman Catholic, and,
therefore, had to be explained away or suppressed” (G. H. Pember).
Nevertheless, by common consent the Reformers applied the prophecies which treat of
the character, career, and doom of the Antichrist, to Popery, and regarded those of his titles
which referred to him as “that Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition,” the “King of Babylon” and
“the Beast,” as only so many names for the head of the Roman hierarchy. But this view,
which was upheld by most of the Puritans too, must be brought to the test of the one infallible
standard of Truth which our gracious God has placed in our hands. We must search the
Scriptures to see whether these things be so or not.
Now we shall hold no brief for the pope, nor have we anything good to say of that pernicious
system
of
which
he
is
the
head.
On
the
contrary,
we
have
no
hesitation
in
denouncing
as
rank
blasphemy
the
blatant
assumption
of
the
pope
as
being
the
infallible
vicar
of
Christ.
Nor
do
we
hesitate
to
declare
that
the
Papacy
has
been
marked,
all
through
its
long
history,
by
impious
arrogance,
awful
idolatry,
and
unspeakable
cruelty.
But,
nevertheless,
there
are
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The Papacy Not the Antichrist
many scriptures which prevent us from believing that the Papacy and the Antichrist are
identical. The Son of Perdition will eclipse any monstrosities that have sprung from the
waves of the Tiber. The Bible plainly teaches us to look for a more terrible personage than
any Hildebrand or Leo.
Undoubtedly there are many points of analogy between Antichrist and the popes, and
without doubt the Papal system has foreshadowed to a remarkable degree the character and
career of the coming Man of Sin. Some of the parallelisms between them were pointed out
by us in the previous chapter, and to these many more might be added. Not only is it evident
that Roman Catholicism is a most striking type and harbinger of that one yet to come, but
the cause of truth requires us to affirm that the Papacy is an antichrist, doubtless, the most
devilish of them all. Yet, we say again, that Romanism is not the Antichrist. As it is likely
that many of our readers have been educated in the belief that the pope and the Antichrist
are identical, we shall proceed to produce some of the numerous proofs which go to show
that such is not the case. That the Papacy cannot possibly be the Antichrist appears from
the following considerations:—
1. The term “Antichrist” whether employed in the singular or the plural, denotes a
person or persons, and never a system. We may speak correctly of an anti-Christ-ian system,
just as we may refer to a Christian organization; but it is just as inadmissible and erroneous
to refer to any system or organization as “the Antichrist” or “an antichrist,” as it would be
to denominate any Christian system or organization “the Christ,” or “a Christ.” Just as truly
as the Christ is the title of a single person the Son of God, so the Antichrist will be a single
person, the son of Satan.
2. The Antichrist will be a lineal descendant of Abraham, a Jew. We shall not stop to
submit the proof for this, as that will be given in our next chapter; suffice it now to say that
none but a full-blooded Jew could ever expect to palm himself off on the Jewish people as
their long-expected Messiah. Here is an argument that has never been met by those who
believe that the pope is the Man of Sin. So far as we are aware no Israelite has ever occupied
the Papal See — certainly none has done so since the seventh century.
3. In line with the last argument, we read in Zech. 11:16, 17, “For, lo, I will raise up a
Shepherd in the land which shall not visit those that be cut off, neither shall seek the young
ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth still: but he shall eat the flesh
of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd that leaveth the flock!
The sword (of Divine judgment) shall be upon his arm (his power), and upon his right eye
(intelligence): his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened.”
“The land” here is, of course, Palestine, as is ever the case in Scripture with this expression.
This could not possibly apply to the line of the Popes.
4. In 2 Thess. 2:4 we learn that the Man of Sin shall sit “in the Temple of God,” and St.
Peter’s at Rome cannot possibly be called that. The “Temple” in which the Antichrist shall
15
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
sit will be the rebuilt temple of the Jews, and that will be located not in Italy but in Jerusalem.
In later chapters it will be shown that the Mosque of Omar shall yet be replaced by a Jewish
Temple before our Lord returns to earth.
5. The Antichrist will be received by the Jews. This is clear from the passage which heads
the first paragraph of this chapter. “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive me not;
if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive;” but the Jews have never yet
owned allegiance to any pope.
6. The Antichrist will make a Covenant with the Jews. In Dan. 9:27 we read, “And he
shall confirm the covenant with many for a week.” The one referred to here as making this
seven-year Covenant is “the Prince that shall come” of the previous verse, namely, the Antichrist,

who will be the Head of the ten-kingdomed Empire. The nation with whom the
Prince will make this covenant is the people of Daniel, as is clear from the context — see v.
24. But we know of no record upon the scroll of history of any pope having ever made a
seven-year Covenant with the Jews!
7. In Dan. 11:45 we read, “And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the
seas, in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”
The person referred to here is, again, the Antichrist, as will be seen by going back to v. 36
where this section of the chapter begins. There we are told, “The king shall do according to
his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak
marvelous things against he God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished;
for
that
that
is
determined
shall
be
done.”
This
is
more
than
sufficient
to
identify
with
certainty
the
one
spoken
of
in
the
last
verse
of
Dan.
11.
The
Antichrist,
then,
will
plant
the
tabernacles
of
his
palace
“between
the
seas,”
that
is,
between
the
Mediterranean
and
the
Red
Sea.

By no species of ingenuity can this be made to apply to the pope, for his palace,
the Vatican, is located in the capital city of Italy.
8. The Antichrist cannot be revealed until the mystic Body of Christ and the Holy
Spirit have been removed from the earth. This is made clear by what we read in 2 Thess. 2.
In verse three of that chapter the apostle refers to the revelation of the Man of Sin. In verse
four he describes his awful impiety. In verse five he reminds the Thessalonians how that he
had taught them these things by word of mouth when he was with them. And then, in verse
six he declares “And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time.”
And again he said, “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only He who now letteth
(hindereth) will let until He be taken out of the way.” There are two agencies, then, which
are hindering, or preventing the manifestation of the Antichrist, until “his time” shall have
come. The former agency is covered by the pronoun “what,” the latter by the word “He.”
The former, we are satisfied, is the mystical Body of Christ; the latter being the Holy Spirit
of God. At the Rapture both shall be “taken out of the way,” and then shall the Man of Sin
be revealed. If, then, the Antichrist cannot appear before the Rapture of the saints and the
16
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
taking away of the Holy Spirit, then, here is proof positive that the Antichrist has not yet
appeared.
9. Closely akin to the last argument is the fact that quite a number of definite scriptures
place the appearing of the Antichrist at that season known as the End-Time. Dan. 7 and 8
make it plain that the Antichrist will run his career at the very end of this age (we do not
say this “dispensation” for that will end at the Rapture), that is, during the great Tribulation,
the time of “Jacob’s trouble.” Dan. 7:21-23 declares, “I beheld, and the same horn made war
with the saints, and prevailed against them; Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment
was given to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the
kingdom.” Dan. 8:19 places his course (see 8:23-25) at “the last end of the indignation,” i.e.
of God’s wrath against Israel and the Gentiles. Dan. 9 shows that he will make his sevenyears’
Covenant
with
the
Jews
at
the
beginning
of
the
last
of
the
seventy
“weeks”
which
is
to
bring
in
“the
end”
of
Israel’s
sins
and
“finish
the
transgression”
(Dan.
9:24).
If
the
time
of
the
Antichrist’s
manifestation
is
yet
future
then
it
necessarily
follows
that
Rome
cannot
be
the
Antichrist.
10. The Antichrist will deny both the Father and the Son: “He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This scripture does not speak of virtual, but of actual
and formal denial. But Rome has always maintained in her councils and creeds, her symbols
of faith and worship, that there are three persons in the Godhead. Numerous and grievous
have been her departures from the teaching of Holy Scripture, yet since the time of the
Council of Trent (1563 A.D.) every Roman Catholic has had to confess “I believe in God
the Father[hellip]and in the Lord Jesus Christ[hellip].and in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and
Giver of life, which proceedeth from the Father and the Son.”
As a system Romanism is a go-between. The “priest” stands between the sinner and
God; the ‘confessional’ between him and the throne of grace; ‘penance’ between him and
godly sorrow; the ‘mass’ between him and Christ; and ‘purgatory’ between him and Heaven.
The pope acknowledges both the Father and the Son: he confesses himself to be both the
servant of God and His worshipper; he blesses the people not in his own name, but in that
of the Holy Trinity.
11. The Antichrist is described as the one “who opposeth and exalteth himself above all
that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the Temple of God,
showing himself that he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This is what the popes have never done. Not
even Leo ventured to deify himself or supersede God. The popes have made many false and
impious claims for themselves; nevertheless, their decrees have been sent forth as from the
“vice-gerent” of God, the “vicar” of Christ — thus acknowledging a Divine power above
himself.
12. In Rev. 13:2, 4 we read, “And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his
feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion: and the dragon gave
17
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
him his power, and his seat, and great authority[hellip]and they worshipped the dragon
which gave power unto the beast.” By comparing these verses with Rev. 12:9 we learn that
the Dragon is none other than Satan himself. Now by almost common consent this first
beast of Rev. 13 is the Antichrist. If, then, Romanism be the Antichrist, where, we may ask,
shall we turn to find anything answering to what we read of here in Rev. 13:4 — “And they
worshipped the dragon, which gave power unto the beast.”
13. This same 13th chapter of Revelation informs us that the Antichrist (the first Beast)
shall be aided by a second Beast who is denominated “the False Prophet” (Rev. 19:20). The
False Prophet, we are told “exerciseth all the power of the First Beast before him, and causeth
the earth and them which dwell therein to worship the First Beast” (Rev. 13:12). If the First
Beast be the Papacy, then who is the False Prophet who “causeth the earth and them which
dwell therein to worship” her?
14. Again; we are told that this False Prophet shall say to them that dwell on the earth
“that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by a sword and did
live” (Rev. 13:14). Further, we are told, “And he had power to give life unto the image of the
Beast, that the image of the Beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not
worship the image of the Beast should be killed” (Rev 13:15). Where do we find anything
in Popery which in anywise resembles this?
15. In Dan. 9:27 we are told that the Antichrist “shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation
to cease.” And again in 8:11 we read, “Yea, he magnified himself even against the Prince of
the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away.” If Romanism is the Antichrist how
can these scriptures be made to square with the oft repeated “Sacrifice of the Mass?”
16. The dominion of the Antichrist shall be world-wide. The coming Man of Sin will
assert a supremacy which shall be unchallenged and universal. “And all the world wondered
after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). “And power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and
nations” (13:7). It hardly needs to be pointed out that half of Christendom, to say nothing
of Heathendom, is outside the pale of Rome, and is antagonistic to the claims of the Papacy.
Again; in 13:17 we read “No man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name
of the Beast, or the number of his name”: and when, we ask, has any pope exercised such
commercial supremacy that none could buy or sell without his permission?
17. The duration of Antichrist’s career, after he comes out in his true character, will be
limited to forty-two months. There are no less than six scriptures which, with a variety of
expression, affirm this time restriction. In Dan. 7:25 we learn that this one who shall “think
to change times and laws,” will have these “given into his hand until a time, and times, and
the dividing of time”: that is, for three years and a half — cf. Rev. 12:14 with 12:6. And again
in Rev. 13:5 we are told, “And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and
blasphemies; and power was given unto him to continue forty and two months” (Rev. 13:5).
18
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
Now it is utterly impossible to make this harmonize with the protracted history of Romanism
by any honest method of computation.
18. In Rev. 13:7, 8 we read, “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and
to overcome them: and power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations.
And all that dwell upon the face of the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written
in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.” Here we are expressly
told that the only ones who will not “worship the Beast,” i.e. the Antichrist, are they whose
names are written in the Lamb’s book of life. If then the pope is the Antichrist, all who do
not worship him must have their names written in the Lamb’s book of life — an absurdity
on the face of it, for this would be tantamount to saying that all the infidels, atheists, and
unbelievers of the last thousand years who were outside of the pale of Roman Catholicism
are saved.
19. In 2 Thess. 2:11, 12 we are told, “For this cause God shall send them strong delusion,
that they should believe a lie: that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but
had pleasure in unrighteousness.” The context here shows that “believing a lie” means accepting
the
claims
of
the
Antichrist.
Those
who
believe
his
claims
will
“receive
him”
(John
5:43),
and
not
only
so,
they
will
“worship”
him
(Rev.
13:8);
and
2
Thess.
2:12
declares that
“all who do this will be damned.” If, then, the pope is the Antichrist, then it necessarily follows
that all who have believed his lying claims, that all who have received him as the vicar of
Christ, that all who have worshipped him, will be eternally lost. But the writer would not
for a moment make any such sweeping assertion. He, together with thousands of others,
believes firmly that during the centuries there have been many Roman Catholics who, despite
much ignorance and superstition, have been among that number that have exercised faith
in the blood of Christ, and that lived and died resting on the finished work of Christ as the
alone ground of their acceptance before God, and who because of this shall be forever with
the Lord.
20. That the Antichrist and the Papacy are totally distinct is unequivocally established
by the teaching of Rev. 17. Here we learn that there shall be ten kings who will reign “with
the Beast” (v. 12), and act in concert with him (vv. 13, 16). Then we are told “these shall
hate the Whore (the papacy), and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh,
and burn her with fire” (v. 16). Instead of the Antichrist and the Papacy being identical, the
former shall destroy the latter; whereas, the Antichrist shall be destroyed by Christ Himself,
see 2 Thess. 2:8.
Perhaps a word of explanation is called for as to why we have entered into such lengthy
details in presenting some of the many proofs that the Papacy is not the Antichrist. Our
chief reason for doing so was because we expect that many who will read this paper are
among the number who have been brought up in the belief which was commonly taught
by the Reformers and which has prevailed generally since their day. For those readers who
19
The Papacy Not the Antichrist
had already been established on this point, we would ask them to please bear with us for
having sought to help those less fortunate. Our next chapter will be one of more general
interest, for in it we shall discuss the person of the Antichrist — who he will be, from whence
he will spring, and what marks will serve to identify him.
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
The Antichrist will be a Jew, though his connections, his governmental position, his
sphere of dominion, will by no means confine him to the Israelitish people. It should,
however, be pointed out that there is no express declaration of Scripture which says in so
many words that this daring Rebel will be “a Jew;” nevertheless, the hints given are so plain,
the conclusions which must be drawn from certain statements of Holy Writ are so obvious,
and the requirements of the case are so inevitable, that we are forced to believe he must be
a Jew. To these ‘hints’, ‘conclusions’ and ‘requirements’ we now turn.
1. In Ezek. 21:25-27 we read: “and thou, profane wicked prince of Israel, whose day is
come, when iniquity shall have an end, Thus saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, and
take off the crown: this shall not be the same: exalt him that is low, and abase him that is
high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it: and it shall be no more until he comes whose
right it is, and I will give it him.” The dispensational place and scope of this passage, is not
hard to determine. The time-mark is given in v. 25: it is “when iniquity shall have an end.”
It is the End-Time which is in view, then, the End of the Age, when “the transgressors are
come to the full” (Dan. 8:23 and cf. 11:36 — “Till the indignation be accomplished”). At
that time Israel shall have a Prince, a Prince who is crowned (v. 26), and a Prince whose day
is said to be come when “iniquity shall have an end.” Now, as to who this Prince is, there is
surely no room for doubt. The only Prince whom Israel will have in that day, is the Son of
Perdition, here termed their Prince because he will be masquerading as Messiah the Prince
(see Dan. 9:25)! Another unmistakable mark of identification is here given, in that he is expressly
denominated
“thou,
profane
wicked
Prince” — assuredly, it is the Man of Sin who
is here in view, that impious one who shall “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called
God.” But what should be noted particularly, is, that this profane and wicked character is
here named “Prince of Israel.” He must, therefore, be of the Abrahamic stock, a Jew!
2. In Ezek. 28:2-10 a remarkable description is given us of the Antichrist under the figure
of “the Prince of Tyrus,” just as in vv.12-19 we have another most striking delineation of
Satan under the figure of “the king of Tyrus.” In a later chapter we hope to show that, beyond
a doubt, it is the Antichrist who is in view in the first section of this chapter. There is only
one thing that we would now point out from this passage: in v.10 it is said of him “Thou
shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised,” which is a very strong hint that he ought not to
die the deaths of the “uncircumcised” because he belonged to the Circumcision! Should it
be said that this verse cannot apply to the Antichrist because he will be destroyed by Christ
Himself at His coming, the objection is very easily disposed of by a reference to Rev. 13:14,
which tells of the Antichrist being wounded to death by a sword and rising from the dead
— which is prior to his ultimate destruction at the hands of the Saviour.
22
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
3. In Dan. 11:36, 37 we are told, “And the king shall do according to his will; and he
shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things
against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that
is determined shall be done. Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers.” This passage,
it is evident, refers to and describes none other than the coming Antichrist. But what we
wish to call special attention to is the last sentence quoted — “The God of his fathers.” What
are we to understand by this expression? Why, surely, that he is a Jew, an Israelite, and that
his fathers after the flesh were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob — for such is the invariable
meaning of “the fathers” throughout the Old Testament Scriptures.
4. In Matt. 12:43-45 we have another remarkable scripture which will be considered
briefly, in a later section of this chapter, when we shall endeavor to show that “The Unclean
Spirit” here is none other than the Son of Perdition, and that the “house” from which he
goes out and into which he returns, is the Nation of Israel. If this can be established, then
we have another proof that he will be a Jew, for this “house,” which is Israel, is here termed
by Antichrist “my house.” Just as Solomon was of “the House of David,” so Antichrist shall
be of the House of Israel.
5. In John 5:43 we have a further word which helps us to fix the nationality of this
coming One. In speaking of the false messiah, the Lord Jesus referred to him as follows,
“Another shall come in his own name.” In the Greek there are four different words all
translated “Another” in our English versions. One of them is employed but once, and a
second but five times, so these need not detain us now. The remaining two are used frequently,
and
with
a
clear
distinction
between
them.
The
first
“allos”
signifies
“another”
of
the
same
kind
or
genus
— see Matt. 10:23; 13:24; 26:71, etc. The second, “heteros,” means
“another” of a totally different kind, — see Mark 16:12; Luke 14:31; Acts 7:18; Rom. 7:23.
Now the striking thing is that the word used by our Lord in John 5:43 is “allos,” another of
the same genus, not “heteros,” another of a different order. Christ, the Son of Abraham, the
Son of David, had presented Himself to Israel, and they rejected Him; but “another” of the
same Abrahamic stock should come to them, and him they would “receive.” If the coming
Antichrist were to be a Gentile, the Lord would have employed the word “heteros;” the fact
that He used “allos” shows that he will be a Jew.
6. The very name “Antichrist” argues strongly his Jewish nationality. This title “Antichrist”

has a double significance. It means that he will be one who shall be “opposed” to
Christ, one who will be His enemy. But it also purports that he will be a mock Christ, an
imitation Christ, a pro-Christ, a pseudo Christ. It intimates that he will ape Christ. He will
pose as the real Messiah of Israel. In such case he must be a Jew.
7. This mock Christ will be “received” by Israel. The Jews will be deceived by Him. They
will believe that he is indeed their long-expected Messiah. They will accept him as such.
Proofs of this will be furnished in a later chapter. But if this pseudo Christ succeeds in
23
I. The Antichrist Will Be a Jew
palming himself off on the Jews as their true Messiah he must be a Jew, for it is unthinkable
that they would be deceived by any Gentile.
Ere passing to the next point, we may add, that it was the common belief among
Christians during the first four centuries A.D., that the Antichrist would come from the
tribe of Dan. Whether this will be the case or no, we do not know. Gen. 49:17, 18 may have
ultimate reference to this Son of Perdition. Certainly Dan is the most mysterious of all the
twelve tribes.
24
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
That Satan will have a son ought not to surprise us. The Devil is a consummate imitator
and much of his success in deceiving men is due to his marvelous skill in counterfeiting the
things of God. Below we give a list of some of his imitations: —
Do we read of Christ going forth to sow the “good seed” (Matt. 13:24), then we also
read of the enemy going forth to sow his “tares” — an imitation wheat (Matt. 13:25). Do we
read of “the children of God,” then we also read of “the children of the wicked one” (Matt.
13:38). Do we read of God working in His children “both to will and to do of His good
pleasure” (Phil. 2:13), then we are also told that the Prince of the power of the air is “the
spirit that now woreth in the children of disobedience” (Eph. 2:2). Do we read of the Gospel
of God, then we also read that Satan has a gospel — “Another gospel, which is not another”
(Gal. 1:6, 7). Did Christ appoint “apostles,” then Satan has his apostles too (2 Cor. 11:13).
Are we told that “the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God” (1 Cor. 2:10),
then Satan also provides his “deep things” (see Greek of Rev. 2:24). Are we told that God,
by His angel, will “seal” His servants in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3), so also we read that Satan,
by his angels, will set a mark in the foreheads of his devotees (Re. 13:16). Does the Father
seek “worshippers” (John 4:23), so also does Satan (Rev. 13:4). Did Christ quote scripture,
so also did Satan (Matt. 4:6). Is Christ the Light of the world, then Satan also is transformed
as an “angel of light” (2 Cor. 11:14). Is Christ denominated “the Lion of the tribe of Judah”
(Rev. 5:5), then the Devil is also referred to as “a roaring lion” (1 Peter 5:6). Do we read of
Christ and “His angels” (Matt. 24:31), then we also read of the Devil and “his angels” (Matt.
25:41). Did Christ work miracles, so also will Satan (2 Thess. 2:9). Is Christ seated upon a
“Throne,” so also will Satan be (Rev. 2:13, Gk.). Has Christ a Church, then Satan has his
“synagogue” (Rev. 2:9). Has Christ a “bride,” then Satan has his “whore” (Rev. 17:16). Has
God His “Vine,” so has Satan (Rev. 14:19). Does God have a city, the new Jerusalem, then
Satan has a city, Babylon (Rev. 17:5; 18:2). Is there a “mystery of godliness” (1 Tim 3:16),
so also there is a “mystery of iniquity” (2 Thess. 2:7). Does God have an only-begotten Son,
so we read of “the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). Is Christ called “the Seed of the woman,”
then the Antichrist will be “the seed of the serpent” (Gen. 3:15). Is the Son of God also the
Son of Man, then the son of Satan will also be the “Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
Is there a Holy Trinity, then there is also an Evil Trinity (Rev. 20:10). In this Trinity of
Evil Satan himself is supreme, just as in the Blessed Trinity the Father is (governmentally)
supreme: note that Satan is several times referred to as a father (John 8:44, etc.). Unto his
son, the Antichrist, Satan gives his authority and power to represent and act for him (Rev.
13:4) just as God the Son received “all power in heaven and earth” from His Father, and
uses it for His glory. The Dragon (Satan) and the Beast (Antichrist) are accompanied by a
third, the False Prophet, and just as the third person in the Holy Trinity, the Spirit, bears
25
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
witness to the person and work of Christ and glorifies Him, so shall the third person in the
Evil Trinity bear witness to the person and work of the Antichrist and glorify him (see Rev.
13:11-14).
Now the Antichrist will be a man, and yet more than man, just as Christ was Man and
yet more than man. The Antichrist will be the ‘Superman’ of whom the world, even now,
is talking, and for whom it is looking. The Wicked One who is to be revealed shortly, will
be a supernatural character, he will be the Son of Satan. His twofold nature is plainly declared
in 2 Thess. 2:3 — “That man of Sin, the Son of Perdition.” In proof of these assertions we
ask for a careful attention to what follows.
1. “And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy Seed and her
Seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel” (Gen. 3:15). It is to be noted
that there is here a double “enmity” spoken of: God says, “I will put enmity between thee
and the woman,” that is, between Satan and Israel, for Israel was the woman that bore Christ
(Rev. 12); “And between thy seed and her seed.” Observe particularly that two “seeds” are
here spoken of; “Thy seed” (the antecedent is plainly the Serpent) and “her seed,” the woman’s
Seed. The woman’s Seed was Christ, the Serpent’s seed will be the Antichrist. The Antichrist
then, will be more than a man, he will be the actual and literal Seed of that old Serpent, the
Devil; as Christ was, according to the flesh, the actual and literal Seed of the woman. “Thy
seed,” Satan’s seed, refers to a s specific individual, just as “her seed” refers to a specific Individual.
2. “In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and he shall slay the Dragon that
is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). To appreciate the force of this we need to attend to the context,
which is unfortunately broken by the chapter division. In the closing verses of Isa. 26 we
hear God saying, “Come, My people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about
thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be over past” (26:20).
These words are addressed to the elect remnant of Israel. Their ultimate application will be
to those on earth at the end of this Age, for it is the time of God’s “indignation” (cf. Dan.
8:19 and 11:36). It is the time when “the Lord cometh out of His place to punish the inhabitants

of the earth, for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no
more cover her slain” (26:21) — notice “iniquity,” singular number, not “iniquities.” It is
their worshipping of Satan’s Man which is specifically referred to. Then, immediately following
we
read,
“In
that
day
the Lord[hellip]shall punish Leviathan the piercing Serpent.”
The connection, then, makes it plain that it is just before the Millennium when God shall
punish the Crooked Serpent, the Antichrist. Now the very fact that the Wicked One is here
denominated “the piercing and crooked Serpent” hints strongly that he will be the son of
“that old Serpent, the Devil.”
26
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
3. In the first two sections of Ezek. 28 two remarkable characters are brought before us.
The second who is described in vv. 12-19 has received considerable attention from Bible
students of the last two generations, and since the late Mr. G. H. Pember pointed out that
what is there said of “the king of Tyrus” could be true of no earthly king or mere human
being, and must outline a character that none but Satan himself (before his fall) could fill
this view has been adopted by most of the leading Bible teachers. But little attention has
been paid to the character described in the first ten verses of this chapter.
Now just as what is said in Ezek. 28 of “the king of Tyrus” can only apply fully to Satan
himself, so, what is said of “the prince of Tyrus” manifestly has reference to the Antichrist.
The parallelisms between what is said here and what we find in other scriptures which describe
the
Son
of
Perdition
are
so
numerous
and
so
evident,
that
we
are
obliged
to
conclude
that

it is the same person which is here contemplated. We cannot now attempt anything
like a complete exposition of the whole passage (though we hope to give one later) but will
just call attention to some of the outstanding marks of identification:
First, the Lord God says to this personage, “Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou
hast said I am a god, I sit in the seat of God” — cf. 2 Thess. 2:4. Second, “Behold thou art
wiser than Daniel” — cf. Dan 8:23, and 7:8, “Behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of
men, and a mouth speaking great things,” which intimates that the Antichrist will be possessed

of extraordinary intelligence. Third, it is said of this character, “With thy wisdom
and with thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver
into thy treasures” (v. 4- cf. Psa. 52:7; Dan. 11:38).
Sufficient has been said, we trust, to show that under the figure of this “prince of Tyrus”
we may discern clearly the unmistakable features of the coming Antichrist. But the particular
point we would make here, is this, that as Satan is termed “the king of Tyre,” in the second
section of this chapter the Antichrist is referred to as “the prince of Tyre.” Antichrist, then,
is related to Satan as “prince” is to “king,” that is, as son is to the father.
4. In Matt. 12:43 the Antichrist is called “The Unclean Spirit,” not merely an unclean
spirit, but “the Unclean Spirit.” We cannot now stop and submit the evidence that it is the
Antichrist who is here in view, for this is another passage which we will consider carefully
in a later chapter. But in the writer’s mind there is no doubt whatever that none other than
the Beast is here in view. If this be the case, then we have further evidence that the coming
One will be no mere man indwelt by Satan, but a fallen angel, an evil spirit, the incarnation
of the Devil.
5. “Ye are of your father the Devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a
murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.
1 See also the chapter on Satan’s Origin in the writer’s “Satan and his Gospel” obtainable from the Bible Truth
Depot, Swengel, Pa. at 20 cents.
1
27
II. The Antichrist Will Be the Son of Satan
When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of this own; for he is a liar, and the father of it” (John
8:44). Here is still another proof that the Antichrist will be superhuman, the offspring of
Satan. In the Greek there is the definite article before the word “lie” — the lie, “the Lie.”
There is another passage in the New Testament where “the Lie” is mentioned, namely in 2
Thess. 2:11, where again the definite article is found in the Greek, and there the reference
is unmistakable.
A threefold reason may be suggested as to why the Antichrist should be termed “the
Lie.” First, because his fraudulent claim to be the real Christ will be the greatest falsehood
palmed off upon humanity. Second, because he is the direct antithesis of the real Christ,
who is “the Truth” (John 14:6). Third, because he is the son of Satan who is the arch liar.
But to return to John 8:44; “When he (the Devil) speaketh (concerning) the Lie, he speaketh
of his own.” His “own” what? His “own” son — the remainder of the verse makes this very
plain — “for he (the Devil) is a liar and the father of it,” i.e. of “the Lie.” The Lie then, is
“Satan’s Son!”
6. “That day shall not come, except there come a falling away (the Apostasy) first, and
that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). Nothing could be plainer
than this. Here the Antichrist is expressly declared to be superhuman — “the Son of Perdition.”
Just
as
the
Christ
if
the
Son
of
God,
so
Antichrist
will
be
the
son
of
Satan.
Just
as
the
Christ
dwelt
all
the
fulness
of
the
Godhead
bodily,
and
just
as
Christ
could
say
“He
that
hath
seen
Me,
hath
seen
the
Father,”
so
the
Antichrist
will
be
the
full
and
final
embodiment
of
the

Devil. He will not only be the incarnation of the Devil, but the consummation of his
wickedness and power.
7. In Rev. 13:1 (R. V.) we read, “And he (the Dragon — see context) stood upon the
sand of the sea” — symbolic of taking possession of the Nations: “And I saw a Beast coming
up out of the sea, having ten diadems, and upon his heads names of blasphemy.” It is deeply
significant to mark how these things are here linked together as cause and effect. The coming
forth of the Beast (the Antichrist) is immediately connected with the Dragon! But this is
not all. Notice the description that is here given of him: “he has ten horns (fulness of power)
and seven heads (complete wisdom)” and this is exactly how Satan himself is described in
Rev. 12:3 — “And behold, a great red Dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon
his heads names of blasphemy!” Does not a linking of these scriptures prove beyond all
doubt that the Antichrist will be an exact replica of Satan himself!
But one other thing, even more startling, remains to be considered, and that is[hellip]
28
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
1. In Psalm 55 much is said of the Antichrist in his relation to Israel. Among other things
we read there, “The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart:
his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords” (v. 21). The occasion for this
sad plaint is given in the previous verse — “He had put forth his hands against such as be
at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant.” The reference is to Antichrist breaking his
seven-year Covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27; 11:21-24). Now if the entire Psalm be
read through with these things in mind, it will be seen that it sets forth the sorrows of Israel
and the sighings of the godly remnant during the End-Time. But the remarkable thing is
that when we come to vv. 11-14 we find that which has a double application and fulfillment
— “wickedness is in the midst thereof: deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it
was not an enemy that reproached me; then I could have borne it: neither was it he that
hated me that did magnify himself against me; then I would have hid myself from him: But
it was thou, a man mine equal, my guide, and mine acquaintance. We took sweet counsel
together, and walked unto the house of God in company.” These verses describe not only
the base treachery of Judas toward Christ, but they also announce how he shall yet, when
reincarnated in the Antichrist, betray and desert Israel. The relation of Antichrist to Israel
will be precisely the same as that of Judas to Christ of old. He will pose as the friend of the
Jews, but later he will come out in his true character. In the Tribulation period, the Nation
of Israel shall taste the bitterness of betrayal and desertion by one who masqueraded as a
“familiar friend.” Hence, we have here the first hint that the Antichrist will be Judas reincarnated.
2. “And your covenant with Death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell
shall not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden
down by it” (Isa. 28:18). The “Covenant” referred to is that seven-year one which is mentioned
in Dan. 9:27. But here the one with whom this Covenant is made is termed “Death and
Hell.” This is a title of the Antichrist, as “the Resurrection and the Life” is of the true Christ.
Nor is this verse in Isa. 28 the only one where the Son of Perdition is so denominated. In
Rev. 6 a four-fold picture of him is given — the antithesis of the four-fold portrayal of the
Lord Jesus in the Gospels. Here he is seen as the rider on differently colored horses, which
bring before us four stages in his awful career, and when we come to the last of them the
Holy Spirit exposes his true identity by telling us, “and his name that sat on him was Death
and Hell followed with him” (Rev. 6:8). Now “Hell” or “hades” is the place which receives
the souls of the dead, and the fact that this awful name is here applied to Antichrist intimates
that he has come from there.
3. Above, we referred to Matt. 12:41-43 to prove that Antichrist will be a super-human
being, a fallen and unclean spirit; we turn to it again in order to show that this coming in-
29
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
carnation of Satan has previously been upon earth. The history of this “Unclean Spirit” is
divided into three stages. First, as having dwelt in “a man;” second, as having gone out of a
man, and walking through dry places, seeking rest and finding none — this has reference
to his present condition during the interval between his two appearances on earth. Third,
he says, “I will return to my house.” This Unclean Spirit, then, who has already been here,
who is now away in a place where rest is not to be found, is to come back again!
4. In John 17:12 we have a word which, more plainly still, shows that the Antichrist will
be Judas reincarnated, for here he is termed by Christ “The Son of Perdition.” But first, let
us consider the teaching of Scripture concerning Judas Iscariot. Who was he? He was a
“man” (Matt. 26:24). But was he more than a man? Let Scripture make answer. In John 6:70
we read, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a Devil?” It is hardly necessary
to say that in the Greek there are two different words for “Devil” and “demon.” There are
many demons, but only one Devil. Further, in no other passage is the word “devil” applied
to any one but to Satan himself. Judas then was the Devil incarnate, just as the Lord Jesus
was God incarnate. Christ Himself said so, and we dare not doubt His word.
As we have seen, in John 17:12 Christ termed Judas “the Son of Perdition,” and 2 Thess.
2:3 we find that the Antichrist is similarly designated — “That Man of Sin be revealed, the
Son of Perdition.” These are the only two places in all the Bible where his name occurs, and
the fact that Judas was termed by Christ not a “son of perdition,” but “the Son of Perdition,”
and the fact that the Man of Sin is so named prove that they are one and the same person.
What other conclusion can a simple and unprejudiced reader of the Bible come to?
5. In Rev. 11:7 we have the first reference to “the Beast” in the Apocalypse: “The Beast
that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit.” Here the Antichrist is seen issuing forth from the
Abyss. What is the Abyss? It is the abode of lost spirits, the place of their incarceration and
torment — see Rev. 20:1-3, and Luke 8:31, “deep” is the “abyss” and cf. Matt. 9:28. The
question naturally arises, How did he get there? and when was he sent there? We answer,
When Judas Iscariot died! The Antichrist will be Judas Iscariot reincarnated. In proof of this
we appeal to Acts 1:25 where we are told, “that he may take part of this ministry and
apostleship from which Judas by transgression fell, that he might go to his own place.” Of
no one else in all the Bible is it said that at death he went “to his own place.” Put these two
scriptures together: Judas went “to his own place,” the Beast ascends out of the Abyss.
6. In Rev. 17:8 we read, “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend
out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into perdition.” This verse is generally understood to refer
to the revived Roman Empire, and while allowing that such an application is warrantable,
yet we are persuaded it is a mistake to limit it to this. In the Apocalypse, the Roman Empire
and its final and satanic Head are very closely connected, so much so, that at times it is difficult
to
distinguish
between
them.
But
in
Rev.
17
they are distinguishable.
30
III. The Antichrist Will Be Judas Reincarnated
In v. 8 we are told that the Beast “shall ascend out of the Bottomless Pit,” and that he
“shall go into perdition.” In v. 11 we are told, “And the Beast that was, and is not, even he
is the eighth, and is of the seventh, and goeth into perdition.” Now nearly all expositors are
agreed that the Beast of v. 11 — the “eighth” (head, and form of government of the Roman
Empire) — is the Antichrist himself; then why not admit the same of v.8? In both, the designation
is
the
same

“the
Beast;”
and
in
both,
we
are
told
he
“goeth
into
perdition.”
We take it, then, that what is predicted of “the Beast” in 17:8 is true of both the Roman
Empire and its last head, the Antichrist: of the former, in the sense that it is infernal in its
character. Viewing it now as a declaration of the Antichrist, what does it tell us about him?
Four things. First, he “was.” Second, he “is not.” Third, he shall “ascend out of the Bottomless
Pit.” Fourth, he shall “go into perdition.” The various time-marks here concern the Beast
in his relation to the earth. First, he “was,” i.e. on the earth. Second, he “is not,” i.e. now on
the earth (cf. Gen. 5:24, “Enoch was not for God took him;” that is, “was not” any longer
on earth). Third, he shall “ascend out of the Bottomless Pit,” where he is now, which agrees
with 11:7. Fourth, he shall “go into perdition.” We learn then from this scripture that at the
time the Apocalypse was written the Beast “was not” then on the earth, but that he had been
on it formerly. Further, we learn that in John’s day the Beast was then in the Bottomless Pit
but should yet ascend out of it. Here then is further evidence that the Antichrist who is yet
to appear has been on earth before.
7. “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone.”
(Rev.
19:20).
This
gives
the
last
word
concerning
the
Antichrist.
It
makes
known
the
terrible
fate
which
awaits
him.
He,
together
with
his
ally,
will
be
cast
alive
into
the
Lake
of
Fire.
This
is
very
striking,
and
confirms
what
has
been
said
above,
namely,
that
the
Antichrist
will
be
one
who
has
already
appeared
on
earth,
and
has
been
in
“the
Abyss”
during
the
interval
which
precedes
his
return
to
the
earth.
And
how
remarkable
Rev.
19:20
corroborates
this. The Antichrist will not be cast, eventually into the Abyss, as Satan will be at the end of
the Millennium (Rev. 20:1-3), but into the Lake of Fire which is the final abode of the
damned. Why is it that he shall not be cast into the Abyss at the return of Christ? It must
be because he has already been there. Hence, the judgment meted out to him is final and
irrevocable, as will be that of the Devil a thousand years later, see Rev. 20:10.
Our next chapter will be devoted to an examination and consideration of the many
Names and Titles which are given to the Antichrist in the Word of God, and we would urge
the student to diligently search the Scriptures for himself to see how many of these he can
find — there are over twenty.
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
There is a distinct science of nomenclature, a system of names, in the Word of God.
Probably every name in Scripture has either a historic, a symbolic, or a spiritual significance.
The names are inseparably bound up with the narrative, and it frequently happens that the
meaning of a proper noun is a key to an important passage. Names are not employed by
the Holy Spirit in a loose and careless manner — of course not! — but with definite design.
A variety of names for the same individual are not given in order to prevent monotonous
repetition, but because the significance of each separate appellation is best fitted to express
what is recorded in any given instance. “Devil” and “Satan” are not synonyms, nor are they
used at haphazard, but with Divine discrimination. Upon the meaning of names found in
Holy Writ rests a whole scheme of interpretation; even the order in which names occur is
not fortuitous but designed, and constitutes a part of each lesson taught, or each truth
presented.
There is here a wide field opened for study, a field which few have made serious effort
to explore. It is strange that it has been so neglected, for again and again the Holy Spirit calls
attention to the importane and meaning of names. In the first book of the Bible we find that
children and places were given meaningful names, which called to remembrance incidents,
experiences, characteristics of interest and importance. Examples are given where names
changed to harmonize with a change in the person, place, experience, or situation where it
occurred. Abram and Sarai will at once occur to mind. For a place, take Luz, which was
changed to Bethel! — “House of God” — because by reason of a vision he received there it
became that to Jacob. Jacob’s name is changed to Israel; and in the New Testament an example
is
furnished
in
Simeon
being
re-named
Peter.
In
Heb.
7:1,
2
the Holy Spirit calls attention
to
the
significance
of
the
names
Melchizedik
and
Salem
(Jerusalem).
These
are
sufficient
to
show
the
importance
of
this
line
of
study.
Names are used in Scripture with marvelous discrimination, and it was this fact which
first demonstrated to the writer, the verbal inspiration of Scripture. The precision with
which names are used in the Bible is especially noticeable in connection with the Divine
titles. The names Elohim and Jehovah are found on the pages of the Old Testament several
thousand times, but they are never used loosely or interchangeably. Over three hundred
names and titles are given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and each has its own distinctive significance
and
to
substitute
any
other
for
the
one
used
would
destroy
the
beauty
and
perfections
of
every
passage
where
they
are
found.
Names are employed to express character; titles are used to denote relationships. It is
only as we make a careful study of the various and numerous names and titles of the Lord
Jesus Christ, that we are in a position to appreciate His infinite excellencies and the manifold
relationships which He sustains. From an opposite standpoint the same is equally true of
32
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
the Antichrist. As we pay careful attention to the different names and titles which are given
to him, we then discover what a marvelously complete delineation the Holy Spirit has furnished
us
with
of
the
person,
the
character,
and
career
of
this
monster
of
wickedness.
It
is
unfortunate
that
the
great
variety
of
names
bestowed
upon
him
has
led
some
brethren
to
the
conclusion
that
they
must
belong
to
separate
persons,
and
has
caused
them
to
apportion
these

out to different individuals; only confusion can result from this. There is almost as
much ground to make the Devil and Satan different persons, as there is to regard (as some
do) the Beast and the Antichrist as separate entities. That the Devil and Satan are names
belonging to the same person, and that the Beast and the Antichrist is the selfsame individual,
is proven by the fact that identically the same characteristics under each is found belonging
to the one as to the other. Instead of apportioning these names to different persons, we must
see that they denominate the same individual, only in different relationships, or as giving
us various phases of his character.
An old writer has said the name Devil is most suggestive of his character. If “d” is taken
away, evil is left. If “e” is taken away vile is left. If “v” is taken away ill is left. And if “i” is
taken away and the next letter be aspirated, it tells of hell. It is equally true of the Antichrist:
his names reveal his character, expose his vileness, and forecast his career and doom.
The names and titles given to the Antichrist are far more numerous than is commonly
supposed. We propose to give as complete a list as possible, and offer a few comments on
their significations. We shall not expatiate on them at equal length, for that is not necessary;
instead, we shall say the most on those cognomens which are of the greater importance, or,
which because of their ambiguity call for a more detailed elucidation.
33
1. The Antichrist
1. The Antichrist
“Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This name introduces to us one of the most solemn
and foreboding subjects in the Word of God. It brings before us one of the persons in the
Trinity of Evil. At every point he is the antithesis of Christ. The word “Antichrist” has a
double significance. Its primary meaning is one who is opposed to Christ; but its secondary
meaning is one who is instead of Christ. Let not this be thought strange, for it accords with
the two stages in his career. At first he will pose as the true Christ, masquerading in the livery
of religion. But, later, he will throw off his disguise, stand forth in his true character, and
set himself up as one who is against God and His Christ.
Not only does anti-christ denote the antagonist of Christ, but it tells of one who is instead
of Christ. The word signifies another Christ, a pro-Christ, an alter christus, a pretender to
the name of Christ. He will seem to be and will set himself up as the true Christ. He will be
the Devil’s counterfeit. Just as the Devil is an Anti-theos — not only the adversary of God,
but the usurper of the place and prerogatives of God, demanding worship; so the Son of
Perdition will be anti-christ — not only the antagonist and opponent of Christ, but His reval:
assuming
the
very
position
and
prerogatives
of
Christ;
passing
himself
off
as
the
rightful
claimant
to
all
the
rights
and
honors
of
the
Son
of
God.
1. The Antichrist
34
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come
a falling away first, and that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). This
double appellation is probably the most awful, the most important, and the most revealing
title given to the Antichrist in all the Bible. It diagnoses his personality and exposes his awful
character. It tells us he will be possessed of a twofold nature: he will be a man, and yet more
than a man. He will be Satan’s parody of the God-Man. He will be an incarnation of the
Devil. The world today is talking of and looking for the Super-man. This is exactly what the
Antichrist will be. He will be the Serpent’s masterpiece.
“That Man of Sin.” What a frightful name! The sin of man will culminate in the Man
of Sin. The Christ of God was sinless; the Christ of Satan will not only be sinful, but the Man
of Sin. “Man of Sin” intimates that he will be the living and active embodiment of every
form and character of evil. “Man of Sin” signifies that he will be sin itself personified. “Man
of Sin” denotes there will be no lengths of wickedness to which he will not go, no forms of
evil to which he will be a stranger, no depths of corruption that he will not bottom.
“The Son of Perdition.” And again we are forced to exclaim, what a frightful name! Not
only a human degenerate, but the offspring of the Dragon. Not only the worst of human
kind, but the incarnation of the Devil. Not only the most depraved of all sinners, but an
emanation from the Pit itself. “Son of Perdition” denotes that he will be the culmination
and consummation of satanic craft and power. All the evil, malignity, cunning, and power
of the Serpent will be embodied in this terrible monster.
35
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
“And then shall be revealed the Lawless One, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the
breath of His mouth, and bring to nought by the manifestation of His coming” (2 Thess.
2:8 R. V.). This is another name of the Antichrist which makes manifest his awful character.
Each of his names exhibits him as the antithesis of the true Christ. The Lord Jesus was the
Righteous One; the Man of Sin will be the Lawless One. The Lord Jesus was “made under
the law” (Gal. 4:4); the Antichrist will oppose all law, being a law unto himself. When the
Saviour entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9);
but of the Antichrist it is written “And the king shall do according to his will” (Dan. 11:36).
The Antichrist will set himself up in direct opposition to all authority, both Divine and human.
36
4. The Beast
4. The Beast
“And when they shall have finished their testimony the Beast that ascendeth out of the
bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them” (Rev.
11:7). This is another name which reveals the terrible nature and character of the Antichrist
and which places him in sharp antithesis from the true Christ. “The Beast” is the title by
which he is most frequently designated in the Revelation: there are at least thirty references
to him under this name in the last book of the Bible. The Greek word signifies a wild beast.
This name “the Beast” contrasts the Antichrist from the true Christ as “the Lamb;” and it
is a significant fact that by far the great majority of passages where the Lord Jesus is so designated

are also found here in the Apocalypse. The “Lamb” is the Saviour of sinners; the
“Beast” is the persecutor and slayer of the saints. The “Lamb” calls attention to the gentleness
of Christ; the “Beast” tells of the ferocity of the Antichrist. The “Lamb” reveals Christ as the
“harmless” One (Heb. 7:26); the “Beast” manifests the Antichrist as the cruel and heartless
one. Under the Law lambs were ceremonially clean and used in sacrifice, but beasts were
unclean and unfit for sacrifices.
It is a point of interest to note that there is one other very striking contrast between the
persons in the Holy Trinity, and the persons in the trinity of evil. At our Lord’s baptism the
Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove, and the first mention of the Holy
Spirit in Scripture represents Him as “brooding” like a dove over the waters which covered
the pre-Adamic earth (Gen. 1:2). How remarkable are those symbols — a “Lamb” and a
“Dove!” A Dove, not a hawk or an eagle. The gentle, harmless, cooing “dove.” Over against
this the Devil is termed “the Dragon.” What a contrast — the Dove and the Lamb, the Dragon
and the Beast!
4. The Beast
37
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
“Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful
Man” (Psa. 5:6). The Psalm from which this verse is quoted contains a prayer of the godly
Jewish remnant, offered during the Tribulation period. In proof of this assertion observe
that in v. 2 God is owned and addressed as “King.” In v. 7 intimation is given that the Temple
has been rebuilt in Jerusalem, for turning away from it when it has been defiled by “the
Abomination of Desolation,” the remnant say, “But as for me I will come into Thy house
in the multitude of Thy mercy: and in Thy fear will I worship toward Thy Holy Temple.”
While in v. 10 we find them praying for the destruction of their enemies, which is parallel
with Rev. 6:10. It is during that time the faithful remnant will exclaim, “Thou shalt destroy
them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful Man.”
The Bloody and Deceitful Man views the Antichrist in relation to the Jews. In the
earlier stages of his public career he poses as their friend and benefactor. He recognizes their
rights as a separate State and appears anxious to protect their autonomy. He makes a
formal covenant with them (Dan. 9:27) and their peace and security seem assured. But a
few years later he comes out in his true character. His fair speeches and professions of
friendship are seen to be false. He breaks his covenant (Psa. 55:20) and turns upon the Jews
in fury. Their benefactor is now their worst enemy. The protector of their interests now
aims to cut them off from being a nation in the earth (Psa. 83:4). Thus is he rightfully denominated
by
them
“the
Bloody
and
Deceitful
Man.”
38
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
“The Wicked (One) in his pride doth persecute the poor: the Wicked (One), through
the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God” (Psa. 10:2, 4). This entire Psalm is
about the Wicked One. The opening verse gives the key to its dispensational scope. It contains
the cry of the Jewish remnant during the Tribulation period, here denominated “Times of
Trouble” (cf. Jer. 30:7). So desperate is the situation of the true Israel, it seems as though
Jehovah must have deserted them — “Why standeth Thou afar off, O Lord? Why hidest
Thou Thyself in times of trouble?” (v. 1). Then follows a remarkably full description of their
arch-enemy, the Wicked One. His pride (v. 2), his depravity: “He abhorreth the Lord” (v.
3 margin); his blasphemy: “All his thoughts are, There is no God” (v. 4 margin); his grievous
ways, (v. 5); his consuming egotism, (v. 6); his deceitfulness, (v. 7); his treachery, (v. 8); his
cruelty, (vv. 9, 10); his complacent pride, (v. 11), is each described. Then the Remnant cry,
“Arise, O Lord; O God, lift up Thine hand: forget not the humble. Break Thou the arm of
the Wicked and Evil One” (vv. 12 and 15). The whole Psalm should be carefully studied.
39
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
“To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the Man of the Earth may no more oppress”
(Psa.
10:18).
The
“Wicked
One”
describes
his
character;
the
“Man
of
the
Earth”
defines
his
position.
The
one
speaks
of
his
awful
depths
of
depravity;
the
other
of
his
vast
dominions.
The
sphere
of
his
operations
will
be
no
mere
local
one,
He
will
become
World-emperor.
He
will
be
a
king
of
kings
and
lord
of
lords,
(Rev.
13:7).
When
the
true
Christ
appeared
on
earth
Satan
offered
Him
“all
the
kingdoms
of
the
world
and
the
glory
of
them”
if

He would fall
down and worship him. When the false Christ appears, this offer will be repeated, the conditions
will
be
met,
and
the
tempting
gift
will
be
bestowed
(Rev.
13:2).

In consequence of
this he shall be “the Man of the Earth;” just as later, Christ shall be “King over all the earth”
(Zech. 14:7).
40
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
“Why boasteth thou thyself in mischief, O Mighty Man” (Psa. 52:1). This is another
Psalm which is devoted to a description of this fearful character. Here again we have mention
of his boastfulness (v. 1), his deceitfulness (v. 2), his depravity (v. 3), his egotism (v. 4), his
riches (v. 7). His doom is also announced (v. 5). This title, the Mighty Man, refers to his
immense wealth and possessions, and the power which they confer upon their possessor.
It also points a striking contrast: Christ was the Lowly Man, not having where to lay His
head; the Antichrist will be the Mighty Man, of whom it is said, “Lo, this is the man that
made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened
himself in his substance” (Psa. 52:7).
41
9. The Enemy
9. The Enemy
“Because of the voice of the Enemy, because of the oppression of the Wicked: for they
cast iniquity upon me, and in wrath they hate me” (Psa. 55:3). This is another title used of
the Antichrist in connection with Israel, a title which recurs several times both in the Psalms
and the Prophets. It points a designed contrast from that Friend that “sticketh closer than
a brother.” This Enemy of Israel oppresses them sorely. His duplicity and treachery are here
referred to. Concerning him Israel shall exclaim, “The words of his mouth were smoother
than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn
swords” (Psa. 55:21). Let the student be on the lookout for passages in the Old Testament
which make mention of the Enemy.
9. The Enemy
42
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
“They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned up all the
synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit: neither is
there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary reproach?
Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (Psa. 74:8-10). This title occurs in several
important passages. In Isa. 59:19 we read, “So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the
west, and His glory from the rising of the sun. When the Adversary shall come in like a
flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him.” Lam. 4:11, 12 is another
scripture which obviously speaks of the End-time. “The Lord hath accomplished His fury;
He hath poured out His fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured
the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would
not have believed that the Adversary and the Enemy should have entered into the gates of
Jerusalem.” In Amos 3:11 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God; an Adversary there
shall be even round about the land; and he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy
palaces shall be spoiled.” This is a title which intimates his satanic origin, for the Greek word
for Devil means adversary.
43
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
“He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall
wound the Head over many countries” (Psa. 110:6). The context here shows that it must be
the Antichrist which is in view. The Psalm opens by the Father inviting the Son to sit at His
right hand until His enemies shall be made His footstool. Then follows the affirmation that
Jehovah will display His strength out of Jerusalem, and make His people Israel willing in
the day of His power. Then, following Jehovah’s oath that Christ is a Priest forever after the
order of Melchizedek (which contemplates the exercise of His millennial and royal priesthood),

we read, “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of His
wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill the places with the dead bodies; He
shall wound the Head over many countries.” The “Day of His wrath” is the closing portion
of the Tribulation period, and in the Day of His wrath. He wounds this Head over many
countries. The Head over many countries refers to the Man of Sin as the Caesar of the last
world-empire, prior to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom.
44
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
“Deliver me, O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man” (Ps. 140:1).
This is another Psalm which expresses the plaintive supplications of the godly remnant in
the “time of Jacob’s trouble.” Three times over the Antichrist is denominated the Violent
Man. In v. 1 the remnant pray to be delivered from him. In v. 4 the petition is repeated. In
v. 11 his doom is foretold. Cry is made for God to take vengeance upon this bloody persecutor:
“Let
the
burning
coals
fall

upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits,
that they rise not up again. Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt
the Violent Man to overthrow him” (Psa. 140:10, 11). The Violent Man is a name which
fully accords with his Beast-like character. It tells of his ferocity and rapacity.
45
13. The Assyrian
13. The Assyrian
“O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand in Mine indignation[hellip]Wherefore
it
shall
come
to
pass,
that
when
the
Lord
hath
performed
His
whole
work
upon
mount
Zion
and
on
Jerusalem,
I

will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the
King of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks” (Isa. 10:5, 12). We cannot here attempt an
exposition of the important passage in which these verses occur — that, in subsequent
chapters, we shall treat in detail of the Antichrist in the Psalms, and the Antichrist in the
Prophets — suffice it now to point out that it treats of the End-time (see vv. 12, 20), and
that the leading characteristics of the Man of Sin can be clearly discerned in what is here
said of the Assyrian. Almost all pre-millennial students of prophecy are agreed that the
“King” of Isa. 30:33 is the Antichrist, and yet in the two verses which precede, this “King”
is identified with “the Assyrian.”
13. The Assyrian
46
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
“Thou shalt take up this proverb against the King of Babylon, and say, How hath the
oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” (Isa. 14:4). We do not wish to anticipate what we
shall discuss at length in our future studies, enough now to state it is our firm conviction
that Scripture plainly teaches that there will be another Babylon which will eclipse the importance
and
glories
of
the
one
of
the
past,
and
that
Babylon
will
be
one
of
the
headquarters
of
the
Antichrist.
He
will
have
three:
Jerusalem
will
be
his
religious
headquarters, Rome his
political, and Babylon his commercial. For those who desire to anticipate our future expositions,
we
recommend
them
to
make
a
minute
study
of
Isa.
10,
11,
13,
14;
Jer.
49:51;
Zech.
5,
and
Rev.
18.
47
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
“How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, son of the Morning! How art thou cut down
to the ground, which didst weaken the nations” (Isa. 14:12). “Lucifer” is a Latin word which
signifies the “morning star.” “All the ancient versions and all the Rabbins make the word a
noun denoting the bright one, or, more specifically, bright star, or according to the ancients
more specifically still, the Morning Star or harbinger of daylight” (Dr. J. A. Alexander). This
term “Lucifer” has been commonly regarded as one of the names of Satan, and what is here
said of the Morning Star is viewed as describing his apostasy. Against this interpretation we
have nothing to say, except to remark that we are satisfied it does not exhaust this remarkable
scripture. A detailed exposition must be reserved for a later chapter. Sufficient now to point
out that however Isa. 14 may look back to the distant past when, through pride, Satan fell
from his original estate, it most evidently looks forward to a coming day and gives another
picture of the Antichrist. In this same passage “Lucifer” is termed “the Man that did make
the earth to tremble” (v. 16), and in his blasphemous boast “I will be like the Most High”
(v. 14), we have no difficulty in identifying him with the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4. The
force of this particular title “Morning Star” is seen by comparing it with Rev. 22:16, where
we learn that this is one of the titles of the God-man. The “Morning Star” speaks of Christ
coming to usher in the great Day of rest for the earth. In blasphemous travesty of this Satan
will send forth the mock messiah to usher in a false millennium.
48
16. The Spoiler
16. The Spoiler
“Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them from the face of the
Spoiler: for the Extortioner is at an end, the Spoiler ceaseth, the oppressors are consumed
out of the land. And in mercy shall the throne be established: and He shall sit upon it in
truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness”
(Isa. 16:4, 5). It will be observed that the verse in which the Antichrist is spoken of as the
Spoiler comes immediately before the one where we read of the throne being established, a
reference, of course, to the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom. These two things synchronize:
the
destruction
of
Antichrist,
and
the
beginning
of
the
real
Messiah’s
reign;
hence
we
read
here
“the
Spoiler
ceaseth.”
A
further
reference
to
the
Man
of
Sin
under
this
title
of
the
Spoiler
is
found
in
Jer.
6:26:
“O
daughter
of
My
people,
gird
thee
with
sackcloth,
and
wallow
thyself
in
ashes:
make
thee
mournings,
as
for
an
only
son,
most
bitter
lamentation:
for
the
Spoiler
shall suddenly come upon thee.” This is another title which views the Antichrist in
connection with Israel. After the return of many of the Jews to Palestine, and after their
rights have been owned by the Powers, and their security and success seem assured; their
enemy, filled with satanic malice, will seek their extermination. “The Spoiler” contrasts him
with the Lord Jesus who is the great Restorer (see Psa. 69:4).
16. The Spoiler
49
17. The Nail
17. The Nail
“In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall the Nail that is fastened in the sure place be
removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the
Lord hath spoken it” (Isa. 22:25). The last ten verses of this chapter should be read carefully.
They furnish a striking foreshadowment of the End-time. Shebna was holding some office
over (note “government” in v. 21) Israel. Apparently he was a usurper. God announced that
he should be set aside in shame, and the man of His choice — Eliakim — should take his
place. These historical figures merge into prophetic characters. In v. 22 we read that God
says, “And the key of the house of David will lay upon His shoulder, so He shall open, and
none shall shut; and He shall shut, and none shall open.” As we know from Rev. 3:7 this
refers to none other than the Lord Jesus, and of Him it is here said, “And I will fasten Him
as a Nail in a sure place; and He shall be for a glorious throne to His father’s house” (v. 23).
Then, in the closing verse of the chapter we read, “In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall
the Nail that is fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall.” Just as
Eliakim foreshadowed Christ, so Shebna pointed forward to the Antichrist; and just as in
v.23 we have a prophecy announcing the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom, so in v. 25
we have foretold the overthrow of the false messiah’s kingdom.
17. The Nail
50
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
“Thou shalt bring down the noise of strangers, as the heat in a dry place; even the heat
with the shadow of a cloud; the Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low” (Isa. 25:5).
The first five verses of this chapter contemplate the Enemy’s stronghold — Babylon — and
the remainder of the chapter pictures the blessedness of the millennial era. In the fifth verse
the Antichrist’s overthrow is announced: “The Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought
low.” With this should be compared Isa. 14:19, where of Lucifer it is said, “Thou art cast out
of thy grave like an abominable Branch.” This points another contrast. The “Branch” is one
of the Messianic names: “Behold, I will bring forth My Servant, the Branch” (Zech. 3:8);
“Behold the man whose name is the Branch” (Zech. 6:12). By placing together Isa. 4:2 and
Isa. 14:19 the antithesis will be more evident. Of Christ it is said, “The Branch of the Lord
shall be beautiful and glorious.” Antichrist is called “an abominable Branch”: Christ is “the
Branch of the Lord;” Antichrist is “the Branch ofthe terrible ones.”
51
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
“And thou, profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have
an end, thus saith the Lord God; remove the diadem, and take off the crown; this shall not
be the same; exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn,
overturn it: and it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him”
(Ezek. 21:25-27). The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel here can be none other than the
Antichrist, for we are expressly told that “his day shall be when iniquity shall have an end.”
The reference is, of course, to Israel’s “iniquity,” and their iniquity shall end at the appearing
of the Messiah (see Dan. 9:24) when “He shall be a priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13).
Here in Ezekiel we see how the Son of Perdition shall ape the Christ of God, for he, too, will
be a priest-king: “Remove the diadem” refers to the insignia of his priesthood (in every
other place in the O. T. where this occurs the Hebrew word here translated “diadem” it is
rendered “mitre” — worn only by the high priest of Israel); “take off the crown” is the
symbol of his kingship.
52
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
“I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another Little Horn,
before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in
this Horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things” (Dan. 7:8).
For a full description of the Antichrist under this title see Dan. 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25.
We must reserve our comments on these verses till a later chapter. “Little Horn” refers to
the lowly political origin of the Antichrist, and describes him as he is before he attains governmental
supremacy.
53
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
“And after three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself: and
the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary” (Dan. 9:26).
This title connects the Antichrist with the Roman Empire in its final form, and presents
him as the last of the Ceasars.
54
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
“And in his estate shall stand up a Vile Person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries” (Dan.
11:21). This contrasts the Antichrist from “the Holy One of Israel.” His identity is established
by noting what is predicted of him.
55
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
“And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(Dan. 11:36). The Antichrist will not only be the High Priest of the world’s religion, but he
will be King supreme at the head of its government.
56
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
“For, lo, I will raise up a Shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off,
neither shall seek the young ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth
still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd
that leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall
be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened” (Zech. 11:16, 17). This is in
evident contrast from the Good Shepherd who gave His life for His sheep. The Idol Shepherd
of deluded Israel will prove himself the monster Desolator, who shall bring upon that people
the severest tribulations ever experiences by that race.
57
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
“And they had a king over them, which is the Angel of the bottomless pit, whose name
in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon” (Rev.
9:11). “Abaddon” and “Apollyon” mean Destroyer. It is the “Spoiler” of Isa. 16:4 rendered
“Destroyer” in Jer. 4:7. That his name is here given in the Hebrew and the Greek shows that
he will be connected with both the Jews and the Gentiles.
Other names of the Antichrist which the student may look up are, “The Rod of God’s
anger” (Isa. 10:12); “The Unclean Spirit” (Matt. 12:43); “The Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11); “A Star”
(Rev. 8:10 and 9:1); and “The Vine of the Earth” (Rev. 14:18).
In our next chapter we shall deal with the genius of the Antichrist, and point out the
many striking comparisons and contrasts between him and the Christ of God. Let the student
see how many points of resemblance and opposition he can find.
58
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
For six thousand years Satan has had full opportunity afforded him to study fallen human
nature to discover its weakest points and to learn how best to make men do his bidding.
The Devil knows full well how to dazzle men by the attraction of power, and how to make
them quail before its terrors. He knows how to gratify the craving for knowledge and how
to satisfy the taste for refinement and culture, he can delight the ear with melodious music
and the eye with entrancing beauty. If he could transport the Saviour from the wilderness
to a mountain, in a moment of time, and show Him all the kingdoms of the world and their
glory, he is no novice in the art of presenting alluring objects before his victims today. He
knows how to stimulate energy and direct inquiry, and how to appease the craving for the
occult. He knows how to exalt men to dizzy heights of worldly greatness and fame, and how
to control that greatness when attained, so that it may be employed against God and his
people.
It is true that up to now Satan’s power has been restrained, and his activities have been
checked and often counteracted by the Spirit of God. The brightest fires of the Devil’s
kindling can burn but dimly whilever God sheds around them the power of heavenly light.
They require the full darkness of night in order to shine in the full strength of their deceiving
brightness; and that time is coming. The Word of God reveals the fact that a day is not far
distant when Divine restraint will be removed; the light of God will be withdrawn; and then
shall “darkness cover the earth and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). Not only will that
which has hindered the full development of the Mystery of Iniquity be removed, but God
will “send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:13), and Satan
will take advantage of this; he will then make full use of all the knowledge which he has acquired
during
the
last
six
thousand
years.
Satan will become incarnate and appear on earth in human form. As we have shown in
previous chapters, the Antichrist will not only be the Man of Sin, but also “the Son of Perdition,”
the
Seed
of
the
Serpent.
The
Antichrist
will
be
the
Devil’s
masterpiece.
In
him
shall
dwell
all
the
fulness
of
the
Devil
bodily.
He
will
be
the
culmination
and
consummation
of
Satan’s
workings.
The
world
is
now
talking
of
and
looking
for
the
Superman;
and
the
Devil
is
soon
to
supply
him.
The
Antichrist
will
be
no
ordinary
person,
but
one
possessed
of
extraordinary
talents.
He
will
be
endowed
with
superhuman
powers.
With
the
one
exception
of
the
God-man
he
will
be
the
most
remarkable
personage
who
has
ever
appeared
upon
the
stage
of
human
history.
But
to
particularize:
59
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
He will be possessed of extraordinary intelligence. He will be the Devil’s imitation of
that blessed One “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Col. 2:3).
This Son of Perdition will surpass Solomon in wisdom. In Dan. 7:20 he is represented as “A
horn that had eyes.” It is a double symbol. The “horn” prefigures strength; “eyes” speak of
intelligence. Again, in Dan. 8:23 he is referred to as “A King of fierce countenance.” who
shall “understand dark sentences.” That which baffles others shall be simple to him. The
Hebrew word here translated “dark sentences” is the same as the one rendered “hard questions”
in
1
Kings
10:1,
where
we
read
of
the
Queen
of
Sheba
coming
to
Solomon
with
her
“hard

questions” in order to test his wisdom. It is also the word that is used in Samson’s
riddle in Judges 14. It indicates that the Antichrist will be master of all the secrets of occult
science. Ezek. 28:3 declares of him “Beholding, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret
that they can hide from thee.” This will be one of his most alluring attractions. His master
mind will captivate the educated world. His marvelous store of knowledge, his acquaintance
with the secrets of nature, his superhuman powers of perception, will stamp him as an intellectual
genius
of
the
first
magnitude.
60
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
In Dan. 7:20 we are told that he has “a mouth that spake very great things.” As a wizard
of words he will surpass Demosthenes. Here also will the Devil imitate that One “who spake
as never man spake.” The people were “astonished” at Christ’s doctrine (Matt. 7:28), and
said “Whence hath this man this wisdom?” (Matt. 13:54). So will it be with this daring
counterfeiter: he will have a mouth speaking very great things. He will have a perfect command
and
flow
of
language.
His
oratory
will
not
only
gain
attention
but
command
respect.
Rev.
13:2
declares that his mouth is “as the mouth of a lion” which is a symbolic expression
telling of the majesty and awe producing effects of his voice. The voice of the lion excels
that of any other beast. So the Antichrist will out rival orators ancient and modern.
61
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
He will emerge from obscurity, but by dint of his diplomatic skill he will win the admiration
and
compel
the
cooperation
of
the
political
world.
In
the
early
stages
of
his
career
he
appears
as
“a
little
horn”
(or
power),
but
it
is
not
long
before
he
climbs
the
ladder
of
fame,
and

by means of brilliant statesmanship, ascends its topmost rung. Like the majority of
politicians, he will not scruple to employ questionable methods; in fact it will be by diplomatic
chicanery
and
intrigue
that
he
will
win
his
early
successes.
Dan.
11:21
tells us that at
first they will not give to him the honor of the kingdom, but “he shall come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” Once he gains the ascendancy none will dare to
challenge his authority. Kings will be his pawns and princes his playthings.
62
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (Dan. 8:25).
Under his regime everything will be nationalized, and none will be able to buy or sell without
his permission (Rev. 13:17). All commerce will be under his personal control, and this will
be used for his own aggrandizement. The wealth of the world will be at his disposal. There
are several scriptures which call attention to this. For example in Psa. 52:7 we read, “Lo, this
is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches; and
strengthened himself in his substance.” Again, in Dan. 11:38 we are told, “But in his estate
shall he honor the god of forces (Satan): and a god whom his fathers knew not shall be
honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” Even plainer is
Dan. 11:43, “But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt.” In the last verse of Dan. 11 mention is made of his “palace.” He
will be wealthier than Croesus. Ezak. 28:4, 5 speaks of him thus, “With thy wisdom and with
thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy
treasures: By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thine
heart is lifted up because of thy riches.” Thus will he be able to wield the sceptre of financial
power and outdo Solomon in all his glory.
63
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
He will be endowed with the most extraordinary powers, so that “he shall destroy
wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy
people” (Dan. 8:24). Before his exploits the fame of Alexander and Napoleon will be forgotten.
None will be able to stand before him. He will go “forth conquering and to conquer” (Rev.
6:2). He will sweep everything before him so that the world will exclaim, “Who is like unto
the Beast? who is able to make war with him?” (Rev. 13:4). His military exploits will not be
confined to a corner, but carried out on a vast scale. He is spoken of as the man who will
“shake kingdoms” and “make the earth to tremble” (Isa. 14:16).
64
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
He will weld together opposing forces. He will unify conflicting agencies. Under the
compelling power of his skill the world Powers will be united. The dream of a League of
Nations will then be realized. The Orient and the Occident shall no longer be divided. A
marvelous symbolic picture of this is given us in Rev. 13:1, 2: “And I stood upon the sand
of the sea, and saw a Beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and
upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the Beast which
I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the
mouth of a lion: and the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
Here we find the forces of the Roman, the Grecian, the Medo-Persian, and the Babylonian
empires coalesced. He will be the personal embodiment of the world’s political authority in
its final form. So completely will the world be swayed by the hypnotic spell cast over it by
the Beast that the ten kings of the Roman empire in its ultimate form shall “give their kingdoms
unto
him”
(Rev.
17:17).
He
will
be
the
last
great
Caesar.
65
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
He will proclaim himself God, demanding that Divine honors should be rendered to
him and sitting in the Temple shall show himself forth that he is God (2 Thess. 2:4). Such
wonders will he perform, such prodigious marvels will he work, the very elect would be
deceived by him did not God directly protect them. The Man of Sin will combine in himself
all the varied genius of the human race, and what is more, he will be invested with all the
wisdom and power of Satan. He will be a master of science, acquainted with all of nature’s
forces, compelling her to give up for him her long held secrets. “In this master-piece of
Satan,” says one, “will be concentrated intellectual greatness, sovereign power and human
glory, combined with every species of iniquity, pride, tyranny, wilfulness, deceit, and blasphemy,
such
as

Antiochus Epiphanes, Mohammed, the whole line of popes, atheists, and
deists of every age of the world have failed to unite in any individual person.”
“All the world wondered after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). His final triumph shall be that,
wounded by a sword, he shall live again (Rev. 13:3). He shall raise himself from the dead,
and so wonder-struck will men be at this stupendous marvel they will readily pay him Divine
homage, yea, so great will be his dazzling power over men, they will worship his very image
(Rev. 13:14, 15).
Having contemplated something of the genius of Satan’s prodigy, let us now consider
his character. In doing so we shall view him in the light of the Character of the Lord Jesus.
Christ is the Divine plumb-line and standard of measurement by which all character must
be tested.
In our last chapter we pointed out how that the distinguishing title of the coming Superman

the
Antichrist
— has a double significance, inasmuch as it points to him as the imitator
of
Christ
and
the
opponent
of
Christ.
Hence,
in
studying
his
character,
we
find
a
series
of
comparisons
and
a
series
of
contrasts
drawn
between
the
false
christ
and
the
true
Christ;
and
these
we
now
propose
to
set
before
the
reader.
66
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Satan is the master-counterfeiter, and in nothing will this appear more conspicuously
than in his next great move. He is now preparing the stage for his climactic production,
which will issue in a blasphemous imitation of the Divine incarnation. When the Son of
Perdition appears he will pose as the Christ of God, and so perfect will be his disguise, the
very elect would be deceived, were it not that God will grant them special illumination. It
is this disguise, this simulation of the true Christ which we shall now examine, pointing out
the various parallelisms which Scripture furnishes:
1 Christ was the subject of Old Testament prophecy: so also is the Antichrist; many are
the predictions which describe this coming one, see especially Dan. 11:21-45.
2 The Lord Jesus was typified by many Old Testament characters such as Abel, Joseph,
Moses, David, etc. So also will the Antichrist be: such characters as Cain, Pharaoh,
Absolom, Saul, etc., foreshadow the Man of Sin. We shall devote a separate chapter to
this most fascinating and totally neglected branch of our subject.
3 Christ was revealed only at God’s appointed time: such will also be the case with the
Antichrist. Of the one we read, “But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth
His Son” (Gal. 4:4); of the other it is said, “And now we know what withholdeth that
he might be revealed in his time” (2 Thess. 2:6).
4 Christ was a Man, a real Man, “the Man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5); so also will the
Antichrist be — “that Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
5 But Christ was more than a man; He was the God-Man; so also will the Antichrist be
more than a man: the Super-man.
6 Christ was, according to the flesh, a Jew (Rom. 1:3); so also will the Antichrist be —
for proofs see chapter three, section one.
7 Christ will make a covenant with Israel (Heb. 8:8); so also will the Antichrist (Dan.
9:27).
8 Christ is our “Great High Priest;” so Antichrist will yet be Israel’s great high priest
(Ezek. 21:26).
9 Christ was and will be the King of the Jews (Matt. 2:1); so also will the Antichrist be
(Dan. 11:36).
10 Christ will be the King of kings (Rev. 17:14); so also will the Antichrist be (Rev. 17:12,
13).
67
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
11 Christ wrought miracles: of Him it is said “approved of God among you by miracles
and wonders and signs” (Acts 2:22); so also will the Antichrist, concerning whom it is
written, “whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9).
12 Christ’s public ministry was limited to three years and a half; so also will the Antichrist’s
final ministry be (Rev. 13:5).
13 Christ is shown to us riding a “white horse” (Rev. 19:11); so also is the Antichrist (Rev.
6:2).
14 Christ will return to the earth as Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6, 7); so also will the Antichrist
introduce an era of peace (Dan. 11:21); it is to this that 1 Thess. 5:3 directly refers.
15 Christ is entitled “the Morning Star” (Rev. 22:16); so also is the Antichrist (Isa. 14:12).
16 Christ is referred to as Him “which was, and is, and is to come” (Rev. 4:8); the Antichrist
is referred to as him that “was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit”
(Rev. 17:8).
17 Christ died and rose again; so also will the Antichrist (Rev. 13:3).
18 Christ will be the object of universal worship (Phil. 2:10); so also will the Antichrist
(Rev. 13:4).
19 The followers of the Lamb will be sealed in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3; 14:1); so also will
the followers of the Beast (Rev. 13:16, 17).
20 Christ has been followed by the Holy Spirit who causes men to worship Him; so the
Antichrist will be followed by the Anti-spirit — the False Prophet — who will cause
men to worship the Beast (Rev. 13:12).
There is no need for us to make any comments on these striking correspondences: they
speak for themselves. They show the incredible lengths to which God will permit Satan to
go in mimicking the Lord Jesus. We turn now to consider:
68
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
1 In their respective Designations
1 One is called the Christ (Matt. 16:16); the other the Antichrist (1 John 4:3).
2 One is called the Man of Sorrows (Isa. 53:3); the other the Man of Sin (2 Thess.
2:3).
3 One is called the Son of God (John 1:34); the other the Son of Perdition (2 Thess.
2:3).
4 One is called the Seed of woman (Gen. 3:15); the other the seed of the Serpent (Gen.
3:15).
5 One is called the Lamb (Isa. 53:7); the other the Beast (Rev. 11:7).
6 One is called the Holy One (Mark 1:24); the other the Wicked One (2 Thess. 2:8).
7 One is called the Truth (John 14:6); the other the Lie (John 8:44).
8 One is called the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6); the other the wicked, profane Prince
(Ezek. 21:25).
9 One is called the glorious Branch (Isa. 4:2); the other the abominable Branch (Isa.
14:19).
10 One is called the Mighty Angel (Rev. 10:1); the other is called the Angel of the
Bottomless Pit (Rev. 9:11).
11 One is called the Good Shepherd (John 10:11); the other is called the Idol Shepherd
(Zech. 11:17).
12 One has for the number of His name (the gematria of “Jesus”) 888; the other has
for the number of his name 666 (Rev. 13:18).
2 In their respective Careers
1 Christ came down from heaven (John 3:13); Antichrist comes up out of the bottom-
less pit (Rev. 11:7).
2 Christ came in Another’s Name (John 5:43); Antichrist will come in his own name
(John 5:43).
3 Christ came to do the Father’s will (John 6:38); Antichrist will do his own will (Dan.
11:36).
4 Christ was energized by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:14); Antichrist will be energized
by Satan (Rev. 13:4).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
69
5 Christ submitted Himself to God (John 5:30); Antichrist defies God (2 Thess. 2:4).
6 Christ humbled Himself (Phil. 2:8); Antichrist exalts himself (Dan. 11:37).
7 Christ honored the God of His fathers (Luke 4:16); Antichrist refuses to (Dan
11:37).
8 Christ cleansed the temple (John 2:14, 16); the Antichrist defiles the temple (Matt.
24:15).
9 Christ ministered to the needy (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist robs the poor (Psa. 10:8, 9).
10 Christ was rejected of men (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist will be accepted by men (Rev.
13:4).
11 Christ leadeth the flock (John 10:3); Antichrist leaveth the flock (Zech. 11:17).
12 Christ was slain for the people (John 11:51); Antichrist slays the people (Isa. 14:20).
13 Christ glorified God on earth (John 17:4), Antichrist blasphemes the name of God
in heaven (Rev. 13:6).
14 Christ was received up into heaven (Luke 24:51); Antichrist goes down into the
Lake of Fire (Rev. 19:20).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
70
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
We now come to the most interesting and yet the most difficult part of our subject.
When will the Antichrist be manifested? where will he appear? what will he do? are questions
which readily occur to all who have given any thought to the matter. It is not our purpose
to seek to satisfy the idly curious, still less is it to gratify those who love the sensational. We
are well aware that our present theme is one that appeals strongly to the curiously inclined,
and were it not for the importance of our inquiry we would leave it alone. But without due
regard to the person and place of the coming Superman, it is impossible to understand the
eschatology of either the Old or New Testaments.
The chief difficulty is to arrange in chronological sequence the many passages which
treat of the Antichrist. It is by no means easy to discover the precise order in which the
prophecies which deal with the Man of Sin will receive their fulfillment. There is great need
for much prayerful study along this line. We can only write according to the light we now
have, and our readers must examine for themselves what we say in the light of the Scriptures.
It ill becomes any one to be dogmatic where the Word itself does not plainly state the exact
time when certain prophecies are to be fulfilled.
In this chapter we are placed somewhat at a disadvantage, because we shall be obliged
to give brief expositions of many scriptures where it will be impossible for us to pause and
furnish proofs or reasons for each interpretation. For example, it is our firm conviction that
the Assyrian of Isa. 10, the king of Babylon of Isa. 14, the Little Horn of Dan. 7, the Little
Horn of Dan. 8, and the first Beast of Rev. 13, each and all view the Antichrist himself in
different relationships. There are some Bible students who may take issue with us on these
points, and complain because that in this chapter we make assertions without endeavoring
to prove them. We regret this, but would ask all to bear with us patiently. In the later chapters
of this book we shall devote separate studies to the Antichrist in the Psalms, in the Prophets,
in the Gospels and Epistles, and in the Apocalypse; when we shall endeavor to examine each
passage separately and attempt to give scriptural proofs for every interpretation adopted.
While it is admittedly difficult, and perhaps impossible, to fit each prophecy concerning
the Antichrist into its proper chronological place, we are able to determine the relative position

of most of them. The career of the Antichrist is divided into two distinct parts, and
there is a clearly defined dividing line between them. In previous chapters we have pointed
out how that the name “Antichrist;” has a double meaning, signifying one who imitates
Christ, and one who is opposed to Christ. This double meaning to his name corresponds
exactly with the two chief parts in his career. In the first, he poses as the true Christ, claiming
to be indeed the Messiah of Israel. This claim will be backed up with the most imposing
credentials, and all excepting God’s elect will be deceived. He will sit in the Temple (a rebuilt
temple in Jerusalem) showing himself forth to be God, and Divine honors will be paid him.
71
The Career of the Antichrist
But at a later stage he will throw off his mask, and appear in his true character as the opponent
of Christ and the defier of God. Then, instead of befriending the Jews, he will turn against
them and seek to exterminate them from the earth. Thus, with many of the scriptures which
describe the person and career of the Antichrist it is a comparatively easy matter to decide
whether they belong to the first or to the second stage of his history. But beyond this it is
difficult, with some scriptures at least to go.
We shall now consider, first the time of Antichrist’s appearing. It is hardly necessary
for us to enter into a lengthy argument to show that the Antichrist (as such) has not already
appeared. Many antichrists have already come and gone, and some are in the world even
now; the same is equally true of the many false prophets foretold in Scripture; but all of
these are but the forecasts and foreshadowings of the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who
are yet to be revealed, and who will receive their final overthrow by the Lord Jesus at His
return to the earth. Before the Antichrist can appear the Holy Spirit must be “taken out of
the way;” (2 Thess. 2:7); the old Roman Empire must be revived and assume its final form
— “divided under ten kings;” — before the “Little Horn;” comes into prominence (Dan.
7:24 — he rises “after them”): Israel must be restored to their land and the Temple be rebuilt,
etc., etc.
At the present time the ultimate development of “the Mystery of Iniquity” is being
hindered. God’s people are the salt of the earth, and their presence here stays the corruption
of the “carcass” (Matt. 24:28 — The “Carcass” is the antithesis of the “Body” of Christ). The
saints are the light of the world, and while they remain in it is impossible for darkness to
cover the earth and gross darkness the people (Isa. 60:2). The Spirit of God is here, indwelling
believers, and His holy presence checks the final outworking of Satan’s plans. But when all
believers of this dispensation have been “caught up to meet the Lord in the air” (1 Thess.
4:16), and the Holy Spirit has departed from the earth, all restraint will be removed, and
Satan will be allowed to bring forth his false christ, who will be “revealed in his time” (2
Thess. 2:6), and it would seem that even now signs are not wanting to show that God has
already given permission to Satan to prepare the stage of action for the ghastly consummation
of his evil efforts. There can be no doubt but that the Devil has desired to reveal the Son of
Perdition long before this, so that by means of him he may reduce the whole world to submission.
But
the
restraining
hand
of
God,
now
so
soon
to
be
removed,
has
held
him
back.
The time, then, when the Antichrist will be revealed is after this present Dispensation
of Grace has run its course; after the Mystical Body of Christ has been completed; after the
whole company of God’s people have been caught up to meet the Lord in the air; after the
Holy Spirit has departed from the world. How soon after we cannot say for certain. The
majority of prophetic students seems to think that the last great Caesar will come into
prominence almost immediately after the rapture of the saints. Personally, we believe there
will be an interval, long or short, between the two. As there was a period of thirty years after
72
The Career of the Antichrist
the birth of the Lord Jesus — a period of silence — before His public ministry commenced,
so there may be a similar interval between the Rapture and the Revelation of Antichrist.
The Antichrist will enter the arena of public affairs before the beginning of Daniel’s
seventieth week, for at the beginning of it he makes a seven-years covenant with the Jews,
then in their land. But at that point he will be the Dictator of the world’s policies, and as he
begins in comparative obscurity (at least from a governmental standpoint), some time —
probably years — must be allowed for his gradual rise to political supremacy. His meteoric
course will not be terminated until the Lord Himself descends to earth to usher in the Millennium.
Just
as
the
reign
of
Saul
preceded
that
of
David,
so
shall
that
of
Antichrist
antedate
that
of
the
true
Christ.
We turn now to consider the place of Antichrist’s appearing. So far as the writer is aware
there are only two scriptures which give direct information upon this point, and they are
each found in the prophecy of Daniel. We refer to the passages which speak of “the Little
Horn.” In Dan. 7:7, 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and, behold, a fourth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured
and break in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all
the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold,
there came up among them another little horn.” This fourth Beast is the last world-empire,
prior to the setting up of the Messianic kingdom. This empire will, at first, be ruled over by
ten kings — the “ten horns” of v.7 and defined as ten kings in v. 24. After them arises another,
the “Little Horn,” which signifies another “king,” see v. 24. He is termed “little” because at
that stage his kingdom is but small compared with that of the others, and the power he then
wields is insignificant when contrasted from the ten kings. But not for long will he remain
weak and insignificant. Soon the ten kings will themselves own allegiance to this eleventh
— see Rev. 17:12, 13. We reserve for a later chapter the proofs that this “Little Horn” is the
Antichrist, asking our readers to study carefully the description furnished of him in Dan.
7:8, 20-27; 8:9-12, 23-25.
Taking it for granted (at the moment) that the Little Horn of Dan. 7 is the Antichrist
let us see how what is there said of him helps us to determine the quarter from which he
will arise. In Dan. 7:7 the “fourth Beast” is described, and in 7:23 we are told, “the fourth
beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms,
and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” This
Kingdom will be divided into ten parts, over which will be the ten kings (7:24). This kingdom
will be, we believe, the old Roman Empire revived in its final form, and divided into two
great halves — the Eastern and the Western. This fourth kingdom will include within itself
all the territory and will perpetuate all the dominant characteristics of the other three which
have preceded it, i.e. the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Grecian. Turning now to Dan.
7:8 we are told, “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another
73
The Career of the Antichrist
little horn.” The Antichrist, then, will have his rise within the limits of the old Roman Empire.
This narrows considerably our circle of inquiry. The next question is, Can we determine
from which part of the empire he will arise — the Eastern or the Western? Dan. 8 furnishes
light upon this point.
In Dan. 8:8, 9 we read, “Therefore the he-goat waxed very great: and when he was strong,
the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of
heaven. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward
the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.” Now v. 21 of this same chapter
tells us, “The rough goat is the king (kingdom) of Grecia,” and v. 22 informs us “and the
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four
stood up for it, four kingdoms (or kings) shall stand up out of the nation.” This, of course,
refers to the act of Alexander the Great who divided his kingdom into four parts — Greece,
Egypt, Syria, and the rest of the domains of Turkey — under his four great generals: Ptolemy,
Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. This, again, very appreciably narrows our circle of
inquiry. Dan. 7 tells us the Little Horn is to arise in a part of the territory covered by the old
Roman Empire, which Empire gradually included within its domains that the the preceding
empires. Now here in Dan. 8 we learn that the Little Horn will spring from that part of the
revived Roman Empire which was included in the Grecian Empire. But this is not all that
Dan. 8 tells us. The Grecian Empire is here viewed as disintegrated into four parts or kingdoms,
from
which
of
these
parts,
then,
may
we
expect
him
to
issue

Macedonia,
Egypt,
Syria,
or
Thrace?
This
question,
we
believe,
receives
answer
in
Dan.
8:(
where
we
are
told,
that
the
Little
Horn
“waxed
exceeding
great
toward
the
south,
and
toward
the
east,
and
toward
the
pleasant
land.”
Practically
all
students
are
agreed
that
“the
south”
here
refers
to
Egypt,
the

“east” to Persia and Greece and “the pleasant land” to Palestine, hence it would seem
that the country from which Antichrist will first be manifested is Syria. It will be noted that
nothing is said in Dan. 8:9 about the Little Horn “waxing great” toward the north, and we
believe the reason for this is because that is the quarter from whence he shall arise. This is
confirmed by the fact that “the king of Assyria” in Isa. 10:12 is clearly none other than the
Antichrist. We may say this was the current view of Christian writers on prophecy through
the first ten centuries A.D. The late Mr. W. B. Newton in his splendid “Aids to the Study of
Prophetic Inquiry” has succinctly summarized the various arguments of the ancients in the
following language: —
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The Career of the Antichrist
“In the first place, as Nimrod — the founder of Babel, that is, the Tower
of Babylon — a savage tyrant and cruel oppressor of men, was the first person
who declared open war against God; so it is meet that there should arise from
the selfsame Babylon, the last and most atrocious persecutor of the saints —
the Antichrist. Moreover, seeing that Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus Epiphanes

— two monsters who bore down upon the people of God with an
overwhelming power of destruction, and who were the antichrists of the old
Testament and remarkable types of the Antichrist which is to come; seeing,
I say, that these monarchs reigned in Babylon, it is fitting that the true Antichrist
of
the
New
Testament
should
arise
from
the
same
Babylon.
Besides, no place can be pointed out more meet for the nativity of Antichrist

than Babylon, for it is the City of the Devil — always diametrically
opposed to Jerusalem, which is deemed the City of God; the former city, that
is, Babylon, being the mother and disseminator of every kind of confusion,
idolatry, impiety — a vast sink of every foul pollution, crime, and iniquity
— the first city in the world which cut itself off from the worship of the true
God — which reared the city of universal vice, — which perpetually (according
to
the
record
of
Holy
Writ)
carries
on
the
mystery
of
iniquity,
and
bears
imprinted

on her brow the inscription of blasphemy against the name of
God. The consummation, therefore, of impiety, which is to have its recapitulation
in

Antichrist, could not break forth from a more fitting place than
Babylon.”
Having dwelt at some length on the time and the place of the Antichrist’s appearing,
we shall attempt to give now a brief outline of the leading events in his career. We have seen
that the scriptures which help us to determine the direction from which he will arise, speak
of him under the title of the Little Horn. Now the first thing this title denotes is that he is a
king, king of Assyria. Some, no doubt, will wonder how a Jew will succeed in obtaining the
throne of Syria. Several answers might be suggested, such, for example, as heading a successful
rebellion — the spectacle of an obscure plebeian speedily rising to the rank of national
Dictator, has been forcibly exhibited before our own eyes in Russia. But on this point we
are not left to speculation. Dan. 11:21 tells us that the “Vile Person” will come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. With this agrees Rev. 6:2, where the Antichrist is seen
riding a white war-horse, and with bow in hand, but with no arrow fitted to it. The symbol
suggests bloodless victories.
As soon as this Jew acquires the crown of Syria he will speedily enlarge his dominions.
As Rev. 6:2 tells us, he will go forth “conquering and to conquer,” and as we are told further
in Hab. 2:5, “He is a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who enlarged his desire as hell,
and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations, and heapeth
75
The Career of the Antichrist
unto him all people.” The first thing which is predicted of him (as “the Little Horn”) is that
“he shall subdue three kings” (Dan. 7:24). As to what kings these may be, appears to be intimated

in Dan. 8:9 where we are told, “And out of one of them came forth a little horn,
which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant
land.” He waxes great first toward the south, that is, most probably, by a victorious expedition
into Egypt. Next, he is seen moving toward the east, reducing, to what extent we are not
told, the dominions of Persia and Greece; finally he turns his face toward the pleasant land,
which is Palestine. Without being dogmatic, we would suggest that the three kings he subdues
are those of Egypt, Persia, and Greece.
Having subdued the three kings by his military prowess a “league” is made with him
(see Dan. 11:23). Probably it is the remaining seven kings of the revived Roman Empire,
plus the three vassals of the Antichrist who take the place of the kings he had deposed, that
enter into this League with the Little horn, or king of Assyria; but he shall work deceitfully,
and shall become strong with a small people (Dan. 11:23). So strong does he become that
in a short time he rises to political supremacy, and the whole of the ten kings shall “give
their kingdom unto the Beast.” (Rev. 17:17), and he will then be recognized as the imperial
Emperor. Thus as King of kings he will dictate the policies of Europe and Asia.
“The Little Horn will revive in himself all the personified glory of Babylon, Medo-Persia,
Greece and Rome. And let not this be regarded as an event incredible. We are to remember
that Antichrist will be Satan’s masterpiece; furnished with every auxiliary of influence and
wealth, for wresting the sceptre from the hands of Him who won it by His humiliation of
the Cross. Thus it is said he will ‘resist the God of gods’. The accumulated and restored
honors of each royal successor are thus to crown the brow of this last and greatest of Gentile
monarchs. And so shall he stand in his unrivalled magnificence till the Stone shall smite
him and his power, and grind all to powder” (Mrs. G. Needham).
After the Antichrist has acquired the political sovereignty of the prophetic earth he will
then enter upon his religious role, claiming to be the Christ of God and demanding Divine
honors. At first sight it appears strange, if not incongruous, that a military despot should
be found filling the character of a religious impostor. But history shows that there is a point
at which one character readily merges into the other. Political ambition, intoxicated by
success, finds it an easy step from self-glorification to self-deification, and the popular infatuation
as
easily
passes
from
the
abject
adulation
of
the
tyrant
to
the
adoration
of
the
god.
Or

again; a religious impostor, encouraged by the ascendancy he has acquired over the
minds of men, grasps the sceptre of secular power and becomes the most arbitrary of despots.
Rev. 13:4 makes it plain that the military prowess of the Antichrist first induces men to
render him Divine homage: “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the
Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is able to
make war with him?” But no ordinary honors will suffice him. His religious ambitions are
76
The Career of the Antichrist
as insatiable as his political, for he will “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God,
or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that
he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This claim to be God Himself, incarnate, will be backed up by
imposing credentials, for his coming will be, “after the working of Satan, with all power and
signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). These miracles will be no mere pretenses, but
prodigies of power.
The Jews, previously returned to Palestine, and with temple in Jerusalem rebuilt, will
receive this Son of Perdition as their long-promised “Messiah” (John 5:43). In imitation of
the true Christ who will, at His return to the earth, “make a new covenant with the House
of Israel and with the House of Judah” (Heb. 8:8, compare Jer. 31 and Ezek. 36), the Antichrist
will make a covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27 and 11:22). Under a seven years’ treaty,
and in the guise of friendship, he will gain ascendancy in Jerusalem, only later to throw off
the mask and break the covenant.
About seven months after the Antichrist, the “Prince” (i.e. of the Roman Empire) of
Dan 9:27 has made the Covenant with the Jews he will begin to “practice” in Jerusalem (Dan.
8:24). This we believe is the explanation of the two thousand three hundred days of Dan.
8:14 which has puzzled so many of the commentators. This two thousand three hundred
days is the whole period during which the false messiah will practice in Jerusalem and have
power over the “sanctuary”: two thousand three hundred days is seven years less seven
months and ten days.
There, in Jerusalem, he will pose as the Christ of God, the Prince of Peace. The world
will suppose that the long looked- for Millennium has arrived. There will be every indication
that the eagerly desired Golden Age has, at last, dawned. The great Powers of Europe and
Asia will have been united under the ten-kingdomed Empire. It will be expected that the
League of Nations guarantees the peace of the earth. For a season quietness and amity will
prevail. None will dare to oppose the mighty Emperor. But not for long will the hideous
war-spectre hide himself. Soon will the “white horse” of Rev. 6 be found to change his hue.
A “red horse” will go forth, and then “peace shall be taken from the earth” (Rev. 6). At the
very time the world is congratulating itself that all is well, and the slogan of the hour is
“Peace and Safety,” then “sudden destruction cometh upon them” (1 Thess. 5:3).
In the midst of the seven years the Antichrist will throw off his mask, break his covenant
with Israel, and stand forth as the most daring idolater who has ever trodden this earth.
After he has “practiced” in Jerusalem for two years and five months, he will take away the
daily sacrifice (Dan. 8:11; 9:27) from the Temple, and in its place rear an image to himself
in the holy place, which is the “abomination of desolation” referred to by Christ (see Matt.
24:15).
This brings us to the great dividing line in his career, to which reference was made near
the beginning of this chapter. It is a point not only of interest but of considerable importance
77
The Career of the Antichrist
to ascertain what it is that causes this startling change of front, from posing as the true Christ
to that of the open defier of God. There are several scriptures which throw light on this
point. Satan will cause the Man of Sin to crown his daring imitation of the Christ of God
by being slain and rising again from the dead.
Both the Old and the New Testaments refer to the death of the Antichrist, and attribute
it to the sword. In Rev. 13:14 we read that the false Prophet shall say to them that dwell on
the earth that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by the sword
and did live. In harmony with this we read in Zech. 11:17, “Woe to the Idol Shepherd that
leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye.” It is to be noted
that before we read that “the sword shall be” upon him, we are told that he “leaveth the
flock,” and the previous verse tells us that he was raised up “in the land,” which can only
mean that he was ruling in Palestine. Hence it is clear that he leaves the Land before he receives
his
death
wound
by
the
sword.
In
perfect
accord
with
this
is
what
we
read
in
Isa.
37:6,
7
(in a later chapter we shall treat at length of the future Babylon, restored; the connection
of Antichrist with it, and the typical and prophetical significance of Isa. 37 and 38); “Behold,
I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land; and I
will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.”
Leaving Palestine, the Antichrist will “return to his own land,” that is, the land of his
nativity — Assyria — which confirms what we have said previously about Assyria being the
country where Antichrist will first be manifested. There, in his own land, he will fall by the
sword. Most probably he will be slain there by his political enemies, envious of his power
and chafing under his haughty autocracy. In death he will be hated and dishonored, and
burial will be refused him. It is to this that Isa. 14 (speaking of the King of Babylon, see v.4)
refers: “But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of
those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit. As
a carcass trodden under feed, thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou
hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people” (vv. 19, 20). But his enemies will suddenly be
filled with consternation and then admiration for to their amazement this one slain by the
sword shall rise from the dead, and his deadly wound will be healed — note how this is implied
in
Isa.
14,
for
v.
25
shows him once more in the land of the living, only to meet his final
doom at the hands of the Lord Himself. It is to this amazing resurrection of the Antichrist
that Rev. 13:3, 4 refers: “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his
deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast. And they worshipped
the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is
able to make war with him?” Details of his resurrection are supplied in Rev. 9, from which
we gather that just as Christ was raised from the dead by God the Father, so the Antichrist
will be raised from the dead by his father the Devil, see v. 1 where the fallen “Star,” which
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The Career of the Antichrist
refers to Satan, is given the “key to the bottomless pit,” and when this is happened there
comes out of it the mysterious “locusts” whose king is the Destroyer (v. 11), the Antichrist.
A further reference to the resurrection of the Antichrist, his coming forth from the
Bottomless Pit, is found in Rev. 17:8: “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall
ascend out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into Perdition: and they that dwell on the earth
shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the
world, when they behold the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is.” It is to be noted that the
earth-dwellers wonder when they behold the Beast that was (alive), and is not (now alive),
and yet is (raised again). The world will then be presented with the spectacle of a man raised
from the dead. All know him, for his career and amazing progress were eagerly watched;
his wonderful achievements and military campaigns were the subject of daily interest; his
transcendent genius elicited their admiration. They had witnessed his death. They stood
awe-struck, no doubt, at the downfall of this King of kings. And now he is made alive; his
wound of death is healed; and the whole world wonders, and worships him.
It is about this time, apparently, that the “False Prophet” (Rev. 13:11-16), the third
person in the Trinity of Evil will appear on the scene. From a number of scriptures it is
evident that the Antichrist will not spend all his time in Palestine during the last three and
a half years of his career. It seems that shortly after the middle of the “week” the Beast will
turn his face again toward Babylon, leaving the False Prophet to act as his viceregent, compelling
all
in
Jerusalem
to
worship
the
image
of
the
Beast
under
pain
of
death
(Rev.
13:15).
It
is
to
be
noted
that
Hab.
2:5
tells us that the Antichrist is “a proud man, neither keepeth at
home, who enlarged his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth
unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him all people.”
The reason for the Antichrist’s return to Babylon is not far to seek. Having thrown off
his mask of religious pretension, he now stands forth as the Defier of God. His first move
now will be to blot out from the earth everything that bears His name. To accomplish this
the Jewish race must be utterly exterminated, and to this end he will put forth all his power
to banish Israel from the earth. He will make war with the saints (the Jewish saints) and
prevail against them (Dan. 7:21; 8:24): this is the going forth of the “red horse” of Rev. 6:4.
Those of the godly remnant who are left will “flee to the mountains” (Matt. 24:16), and
there they will be hunted like partridges. It is then they will cry, “Keep not Thou silence, O
God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine enemies make a tumult:
and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against Thy
people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them
off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance” (Psa.
83:1-4). Then, because many of the Jews will be found in that day dwelling in Babylon (see
Jer. 50:8; 51:6, 45; Rev. 18:4) the Antichrist will go thither to wreak his vengeance upon
them. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his blasphemous and bloody course.
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The Career of the Antichrist
Soon will heaven respond to the cries of the faithful remnant of Israel, and terrible shall be
the punishment meted out on their last enemy. This, however, must be left for consideration
in our next chapter, when we shall treat of the last days and doom of the Antichrist.
80
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
If there is a measure of difficulty attending the placing and elucidation of some of the
prophecies which depict the various phases and stages of the Antichrist’s career, the cloud
lifts as the end is neared. And this is in full accord with many other things which pertain to
the closing days of the Age. The nearer we come to the blessed event of our Lord’s return
to this earth, the more light has God seemed to cast on those things which immediately
precede the Second Advent. It is as though, at first, God furnishes only a bare outline, but
ultimately He fills in the details for us. It is thus with the end of the Antichrist. The Holy
Spirit has been pleased to supply us with a most comprehensive and vivid description of
the closing scenes in the career of the Son of Perdition. It is with mingled feelings that we
turn and ponder what has thus been recorded for our learning.
The awful course which is followed by the Man of Sin cannot but shock us. The frightful
hypocrisy, the shocking duplicity and treachery, the terrible cruelty, and the amazing impiety
of this Monster of wickedness, make us marvel at the forbearance of God, who endures
“with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction.” But when we come to
the final scenes, and behold the Antichrist openly challenging heaven, publicly defying God,
and making a deliberate and determined effort to prevent the Lord Jesus returning to this
earth, we are well nigh rendered speechless by the unthinkable lengths to which sin will go.
On the other hand, as we learn that all of this is the ending of that long dismal night which
precedes the Day of Christ, the Millennium, we see that it is but the dark background to
bring into more vivid relief the glories of the God-Man. The destruction of the Antichrist
will be followed at once by the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom which shall bring peace
and blessing to all the earth. And the contemplation of this cannot but fill us with joy and
thanksgiving.
“The end of the Man of Sin marks an era of sublimest interest to the believing children
of God. It shall be the day of our triumphant manifestation, and the Jubilee of all creation.
The day, Oh, Hallelujah! when Satan’s crown of pride shall be smitten, and his glory trailed
in the dust; when his long-continued and persistent temptations shall have an end; and his
power receive the wounding from which it shall never recover itself. That blessed, blessed
day when He whose right it is, shall reign, and the kingdom of Israel be no more overturned
and dishonored. The sweet, sweet day, when the mockings, the scourgings, the bonds, the
imprisonments, the afflictions, and the torments of the great multitude of whom the world
was not worthy, shall cease to annoy forever, and the whole earth be at rest, and break forth
into gladness” (Mrs. E. Needham).
But before that blessed Day arrives, the last hour of the night of Christ’s absence has to
run its course, and as the darkest hour precedes the dawn, so the last hour of this “night”
shall be the most foreboding of all. The period which immediately precedes the return of
81
The Doom of the Antichrist
Christ to the earth will witness the most awful events ever chronicled. It was of this period
that Daniel spoke when he said, “There shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since
there was a nation even to that same time” (12:1). It was to this same time that Christ referred
when He declared, “For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning
of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. And except that the Lord
had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom He hath
chosen, He hath shortened the days” (Mark 13:19, 20). This is “the hour of temptation which
shall come upon all the world” (Rev. 3:10). It will be a time of unparalleled wickedness, and
a time of unprecedented suffering. It is the time when God shall avenge the murder of His
Son, when He shall take to task a world that has so long despised His Word, and trampled
His commandments under foot. The very Antichrist will be one of the instruments of His
vengeance — “the rod of His anger” (Isa. 10:5).
It is because men received not the love of God’s truth. He shall send them strong delusion
that they should believe the Devil’s lie. It is because men had “pleasure” in “unrighteousness”
they shall be deceived by the Lawless One. It is because Israel refused that blessed One who
came in His Father’s name that they shall receive the one who comes in his own name. This
is why the Antichrist will, for a season, be suffered to prosper, and apparently to defy God
with impugnity. But when God has used him to perform His own pleasure, then shall He
empty upon his kingdom and upon his subjects the vials of His wrath. Just as God has set
the bounds of the sea, saying thus far shalt thou go and no further, so has He fixed the limits
to which He will allow the Antichrist to go. And when that limit is reached the Son of Perdition
will
find
himself
as
helpless
to
pass
beyond
what
God
has
decreed
as
a
worm
would
be
beneath
the
foot
of
an
elephant.
This
will
be
made
evident
as
we
proceed.
At the close of our last chapter we followed the career of the Antichrist to the point
where he turns upon the Jewish people and seeks to cut them off from being a nation.
Fearful will be his assaults upon them, and bitter will be their wailings. It is at that time the
Remnant will cry, “O God; why hast Thou cast us off forever? why doth Thine anger smoke
against the sheep of Thy pasture? Remember Thy congregation, which Thou hast purchased
of old; the rod of Thine inheritance, which Thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein
Thou hast dwelt. Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations; even all that the Enemy
hath done wickedly in the sanctuary. Thine enemies roar in the midst of Thy congregations;
they set up their ensigns for signs. A man was famous according as he had lifted up axes
upon the thick trees. But now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes
and hammers. They have cast fire into Thy sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down
the dwelling-place of Thy name to the ground. They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them
together; they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs:
there is no more any profit neither is there any among us which knoweth how long. O God,
how long shall the Adversary reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?
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The Doom of the Antichrist
Why withdrawest Thou Thy hand, even Thy right hand? Pluck it out of Thy bosom” (Psa.
74:1-11).
It is at this time that the prophecy of Amos 8 will receive its final fulfillment: “The Lord
hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works. Shall
not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise
wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt. And it shall
come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon,
and I will darken the earth in the clear day: And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and
all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness
upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as
a bitter day. Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land,
not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but the hearing the words of the Lord: And
they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and
fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. In that day shall the fair virgins and
the young men faint for thirst” (Amos 8:7-13). How remarkably does Psa. 74 interpret this
prophecy of Amos! The reason why the godly Remnant shall run to and fro to seek the word
of the Lord and shall not find it, and the meaning of the famine of hearing the words of the
Lord is that all the synagogues in the land shall have been burned up.
But not for long will this frightful persecution continue: “Therefore thus saith the Lord
God of hosts, O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrain: he shall smite
thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For yet a
very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction” (Isa.
10:24, 25). Once the Antichrist turns upon Israel his days are numbered, for to touch that
nation is to touch the apple of God’s eye (Zech. 2:8). God shall “stir up a scourge for him”
(Isa. 10:26). What this scourge is we learn from Dan. 11:40: “And at the time of the end shall
the king of the south push at him; and the king of the north (the Antichrist) shall come
against him (i.e. the king of the south) like a whirlwind with chariots, and with horsemen,
and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow, and pass
over” (Dan. 11:40).
The king of the south who pushes it — assails — the Antichrist is the king of Egypt. The
Antichrist, here termed the king of the north, i.e. Assyrai, shall leave Babylon, and marshalling
his imperial forces, which he has ready for immediate action, shall lead them against him
(the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind. The rapidity of his movements and the immensity of
his armies, is intimated by the words, “He shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow
and pass over.” His progress will be as the rushing of an overwhelming torrent from the
mountains, that spreads over the land, and carries everything before it. “He shall enter also
into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown” (Dan. 11:41). His route
from Babylon to Egypt will take him through Palestine, the land which is soon to be the
83
The Doom of the Antichrist
glory of all lands; and, although we are not told here what he will do there at that time, his
hand will, no doubt, be heavy upon it, as also upon the many other countries which he will
overthrow. “But these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of
the children of Ammon” (Dan. 11:41). These three peoples will escape his fury. The reason
for their escape seems to be a double one. In Ps. 83, which describes an event at a little
earlier period, we are told, “they have taken crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted
against Thy hidden ones. They has said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation;
that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together
with one consent, they are confederate against Thee: the tabernacles of Edom and the Ishmaelites;
of
Moab,
and
the
Hagarenes;
Gebal,
and
Ammon,
and
Amalck;
the
Philistines
with
the
inhabitants
of
Tyre;
Assur
(the
Assyrian)
also
is
joined
with
them”
(Psa.
83:3-8).
Thus
we
see
that
these
three
peoples
acted
in
concert
with
the
Antichrist
when
a
determined
effort
was
made
to
utterly
exterminate
the
Jewish
people.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
spares
these
submissive
allies
of
his
when
he
goes
forth
to
overthrow
the
other
countries.
So much for the human side as to why “these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom,
and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.” But there is a Divine side, too. These
peoples are spared at that time in order that they may be dealt with later by God Himself.
Thus did Jehovah declare of old through Balaam the heathen prophet: “There shall come a
Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab,
and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a
possession for his enemies” (Num. 24:17, 18). This will be right at the beginning of the
Millennium. Israel, too, shall be used by God in this work of judgment upon their ancient
enemies: “But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall
spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the
children of Ammon shall obey them” (Isa. 11:14).
“He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not
escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” (Dan.
11:42, 43). The victorious King will then take possession of those countries which were
overthrown by him during his march from Babylon to Egypt. Having now reached this land
which dared to push at him — the land never completely subjugated by the previous kings
of the north referred to in the earlier part of Dan. 11 — its king and subjects must now bow
before his iron sceptre. He becomes master of its treasures of gold, silver, and precious
things. The Libyans and Ethiopians, who were the allies of Egypt, will be compelled to follow
in this train. Thus will he crush this Egyptian rebellion, and demonstrate once more his
military prowess. Yet not for long will he be permitted to defy Heaven with impugnity.
“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go
forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). What these
84
The Doom of the Antichrist
troublous tidings are we learn from Jer. 51. A serious attack will be made upon his Babylonian

headquarters, and during his absence from there, the kings of Ararat, Minni, and
Ashchenaz — no doubt emboldened by the insubordination of Egypt — will besiege and
capture one end of the Capital. The time is nigh at hand when God shall utterly destroy that
City of the Devil, and a preliminary warning of this is now given: “And I will render unto
Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in
your sight, saith the Lord. Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord,
which destroyeth all the earth: and I will stretch out Mine hand upon thee, and roll thee
down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. And they shall not take of thee
a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate forever, saith
the Lord” (Jer. 51:24-26).
As a beginning to this end, the Lord says, “Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the
trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the
kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz (all situated in the vicinity of Armenia); appoint
a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers. Prepare against
her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof,
and all the land of his dominion. And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose
of the Lord shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation
without an inhabitant. The mighty man of Babylon hath forborne to fight, they have remained
in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned their
dwelling places; her bars are broken” (Jer. 51:27-30).
It is this ominous news — the tidings which trouble him of Dan. 11:44 — which reaches
the ears of Babylon’s King, then absent in Egypt. The alarming tidings that part of the city
has already been destroyed arouses him to fierce anger, for we are told, “therefore he shall
go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). As he
nears the capital, “one post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another,
to show the King of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and that the passages are
stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted” (Jer.
51:31, 32). The end is not far distant: “For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
the daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while,
and the time of her harvest shall come” (Jer. 51:33). God now calls on the Jews who are
found dwelling within that city to leave at once, lest they be caught in the storm of His fierce
anger: “My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver you every man his soul from
the fierce anger of the Lord” (Jer. 51:45). A graphic description of Babylon’s destruction is
found at the end of Jer. 51 and also in Rev. 18.
The fury of the Antichrist at the destruction of Babylon will know no bounds. Enraged
at his loss, and incensed against God, he will now turn his face toward Palestine, and at the
head of his vast forces will bear down upon the glorious land. Even so, it is God who is dir-
85
The Doom of the Antichrist
ecting him and his blinded dupes — directing him to finish the work of judgment upon Israel,
and directing him to his awful doom. Habakkuk gives a fearful description of the spirit in
which the King of Babylon and his hosts shall fall upon the dwellers of Palestine: — “For,
lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the
breadth of the land, to possess the dwelling places that are not theirs. They are terrible and
dreadful: their judgment and their dignity shall proceed of themselves. Their horses also
are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen
shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle
that hasteth to eat. (How this verse anticipates the cruel aerial war-weapons!). They shall
come all for violence: their faces shall sup up as the east wind, and they shall gather the
captivity as the sand. And they shall heap dust, and take it. Then shall his mind change, and
he shall pass over, and offend, imputing this his power unto his god” (Note how this last
verse serves to identify the “Chaldean” with the “King” of Dan. 11:38, 39). So terrible will
be this onslaught that we are told, “And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the
Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein” (Zech.
13:8).
His course is vividly sketched by Isaiah in the tenth chapter of his prophecy: “He is come
to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Mickmash he hath laid up his carriages: They are gone
over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Galim: cause
it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth. Madmena is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim
gather themselves to flee. As yet shall he remain at Nob that day” (Isa. 10:28-32). Nob is his
camping-ground for that day, and it is there he will “plant the tabernacles of his palace
between the seas in the goodly holy mountain” (Dan. 11:45). Nob must be some elevation
commanding a distant view of Jerusalem from the west. As he stands on the hill that night
and looks at the Holy City, he “shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of
Zion, the hill of Jerusalem” (Isa. 10:32).
We now come to the closing scene. The following morning the Man of Sin leads his
forces to the famous Armageddon, there awaiting his final re-inforcements before attacking
Jerusalem. It is of this that Joel speaks: “Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war,
wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: Beat your
plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.
Assemble yourselves, and come all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about:
thither cause Thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord. Let the heathen be wakened, and
come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.
Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats
overflow; for their wickedness is great. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for
the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision” (Joel 3:9-14).
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The Doom of the Antichrist
It is to this that Micah refers: “Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that
say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion. But they know not the thoughts of
the Lord, neither understand they His counsel: for He shall gather them as the sheaves into
the floor” (4:10, 11). But it is not in the valley that the battle is fought, but around Jerusalem,
where the Beast and his armies deliver the final blow of God’s judgment on that city ere the
Deliverer appears. It is then that God will say, “O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the
staff in their hands is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and
against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the
prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither
doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. For he
saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? Is not Hamath as
Arpad? Is not Samaria as Damascus? As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols,
and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; Shall I not, as I have
done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Wherefore it shall come
to pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem,
I
will
punish
the
fruit
of
the
stout
heart
of
the
King
of
Assyria,
and
the
glory
of
his
high
looks”
(Isa.
5-12).
The
Antichrist
is
but
the
Lord’s
instrument
after
all.
Just
as
Moses
picked
up
and
held
in
his
hand
the
rod
which
became
a
serpent,
so
shall
this
offspring
of
the
Serpent
be
wielded
by
the
hand
of
God
to
accomplish
His
predetermined
counsels.
Once again, though, the Beast appears to be successful. Jerusalem falls before his onslaught
as
Jehovah
had
foretold
that
it
should

“For
I
will
gather
all
nations
against
Jerusalem
to
battle;
and
the
city
shall
be
taken,
and
the
houses
rifled,
and
the
women
ravished;
and
half
of
the
city
shall
go
forth
into
captivity,
and
the
residue
of
the
people
shall
not
be
cut
off
from
the
city”
(Zech.
14:2).
Intoxicated
by
their
success,
it
is
then
that
the
heathen
shall
rage
and
the
people
imagine
a
vain
thing:
“The
kings
of
the
earth
set
themselves,
and
the
rulers
take
counsel
together,
against
the
Lord,
and
against
His
anointed,
saying,
Let
us
brake
their
bands
asunder,
and
cast
away
their
cords
from
us”
(Psa.
2:2,
3).
And then comes the grand finale. The heaven will open and from it will descend the
King of kings and Lord of lords, seated on a white horse, with His eyes “as a flame of fire”
(Rev. 19:11, 12). Attending Him will be the armies of heaven, also seated on white horses
(Rev. 19:14). Far from being appalled at this awe-inspiring spectacle, the Beast and the kings
of the earth and their armies shall gather together to “make war against Him that sat on the
horse, and against His armies” (Rev. 19:19). “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against
those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle” (Zech. 14:3). At last the Christ of God
and the christ of Satan will confront each other. But the instant the conflict begins, it is
ended. The Foe will be paralyzed, and all resistance cease.
Scripture has solemnly recorded the end of various august evil personages. Some were
overwhelmed by waters; some devoured by flames; some engulfed in the jaws of the earth;
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The Doom of the Antichrist
some stricken by a loathsome disease; some ignominiously slaughtered; some hanged; some
eaten up of dogs; some consumed by worms. But to no sinful dweller on earth, save the Man
of Sin, “the Wicked One,” has been appointed the terrible distinction of being consumed
by the brightness of the personal appearing of the Lord Jesus Himself. Such shall be his unprecedented
doom,
an
end
that
shall
fittingly
climax
his
ignoble
origin,
his
amazing
career,
and
his
unparalleled
wickedness.
“Hitherto proud boastings have issued from the lips of Satan’s king; but now he falls
helplessly to the ground blasted by the lightening which streams from the King of kings;
and together with the False Prophet and in the full sight of his countless armies, he is seized
by the angels of the Lord, to be hurled alive into the lake which burneth with fire and
brimstone” (G. H. Pember).
The overthrow of the Antichrist is described as follows: — “But with righteousness shall
He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite
the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked”
(Isa. 11:14).
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall
magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many; he shall also stand up against
the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand” — an expression which always
refers to that which is supernatural (Dan. 8:25).
“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy
mountain; yet shall he come to his end, and none shall help him” (Dan. 11:45).
“And then shall that Wicked (One) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the
spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (2 Thess. 2:8).
“And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone”
(Rev. 19:20).
“For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; he hath made it deep and
large: the pile: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream
of brimstone, doth kindle it” (Isa. 30:33).
“And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where
the Beast and the False Prophet are, and (they) shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever” (Rev. 20:10).
Frightful, too, shall be the doom meted out to the followers of the Antichrist. Zech. 14
tells us, “And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have
fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet,
and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongues shall consume away in
their mouth. And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the Lord shall
88
The Doom of the Antichrist
be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hands of his neighbour, and his
hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour” (vv. 12, 13). So, also Rev. 19:21 declares,
“And the remnant were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which sword
proceeded out of His mouth; and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.”
89
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
The references to the Man of Sin in the book of Psalms are, for the most part, more or
less incidental ones. With rare exceptions he comes into view only as he is related to Israel,
or as he affects their fortunes. One cannot appreciate the force of what is there said of him
except as that is examined in the light of its prophetic setting. The time when the Antichrist
will be in full power is during the Tribulation period, and it is not until we discover, by
careful searching, which of the Psalms describe the Time of Jacob’s trouble, that we know
where to look for their last great Troubler.
Politically and ecclesiastically the Antichrist may be viewed in a threefold connection,
first, as he is related to the Gentile; second, as he is related to the apostate Jewish nation;
third, as he is related to the godly Jewish Remnant, who separate themselves from their
unbelieving brethren. More details are furnished us in the Psalms upon this third relationship
than upon the other two, though we have occasional allusions to Antichrist’s connections
with the Gentiles and the Jewish nation as a whole.
The second Psalm gives us a brief but vivid picture of that which will wind up the
Tribulation period, and while the Antichrist is not directly named, yet the light which other
scriptures throw upon it reveals the dreadful personality who heads the rebellion there described.

This second Psalm is prophetic in its character and has, like most (if not all)
prophecy, a double fulfillment.
“Why do the heathens rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth
set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His
anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us” (Psa.
2:1-3). A part of this passage is found quoted in Acts 4, but it is striking to note where the
quotation ceases. Peter and John had been arraigned before the religious authorities of Israel,
because that in the name of Jesus Christ they had healed an impotent man. The apostles
boldly and faithfully vindicated themselves, and after being admonished and threatened
were allowed to depart to their own company. Then it was that they “lifted up their voice
to God with one accord, and said, Lord, Thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth,
and the sea, and all that in them is: Who by the mouth of Thy servant David hath said, Why
did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up,
and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ” (Acts 4:24-26).
Notice they quoted only the first two verses of Psalm 2, and this they did not say was now
“fulfilled.” What they did say was, “For of a truth against Thy holy child Jesus, whom Thou
hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel,
were gathered together, for to do whatsoever Thy hand and Thy counsel determined before
to be done” (v. 28). In the apprehension of Christ and in His trials before the Jewish and
Gentilish authorities, this prophecy through David had received a partial fulfillment, but
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Antichrist in the Psalms
its final one is yet future. The time when Psalm 2 is to receive its complete accomplishment
is intimated in the middle section — it is just prior to the time when Christ returns to the
earth as “King,” and receives the heathen for His inheritance and the uttermost parts of the
earth for His possession; in other words, it is just before the dawn of the Millennium, namely,
the end of the Tribulation period.
As we re-read this second Psalm in the light of Rev. 16:14 and 19:19 we find that it depicts
the final act in the blatant and defiant career of the last great Caesar. it is an act of insane
desperation. The Son of Perdition will gather his forces and make a concerted effort to
prevent the Christ of God entering into His earthly inheritance. This we believe is evident
from the terms of the Psalm itself.
The Psalm opens with an interrogation: “Why do the heathen (the Gentiles) rage (better,
‘tumultuously assemble’), and the people (Israel) imagine (meditate) a vain thing?” The fact
that this is put in the form of a question is to arrest more quickly the reader’s attention, and
to emphasize the unthinkable impiety of what follows. “The kings of the earth set themselves,
and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Anointed.” Notice
that this rebellion is staged not only against the Lord but also against His “Anointed,” that
is, His Christ. The madness of this effort (headed by Antichrist) is intimated in v. 4: “He
that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” The futility of
this movement is seen in v. 6: “Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Zion.” The “yet”
here has the force of “notwithstanding”: it shows the aim and the object which the insurrectionists
had
in
view,
namely,
an
attempt
to
prevent
Christ
returning
to
earth
to
set
up
His
millennial

kingdom. The response of heaven is noted in v. 5: “Then shall He speak unto
them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure.” This is enlarged upon in Rev.
19:20, 21. Psalm 2, then, brings us to the end of the Antichrist’s history and treats only of
the closing events in his awful career. In the other Psalms where he is in view earlier incidents
are noted and his dealings with the Jews are described.
The next Psalm in which the Antichrist appears is the fifth. This Psalm sets forth the
petitions which the faithful Remnant of Israel will make to God during the Tribulation
period. It would carry us beyond our present bounds to attempt anything like a complete
exposition of this Psalm in the light of its prophetic application. We shall do little more than
generalize.
The Tribulation period is the time when Satan is given the freest rein, when lawlessness
abounds, and when to the unbelieving heart it would seem that God had vacated His throne.
But the eye of faith recognizes the fact that Jehovah is still ruling amid the armies of the
heavens and among the inhabitants of the earth. Hence the force of the Divine title in v. 2
— the remnant address Jehovah as “My King and my God.” The most awful wickedness and
rebellion is going on around them, but they are fully assured that God is quite able to cope
with the situation. “The Wicked shall not stand in Thy sight: Thou hatest all workers of
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Antichrist in the Psalms
iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the bloody and
deceitful man” (vv. 5, 6).
The “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is plainly the Man of Sin. He is denominated “bloody”
by virtue of his military ferocity; he is called “deceitful” because of his political duplicity.
One after another of his opponents will fall before him: through a sea of blood will he advance
to his imperial throne. Utterly unreliable will be his word, worthless his promises. A manifest
incarnation of that one who is the father of the Lie will he be. Most completely will he deceive
the Jews. A first, posing as their friend; later, standing as their arch-enemy. All doubt as to
the identity of this “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is removed by what is said of his “mouth.”
From Psalm 5 we turn to Psalm 7 where we find the godly Jewish Remnant crying unto
the Lord against their persecutors, chief of which is the Antichrist. This is clear from the
first two verses, where the change from the plural to the singular number is very significant
— “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me,
and deliver me: Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to
deliver.” The Remnant plead their innocency before God and call down upon themselves
the Enemy’s curse if they have acted unjustly — “O Lord my God, If I have done this; if
there be iniquity in my hands; if I have requited him that did evil unto me, or spoiled mine
adversary unto emptiness; Let the Enemy pursue my soul, and overtake it” (vv. 4-6, Jewish
translation). This at once serves to identify the individual of v. 2 who would tear their souls
like a “lion” (not like a bear) — showing his kinship with that awful one who “goeth about
as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” Observe, too, the word he “was at peace,”
but now “without cause is mine enemy.” Clearly it is the Antichrist that is here in view, and,
as manifested in the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week, when he shall have thrown off
his mask and stood forth revealed in all his dreadfulness. The twelfth verse goes on to say,
“If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow and made it ready.” It is this
which causes the Remnant to cry, “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from
all them that persecute me, and deliver me” (v. 1). The fourteenth verse unmistakably
identifies this end-time Enemy of Israel, and again stamps him as a worthy son of the father
of the Lie — “Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought
forth falsehood.” In the sixteenth verse the Remnant express their assurance of the certain
fate of their Foe: “His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall
come down upon his own pate.”
The eighth Psalm is closely connected with the seventh. In the last verse of the seventh
we hear the Remnant saying, “I will praise the Lord according to His righteousness: and will
sing praise to the name of the Lord most high.” This anticipates the time when they shall
be delivered from their awful Enemy, and when the glorious Millennium shall have dawned
— “The Lord most high” is His distinctive millennial title. Psalm 8 follows this with a lovely
millennial picture, when Jehovah will be worshipped because His name is then “excellent
92
Antichrist in the Psalms
in all the earth.” Then shall the Remnant say, “Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast
Thou ordained strength because of Thine enemies, that Thou mightiest still the Enemy and
the Avenger” (v. 2). The Enemy and the Avenger, more literally “the Foe and the Revenger,”
are two of the many names of the Antichrist.
Much in the ninth Psalm also anticipates millennial conditions and celebrates the
overthrow of the Man of Sin. Sings the Remnant, “For Thou hast maintained my right and
my cause; Thou satest in the throne judging right. Thou has rebuked the heathen, Thou
hast destroyed the Wicked” (vv. 4, 5). That the Wicked, or Lawless One, is the Antichrist,
is clear from the next verse: “The destructions of the Enemy are come to a perpetual end:
and their cities hast Thou destroyed.” We hope to show in a later chapter that “their cities”
which God will destroy are the cities of Antichrist and the False Prophet, namely, Babylon
and Rome. Again; in vv. 15, 16 of this Psalm we read, “The heathen are sunk down in the
pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken. The Lord is known by
the judgment which He executeth: the Wicked is snared in the work of his own hands!”
This refers to the destruction of the Antichrist and his forces at Armageddon.
In the tenth Psalm we have the fullest description of the Antichrist found in any of the
Psalms. This Psalm is divided into four sections: first, the Cry of the Remnant (v. 1); second,
the Character of the Antichrist (vv. 2-11); third, the Cry of the Remnant renewed (vv. 12-15);
fourth, the Confidence of the Remnant (vv. 16-18). In its opening verse we discover its dispensational
key

the
“Times
of
Trouble”
(cf.
Jer.
30:7)
being
the
great
Tribulation.
Observe
now
what
is
here
said
of
the
Wicked
One.
In
v.
2
we read, “The Wicked in his pride doth
persecute (R. V. ‘hotly pursue’) the poor.” The “poor” (referred to in this Psalm seven times
— vv. 2, 8, 9, 9, 10, 14, and “humble” in v. 17 should be “poor” — emphasizing the completeness
of their poverty) are the faithful Remnant who have refused to receive the mark of the
Beast, and as the result are suffered to neither buy nor sell (see Rev. 13:17). In vv. 3, 4 we
are told, “For the Wicked (One) boasteth of his heart’s desire, and curseth, yea, abhorreth
the Lord (see Hebrew). The Wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek
after God: all his thoughts are — no God.” This tells of his frightful impiety and reveals his
satanic origin. In v. 6 his consuming egotism is depicted: “He hath said in his heart, I shall
not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.” Then follows a description of his awful
wickedness: “His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief
and vanity. He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder
the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.” Notice in this last verse the mention
of “the secret places.” It was to them our Lord referred in His Olivet Discourse, when He
said, “Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: Behold,
he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.” This whole Psalm will well repay the most minute
study.
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Antichrist in the Psalms
In the opening verse of the fourteenth Psalm we have what we doubt not is another
reference to the Antichrist, here called “The Fool.” He is the arch-fool, who, in his blatant
defiance, says in his heart — “no God.” The mark of identification is found in the marginal
reading of Psalm 10:4: All his thoughts are — “no God”. Does not this title point out another
contrast between Christ and the Antichrist: One is “the wonderful Counseller,” the other is
“the Fool!”
In the seventeenth Psalm, which contains the confession of the Remnant, (pleading
their innocency before God), reference is again made to the antichrist. “By the word of God’s
lips” will the believing Jews be “kept from the paths of the Destroyer.” This is another of his
titles which points a contrast: Christ is the Saviour; Antichrist the Destroyer. That it is the
Antichrist who is here in view is clear from what follows in vv. 12 and 13, where we read,
“Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.
Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the Wicked, by Thy
sword.” The “Wicked” is here in the singular number. Note again the reference to the “secret
places,” about which we shall have something to say, in our exposition of Matt. 24, vv. 25,
and 26 when we treat of the Antichrist in the Gospels.
We pass over several Psalms which contain incidental allusions to the Wicked One and
turn now to the thirty-sixth. The wording of the first verse is somewhat ambiguous, and we
believe its force comes out better by rendering it, with the Sept., Syriac and Vulgate, “the
transgression of the Wicked saith within his heart, that there is no fear of God before his
eyes.” He defies Jehovah and fears not Elohim. “For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
until his iniquity be found to be hateful” (v. 2). Haughty conceit fills him, but in the end he
shall reap as he has sown. “The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; he hath left off
to be wise, and to do good” (v. 3). This refers to his treacherous dealings with the Jews, and
takes note of the two great stages in his career; first, when he poses as Israel’s friend, later
when he comes out in his true character as their enemy.j Verse 4 describes his moral character:
“he
deviseth
mischief
upon
his
bed;
he
setteth
himself
in
a
way
that
is

not good; he
abhorreth not evil.”
The thirty-seventh Psalm, which in its ultimate application has to do with the godly
Remnant in the Tribulation period, contains a number of references to the Antichrist. In
the seventh verse the Remnant is exhorted to “rest in the Lord and wait patiently for Him”
(i.e. for His personal appearing) and to “fret not because of him who prospereth in his way,
because of the Man who bringeth wicked devices to pass” — a manifest allusion to the Man
of Sin. In the tenth verse they are assured, “for yet a little while, and the Wicked shall not
be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be.” In vv. 12 and 13 we read,
“the Wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth. The Lord shall
laugh at Him: for He seeth that his day is coming.” This brings out the satanic malice of
Antichrist against the people of God, and also marks the Lord’s contempt for him as He
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Antichrist in the Psalms
beholds the swiftly approaching doom of this one who has so daringly defied Him. The end
of the Wicked is noticed in v. 35. “I have seen the Wicked in great power, and spreading
himself like a green bay tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea, I sought him, but
he could not be found.” The whole of this wondrous Psalm calls for close study. It throws
a flood of light on the experiences of the Remnant amid the awful trials of the end of the
age.
“I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not with my tongue: I will keep my mouth
with a bridle, while the Wicked is before me” (Psa. 39:1). This sets forth the resolutions of
the Remnant in view of the troublesome presence of the Wicked One; while in v. 8 they are
seen praying that they may not be made the reproach of the Foolish One — “Deliver me
from all my transgressions: make me not the reproach of the Foolish.”
The forty-third Psalm opens with the plaintive supplications of the Remnant in view of
the contempt and opposition of the Jewish nation as a whole, at the head of which will be
the false Messiah: “Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver
me
from
the
deceitful
and
unjust
Man.
For
Thou
art
the
God
of
my
strength:
why
dost
Thou
cast
me
off?
Why
go
I
mourning
because
of
the
oppression
of
the
Enemy?”
The
allusion
to
the
deceit
and
injustice
of
the
man
of
Sin
views,
of
course,
his
breaking
of
the
covenant.
In the forty-fourth Psalm we are given to hear more of the bitter lamentations of the
Remnant, betrayed as they have been by the one who posed as their benefactor, and scorned
as they are by their fellow Jews: “Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a shaking
of the head among the people (Israel). My confusion is continually before me, and the shame
of my face covered me, For the voices of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth; by reason
of the Enemy and Avenger.”
The fiftieth Psalm is one of deep interest in this connection. It announces the response
of Jehovah to the cries of His faithful people. It declares that “God shall come, and shall not
keep silence: a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be tempestuous round about Him”
(v. 3). It promises that He will gather His saints together unto Him (v. 5). It contains an
exposulation with Israel as a whole (see vv. 7-14). And then, after bidding His people call
upon Him “in the Day of Trouble” and assuring them He will deliver them, God addresses
their Enemy as follows: — “But unto the Wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare
My statutes, or that thou shouldest take My covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction,
and
casteth
My
words
behind
thee.
When
thou
sawest
a
thief,
then
thou
consentedst
with
him,
and
hast

been partaker with adulterers. Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy
tongue frameth deceit. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine
own mother’s son” (vv. 16-22). First, God rebukes the Antichrist for his hypocrisy, referring
to the time when, at the beginning of his career, he had (like Satan in tempting the Saviour)
come declaring God’s statutes and taking the Divine Covenant in his mouth (v. 16). Second,
He charges him with his treachery when, at the midst of the seventieth week, he had cast
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Antichrist in the Psalms
God’s words behind him (v. 17). Third, He exposes his depravity and shows that he is altogether
destitute
of
any
moral
sensibility
(vv.
18-20).
Fourth,
He
reminds
him
of
how
he
had
congratulated
himself
that
he
should
continue
on
his
vile
course
with
impugnity
and
escape
the
due
reward
of
his
wickedness
(v.
21).
Finally,
He
announces
the
certainty
of
retribution
and
the
fearful
doom
which
awaits
him
(v.
22).
The fifty-second continues and amplifies what has just been before us from the closing
verses of the fiftieth Psalm. Here again the Antichrist is indicted by God — no doubt through
the Remnant. “Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? The goodness of God
endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully.
Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou
lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy thee forever,
and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.
The righteous also shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him: Lo, this is the man that made
not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself
in his wickedness” (vv. 1-7). The pride, the enmity, the treachery, the moral corruption, and
the vaunting of the incarnate Son of Perdition are all noticed and charged against him. The
certainty of his doom, and his degradation before those he had persecuted, is graphically
depicted.
The prophetic application of the fifty-fifth Psalm first found its tragic realization in the
treachery of Judas against the Lord Jesus, but its final accomplishment yet awaits a coming
day. In it we may see a pathetic description of the heart-pangs of the Remnant, mourning
over the duplicity of the mock Messiah. Driven out of Jerusalem, they bewail the awful
wickedness now holding high carnival in the holy city: “Wickedness is in the midst thereof:
deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it was not an enemy that reproached me;
then I could have borne it: neither was it he that hated me that did magnify himself against
me; then I would have hid myself from him: But it was thou, a man mine equal (i.e. a Jew),
my guide, and mine acquaintance” (vv. 11-13). Thus will the Jews in a coming day be called
upon to endure the bitter experience of betrayal and desertion by one whom they regarded
as their friend. Concerning their Enemy the Remnant exclaim, “He hath put forth his hand
against such as be at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant. The words of his mouth
were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were
they drawn swords” (vv. 20, 21). The reference is to the seven-year Treaty which the final
Caesar makes with Palestine, and which after three and one half years is treated as a scrap
of paper. But such treachery will not go unpunished. In the end Antichrist and his abettors
will be summarily dealt with by the Judge of all the earth: “But Thou, O God, shalt bring
them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their
days” (v. 23).
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Psalm seventy-one contains another of the Remnant’s prayers during the End-time.
“Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the Wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous
and cruel Man” (v. 4). The reference is, again, to the Man of Sin who has acted unjustly, and
whose fiendish delight it will be to persecute the people of God.
In Psalm seventy-two we find expressed the confidence of the Remnant. They are there
seen anticipating that joyful time when God’s King shall reign in righteousness. With glad
assurance they exclaim: “He shall judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with
judgments. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills Thy righteousness.
He
shall
judge
the
poor
of
the
people,
He
shall
save
the
children
of
the
needy,
and
shall
break

in pieces the Oppressor” (vv. 2-4). Mighty as their Enemy appeared in the eyes of
men, and invincible as he was in his own estimation, when God’s appointed time comes he
shall be broken in pieces as easily as the chaff is removed by the on-blowing wind.
The seventy-fourth Psalm makes reference to the violence of the Antichrist against the
believing Remnant: “They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned
up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit:
neither is there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary
reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (vv. 8-10). This contemplates
the time when the Man of Sin and his lieutenants will make a desperate effort to cut off Israel
from the earth and abolish everything which bears the name of God. Note it does not say
“all the synagogues” will be burned up, but the “synagogues of God,” that is, where the true
and living God is owned and worshipped.
The eighty-third Psalm carries us to a point a little nearer the end. Not only will the
synagogues of God be all destroyed, but an attempt will be made to exterminate those who
still worship God in secret. Listen to the tragic pleadings of this Satan-hunted company,
“Keep not Thou silence, O God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine
enemies make a tumult: and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken
crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said,
Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more
in remembrance” (vv. 1-4). As to who is responsible for this the verses following show. In
v. 5 we read, “For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against
Thee.” Then will be realized man’s dream of a League of Nations. It is remarkable that just
ten nations are here named — see vv.6-8. “Assur” in v. 8 is “the Assyrain” — the Antichrist
in his king-of-Babylon character. This verse is one of the few passages in the Psalms which
shows the Antichrist in connection with the Gentiles. Psalm 110:6 also contains a reference
to him as related to the Gentiles — “He hath stricken the Head over many countries” (R.
V.).
The one hundred and fortieth appears to be the last of the Psalms that takes note of the
Antichrist. There we hear once more the piteous cries of the Remnant to God: “Deliver me,
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Antichrist in the Psalms
O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man: Keep me, O Lord, from the
hands of the Wicked; preserve me from the Violent Man; who hath purposed to overthrow
my goings[hellip]Grant not, O Lord, the desires of the Wicked: further not his wicked device”
(vv. 1, 4, 8).
Thus we have glanced at no less than twenty Psalms in which allusion is made to the
Antichrist. This by no means exhausts the list; but sufficient has been noted to show what
a prominent place is there given to this dreadful monster. Let it not be supposed that we are
denying the present value and application of the Psalms to ourselves. Nothing is more foreign
to our desire. We not only firmly believe that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God
and is “profitable for doctrine,” but we readily and gladly unite with the saints of all ages in
turning to this precious portion of God’s Word to provide us with language suited to express
to God the varying emotions of our hearts. But while allowing fully the experimental and
doctrinal value of the Psalter for us today, it needs to be pointed out that many of the Psalms
have a prophetic significance, and will be used by another company of believers after the
Church which is the body of Christ has been removed from these scenes of sin and suffering.
We would urge those of our readers who are interested in dispensational truth to re-study
these lyrics of David with a view of discovering how much they reveal of things to come.
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The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The references to the Antichrist in the Prophets are numerous; nor is this to be wondered
at. It is there, more than anywhere else in Scripture, that we learn of the future of both Israel
and the Gentiles. It is there we have the fullest information concerning End-time conditions,
and the completest description of the varied parts which the leading characters shall play
in those days. It would carry us beyond the scope designed for these articles were to examine
every passage in the Prophets which makes mention of the Man of Sin and the numerous
roles he will fill. Yet we do not desire to pass by any of the more important allusions to him.
We shall, therefore, make a selection, and yet such a selection that we trust a complete outline
at least will be supplied. Certain scriptures, notably those which view the Antichrist in
connection with Babylon, will be waived now, because they will receive separate consideration
in a later chapter.
One other introductory remark needs to be made. We are conscious that this chapter
will probably be somewhat unsatisfactory to a few of our readers, inasmuch as we shall be
obliged to take a good deal for granted. It is manifest that we cannot here attempt to give a
complete analysis of the passages where the different allusions to the Antichrist occur, nor
should this be necessary. We are writing to Bible students, therefore we shall ask them to
turn to the different places from which we quote and examine the contexts so as to satisfy
themselves that they treat of End-time conditions. While in most instances the context will
show that we are not reading into the Scriptures what is not there, yet in a few cases they
may fail us. This is sometimes true with passages which contain prophecies concerning
Christ. It is often the case in the prophets that the Holy Spirit is treating of something near
at hand and then, without any warning, projects the view into the distant future. But just
as the New Testament enables us to determine which Old Testament passages speak of
Christ, so other scriptures help us to identify the person of the Antichrist in verses where
there is but an indefinite and passing allusion to him.
99
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
A brief notice is taken of the Man of Sin in chapter 16. The opening verses make it clear
that conditions in the Tribulation period are being described. They intimate how that the
persecuted Jews flee to the land of Moab for refuge — “Hide the outcasts; betray not him
that wandereth,” makes this clear. These outcasts are definitely identified in v. 4, where Jehovah
terms
them
“Mine
outcasts.”
The
same
verse
goes
on
to
tell
why
they
were
outcasts,
outcasts
from
Palestine:
“Let
Mine
outcasts
dwell
with
thee,
Moab;
be
thou
a
covert
to
them
from
the
face
of
the
Spoiler:
for
the
Extortioner
is
at
an
end,
the
Spoiler
ceaseth,
the
oppressors
are
consumed
out
of
the
land.”
Here
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist
is
noted.
A
further
proof
that
these
verses
describe
what
immediately
precedes
the
Millennium
is
found
in
the
next
verse,
which
conducts
us
to
the
beginning
of
the
Millennium
itself:
“And
in
mercy
shall
the
throne
be
established:
and
He
shall
sit
upon
it
in
truth
in
the
tabernacle
of
David,
judging,
and

seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.” Thus, in the light of other scriptures,
there is little room for doubt that the Spoiler and the Extortioner refer to none other than
the Son of Perdition.
In 22:25 we have another incidental reference to the Antichrist. For our comments on
this verse we refer the reader to chapter 4, section 17.
“In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish, Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and He shall slay the Dragon
that is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). This chapter is by no means easy to analyze: its structure seems
complex. That its contents point to a yet future date is intimated by its opening words —
compare other verses in Isaiah where “in that day” occur. As one reads the chapter through
it will be found that there is a peculiar alternation between references to the Tribulation
period and conditions in the Millennium. The closing verse clearly refers to the end of the
Tribulation period. So, also, does the first verse with which we are now chiefly concerned.
Leviathan, the piercing Serpent, is, we believe, one of the names of the Antichrist,
compare chapter 3, section II, 2. A comparison with a passage in Job confirms this conclusion.
It is generally agreed that “leviathan” in Job 41 refers to the crocodile, yet the commentators
do not appear to have seen in it anything more than a description of that creature. But surely
a whole chapter of Scripture would scarcely be devoted to describing a reptile! Personally,
we are satisfied that under the figure of that treacherous and cruel monster we have a remarkable
silhouette
of
the
Prince
of
darkness.
Note
the
following
striking
points:
In verses 1 and 2 (of Job 41) the strength of Leviathan is referred to. In v. 3 the question
is asked “will he speak soft words unto thee?”: this is meaningless if only a crocodile is in
view; but it is very pertinent if we have here a symbolic description of Antichrist. In v. 4 the
question is put, “Will he make a covenant with Thee?”: this, too, is pointless if nothing but
a reptile is the subject of the passage; but if it looks to some Monster more dreadful, it serves
100
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
to identify. “None is so fierce that dare stir him up” (v. 10): how closely this corresponds
with Rev. 13:4 — “Who is able to make war with the Beast?” “His teeth are terrible round
about” (v. 14): how aptly this pictures the fierceness and cruelty of the Antichrist! “His heart
is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone” (v. 24): how accurately
this portrays the moral depravity of the Antichrist! “When he raiseth up himself the mighty
are afraid[hellip]the arrow cannot make him flee” (vv.25, 26, 28): how these words suggest
the invincibility of Antichrist so far as human power is concerned. “Upon earth there is not
his like, who is made without fear. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the
children of pride” (vv.33, 34). Surely these last verses remove all doubt as to who is really
before us here! The whole of Job 41 should be studied carefully, for we are assured that it
contains a remarkable but veiled amplification of Isa. 27:1.
In Isa. 33 there is another reference to the Antichrist. This chapter, like so many in
Isaiah, passes from a notice of Tribulation conditions to the Millennial state and back again.
The opening verse reads, “Woe to thee that spoileth, and thou wast not spoiled; and dealest
treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil,
thou shalt be spoiled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall
deal treacherously with thee.” This is evidently a judgment pronounced upon the head of
the false messiah. Two things serve to identify him: he is the great Spoiler, and the one who
shall deal treacherously with Israel. It is in view of the perfidy and rapacity of their Enemy
that the godly remnant cry, “O Lord, be gracious unto us; we have waited for Thee: be Thou
their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble” (v. 2). A further word
concerning the Antichrist is found in v. 8: “The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man
ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.”
The last three statements in this verse make it certain who is there in view. It is the Antichrist
displayed in his true colors; the one who breaks his covenant with Israel, sacks their cities,
and defies all human government to resist him.
A brief notice must be taken of 57:9 ere we turn from Isaiah. In this chapter we find
God arraigning Israel for their horrid idolatries and wickedness. The opening verse again
makes it clear that it is the Tribulation period which is in view: “The righteous perisheth,
and no man layeth it to heart,” etc. Following this we have the various indictments which
God makes against the unfaithful Jews — “But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress,
the seed of the adulterer and the whore” (v. 3, etc.). The remainder of the chapter continues
in the same strain. Among the many charges which God brings against Israel is this: “And
thou wentest to the King with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send
thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell” (v. 9). It is evident that as
this chapter is describing the sins of Israel committed in the End-time that “the King” here
must be the false messiah. Incidentally this verse furnishes one of the many proofs that the
Antichrist will be king over the Jews.
101
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
There is a distinct science of nomenclature, a system of names, in the Word of God.
Probably every name in Scripture has either a historic, a symbolic, or a spiritual significance.
The names are inseparably bound up with the narrative, and it frequently happens that the
meaning of a proper noun is a key to an important passage. Names are not employed by
the Holy Spirit in a loose and careless manner — of course not! — but with definite design.
A variety of names for the same individual are not given in order to prevent monotonous
repetition, but because the significance of each separate appellation is best fitted to express
what is recorded in any given instance. “Devil” and “Satan” are not synonyms, nor are they
used at haphazard, but with Divine discrimination. Upon the meaning of names found in
Holy Writ rests a whole scheme of interpretation; even the order in which names occur is
not fortuitous but designed, and constitutes a part of each lesson taught, or each truth
presented.
There is here a wide field opened for study, a field which few have made serious effort
to explore. It is strange that it has been so neglected, for again and again the Holy Spirit calls
attention to the importane and meaning of names. In the first book of the Bible we find that
children and places were given meaningful names, which called to remembrance incidents,
experiences, characteristics of interest and importance. Examples are given where names
changed to harmonize with a change in the person, place, experience, or situation where it
occurred. Abram and Sarai will at once occur to mind. For a place, take Luz, which was
changed to Bethel! — “House of God” — because by reason of a vision he received there it
became that to Jacob. Jacob’s name is changed to Israel; and in the New Testament an example
is
furnished
in
Simeon
being
re-named
Peter.
In
Heb.
7:1,
2
the Holy Spirit calls attention
to
the
significance
of
the
names
Melchizedik
and
Salem
(Jerusalem).
These
are
sufficient
to
show
the
importance
of
this
line
of
study.
Names are used in Scripture with marvelous discrimination, and it was this fact which
first demonstrated to the writer, the verbal inspiration of Scripture. The precision with
which names are used in the Bible is especially noticeable in connection with the Divine
titles. The names Elohim and Jehovah are found on the pages of the Old Testament several
thousand times, but they are never used loosely or interchangeably. Over three hundred
names and titles are given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and each has its own distinctive significance
and
to
substitute
any
other
for
the
one
used
would
destroy
the
beauty
and
perfections
of
every
passage
where
they
are
found.
Names are employed to express character; titles are used to denote relationships. It is
only as we make a careful study of the various and numerous names and titles of the Lord
Jesus Christ, that we are in a position to appreciate His infinite excellencies and the manifold
relationships which He sustains. From an opposite standpoint the same is equally true of
32
Names And Titles of the Antichrist
the Antichrist. As we pay careful attention to the different names and titles which are given
to him, we then discover what a marvelously complete delineation the Holy Spirit has furnished
us
with
of
the
person,
the
character,
and
career
of
this
monster
of
wickedness.
It
is
unfortunate
that
the
great
variety
of
names
bestowed
upon
him
has
led
some
brethren
to
the
conclusion
that
they
must
belong
to
separate
persons,
and
has
caused
them
to
apportion
these

out to different individuals; only confusion can result from this. There is almost as
much ground to make the Devil and Satan different persons, as there is to regard (as some
do) the Beast and the Antichrist as separate entities. That the Devil and Satan are names
belonging to the same person, and that the Beast and the Antichrist is the selfsame individual,
is proven by the fact that identically the same characteristics under each is found belonging
to the one as to the other. Instead of apportioning these names to different persons, we must
see that they denominate the same individual, only in different relationships, or as giving
us various phases of his character.
An old writer has said the name Devil is most suggestive of his character. If “d” is taken
away, evil is left. If “e” is taken away vile is left. If “v” is taken away ill is left. And if “i” is
taken away and the next letter be aspirated, it tells of hell. It is equally true of the Antichrist:
his names reveal his character, expose his vileness, and forecast his career and doom.
The names and titles given to the Antichrist are far more numerous than is commonly
supposed. We propose to give as complete a list as possible, and offer a few comments on
their significations. We shall not expatiate on them at equal length, for that is not necessary;
instead, we shall say the most on those cognomens which are of the greater importance, or,
which because of their ambiguity call for a more detailed elucidation.
33
1. The Antichrist
1. The Antichrist
“Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is Antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). This name introduces to us one of the most solemn
and foreboding subjects in the Word of God. It brings before us one of the persons in the
Trinity of Evil. At every point he is the antithesis of Christ. The word “Antichrist” has a
double significance. Its primary meaning is one who is opposed to Christ; but its secondary
meaning is one who is instead of Christ. Let not this be thought strange, for it accords with
the two stages in his career. At first he will pose as the true Christ, masquerading in the livery
of religion. But, later, he will throw off his disguise, stand forth in his true character, and
set himself up as one who is against God and His Christ.
Not only does anti-christ denote the antagonist of Christ, but it tells of one who is instead
of Christ. The word signifies another Christ, a pro-Christ, an alter christus, a pretender to
the name of Christ. He will seem to be and will set himself up as the true Christ. He will be
the Devil’s counterfeit. Just as the Devil is an Anti-theos — not only the adversary of God,
but the usurper of the place and prerogatives of God, demanding worship; so the Son of
Perdition will be anti-christ — not only the antagonist and opponent of Christ, but His reval:
assuming
the
very
position
and
prerogatives
of
Christ;
passing
himself
off
as
the
rightful
claimant
to
all
the
rights
and
honors
of
the
Son
of
God.
1. The Antichrist
34
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
2. The Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition
“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come
a falling away first, and that Man of Sin be revealed, the Son of Perdition” (2 Thess. 2:3). This
double appellation is probably the most awful, the most important, and the most revealing
title given to the Antichrist in all the Bible. It diagnoses his personality and exposes his awful
character. It tells us he will be possessed of a twofold nature: he will be a man, and yet more
than a man. He will be Satan’s parody of the God-Man. He will be an incarnation of the
Devil. The world today is talking of and looking for the Super-man. This is exactly what the
Antichrist will be. He will be the Serpent’s masterpiece.
“That Man of Sin.” What a frightful name! The sin of man will culminate in the Man
of Sin. The Christ of God was sinless; the Christ of Satan will not only be sinful, but the Man
of Sin. “Man of Sin” intimates that he will be the living and active embodiment of every
form and character of evil. “Man of Sin” signifies that he will be sin itself personified. “Man
of Sin” denotes there will be no lengths of wickedness to which he will not go, no forms of
evil to which he will be a stranger, no depths of corruption that he will not bottom.
“The Son of Perdition.” And again we are forced to exclaim, what a frightful name! Not
only a human degenerate, but the offspring of the Dragon. Not only the worst of human
kind, but the incarnation of the Devil. Not only the most depraved of all sinners, but an
emanation from the Pit itself. “Son of Perdition” denotes that he will be the culmination
and consummation of satanic craft and power. All the evil, malignity, cunning, and power
of the Serpent will be embodied in this terrible monster.
35
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
3. The Lawless One
“And then shall be revealed the Lawless One, whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the
breath of His mouth, and bring to nought by the manifestation of His coming” (2 Thess.
2:8 R. V.). This is another name of the Antichrist which makes manifest his awful character.
Each of his names exhibits him as the antithesis of the true Christ. The Lord Jesus was the
Righteous One; the Man of Sin will be the Lawless One. The Lord Jesus was “made under
the law” (Gal. 4:4); the Antichrist will oppose all law, being a law unto himself. When the
Saviour entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Heb. 10:9);
but of the Antichrist it is written “And the king shall do according to his will” (Dan. 11:36).
The Antichrist will set himself up in direct opposition to all authority, both Divine and human.
36
4. The Beast
4. The Beast
“And when they shall have finished their testimony the Beast that ascendeth out of the
bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them” (Rev.
11:7). This is another name which reveals the terrible nature and character of the Antichrist
and which places him in sharp antithesis from the true Christ. “The Beast” is the title by
which he is most frequently designated in the Revelation: there are at least thirty references
to him under this name in the last book of the Bible. The Greek word signifies a wild beast.
This name “the Beast” contrasts the Antichrist from the true Christ as “the Lamb;” and it
is a significant fact that by far the great majority of passages where the Lord Jesus is so designated

are also found here in the Apocalypse. The “Lamb” is the Saviour of sinners; the
“Beast” is the persecutor and slayer of the saints. The “Lamb” calls attention to the gentleness
of Christ; the “Beast” tells of the ferocity of the Antichrist. The “Lamb” reveals Christ as the
“harmless” One (Heb. 7:26); the “Beast” manifests the Antichrist as the cruel and heartless
one. Under the Law lambs were ceremonially clean and used in sacrifice, but beasts were
unclean and unfit for sacrifices.
It is a point of interest to note that there is one other very striking contrast between the
persons in the Holy Trinity, and the persons in the trinity of evil. At our Lord’s baptism the
Holy Spirit descended upon Him in the form of a dove, and the first mention of the Holy
Spirit in Scripture represents Him as “brooding” like a dove over the waters which covered
the pre-Adamic earth (Gen. 1:2). How remarkable are those symbols — a “Lamb” and a
“Dove!” A Dove, not a hawk or an eagle. The gentle, harmless, cooing “dove.” Over against
this the Devil is termed “the Dragon.” What a contrast — the Dove and the Lamb, the Dragon
and the Beast!
4. The Beast
37
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
5. The Bloody and Deceitful Man
“Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful
Man” (Psa. 5:6). The Psalm from which this verse is quoted contains a prayer of the godly
Jewish remnant, offered during the Tribulation period. In proof of this assertion observe
that in v. 2 God is owned and addressed as “King.” In v. 7 intimation is given that the Temple
has been rebuilt in Jerusalem, for turning away from it when it has been defiled by “the
Abomination of Desolation,” the remnant say, “But as for me I will come into Thy house
in the multitude of Thy mercy: and in Thy fear will I worship toward Thy Holy Temple.”
While in v. 10 we find them praying for the destruction of their enemies, which is parallel
with Rev. 6:10. It is during that time the faithful remnant will exclaim, “Thou shalt destroy
them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the Bloody and Deceitful Man.”
The Bloody and Deceitful Man views the Antichrist in relation to the Jews. In the
earlier stages of his public career he poses as their friend and benefactor. He recognizes their
rights as a separate State and appears anxious to protect their autonomy. He makes a
formal covenant with them (Dan. 9:27) and their peace and security seem assured. But a
few years later he comes out in his true character. His fair speeches and professions of
friendship are seen to be false. He breaks his covenant (Psa. 55:20) and turns upon the Jews
in fury. Their benefactor is now their worst enemy. The protector of their interests now
aims to cut them off from being a nation in the earth (Psa. 83:4). Thus is he rightfully denominated
by
them
“the
Bloody
and
Deceitful
Man.”
38
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
6. The Wicked One
“The Wicked (One) in his pride doth persecute the poor: the Wicked (One), through
the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God” (Psa. 10:2, 4). This entire Psalm is
about the Wicked One. The opening verse gives the key to its dispensational scope. It contains
the cry of the Jewish remnant during the Tribulation period, here denominated “Times of
Trouble” (cf. Jer. 30:7). So desperate is the situation of the true Israel, it seems as though
Jehovah must have deserted them — “Why standeth Thou afar off, O Lord? Why hidest
Thou Thyself in times of trouble?” (v. 1). Then follows a remarkably full description of their
arch-enemy, the Wicked One. His pride (v. 2), his depravity: “He abhorreth the Lord” (v.
3 margin); his blasphemy: “All his thoughts are, There is no God” (v. 4 margin); his grievous
ways, (v. 5); his consuming egotism, (v. 6); his deceitfulness, (v. 7); his treachery, (v. 8); his
cruelty, (vv. 9, 10); his complacent pride, (v. 11), is each described. Then the Remnant cry,
“Arise, O Lord; O God, lift up Thine hand: forget not the humble. Break Thou the arm of
the Wicked and Evil One” (vv. 12 and 15). The whole Psalm should be carefully studied.
39
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
7. The Man of the Earth
“To judge the fatherless and the oppressed, that the Man of the Earth may no more oppress”
(Psa.
10:18).
The
“Wicked
One”
describes
his
character;
the
“Man
of
the
Earth”
defines
his
position.
The
one
speaks
of
his
awful
depths
of
depravity;
the
other
of
his
vast
dominions.
The
sphere
of
his
operations
will
be
no
mere
local
one,
He
will
become
World-emperor.
He
will
be
a
king
of
kings
and
lord
of
lords,
(Rev.
13:7).
When
the
true
Christ
appeared
on
earth
Satan
offered
Him
“all
the
kingdoms
of
the
world
and
the
glory
of
them”
if

He would fall
down and worship him. When the false Christ appears, this offer will be repeated, the conditions
will
be
met,
and
the
tempting
gift
will
be
bestowed
(Rev.
13:2).

In consequence of
this he shall be “the Man of the Earth;” just as later, Christ shall be “King over all the earth”
(Zech. 14:7).
40
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
8. The Mighty Man
“Why boasteth thou thyself in mischief, O Mighty Man” (Psa. 52:1). This is another
Psalm which is devoted to a description of this fearful character. Here again we have mention
of his boastfulness (v. 1), his deceitfulness (v. 2), his depravity (v. 3), his egotism (v. 4), his
riches (v. 7). His doom is also announced (v. 5). This title, the Mighty Man, refers to his
immense wealth and possessions, and the power which they confer upon their possessor.
It also points a striking contrast: Christ was the Lowly Man, not having where to lay His
head; the Antichrist will be the Mighty Man, of whom it is said, “Lo, this is the man that
made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened
himself in his substance” (Psa. 52:7).
41
9. The Enemy
9. The Enemy
“Because of the voice of the Enemy, because of the oppression of the Wicked: for they
cast iniquity upon me, and in wrath they hate me” (Psa. 55:3). This is another title used of
the Antichrist in connection with Israel, a title which recurs several times both in the Psalms
and the Prophets. It points a designed contrast from that Friend that “sticketh closer than
a brother.” This Enemy of Israel oppresses them sorely. His duplicity and treachery are here
referred to. Concerning him Israel shall exclaim, “The words of his mouth were smoother
than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn
swords” (Psa. 55:21). Let the student be on the lookout for passages in the Old Testament
which make mention of the Enemy.
9. The Enemy
42
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
10. The Adversary
“They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned up all the
synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit: neither is
there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary reproach?
Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (Psa. 74:8-10). This title occurs in several
important passages. In Isa. 59:19 we read, “So shall they fear the name of the Lord from the
west, and His glory from the rising of the sun. When the Adversary shall come in like a
flood, the Spirit of the Lord shall lift up a standard against him.” Lam. 4:11, 12 is another
scripture which obviously speaks of the End-time. “The Lord hath accomplished His fury;
He hath poured out His fierce anger, and hath kindled a fire in Zion, and it hath devoured
the foundations thereof. The kings of the earth, and all the inhabitants of the world, would
not have believed that the Adversary and the Enemy should have entered into the gates of
Jerusalem.” In Amos 3:11 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God; an Adversary there
shall be even round about the land; and he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy
palaces shall be spoiled.” This is a title which intimates his satanic origin, for the Greek word
for Devil means adversary.
43
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
11. The Head Over Many Countries
“He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall
wound the Head over many countries” (Psa. 110:6). The context here shows that it must be
the Antichrist which is in view. The Psalm opens by the Father inviting the Son to sit at His
right hand until His enemies shall be made His footstool. Then follows the affirmation that
Jehovah will display His strength out of Jerusalem, and make His people Israel willing in
the day of His power. Then, following Jehovah’s oath that Christ is a Priest forever after the
order of Melchizedek (which contemplates the exercise of His millennial and royal priesthood),

we read, “The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of His
wrath. He shall judge among the heathen, He shall fill the places with the dead bodies; He
shall wound the Head over many countries.” The “Day of His wrath” is the closing portion
of the Tribulation period, and in the Day of His wrath. He wounds this Head over many
countries. The Head over many countries refers to the Man of Sin as the Caesar of the last
world-empire, prior to the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom.
44
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
12. The Violent Man
“Deliver me, O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man” (Ps. 140:1).
This is another Psalm which expresses the plaintive supplications of the godly remnant in
the “time of Jacob’s trouble.” Three times over the Antichrist is denominated the Violent
Man. In v. 1 the remnant pray to be delivered from him. In v. 4 the petition is repeated. In
v. 11 his doom is foretold. Cry is made for God to take vengeance upon this bloody persecutor:
“Let
the
burning
coals
fall

upon them: let them be cast into the fire; into deep pits,
that they rise not up again. Let not an evil speaker be established in the earth: evil shall hunt
the Violent Man to overthrow him” (Psa. 140:10, 11). The Violent Man is a name which
fully accords with his Beast-like character. It tells of his ferocity and rapacity.
45
13. The Assyrian
13. The Assyrian
“O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand in Mine indignation[hellip]Wherefore
it
shall
come
to
pass,
that
when
the
Lord
hath
performed
His
whole
work
upon
mount
Zion
and
on
Jerusalem,
I

will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the
King of Assyria, and the glory of his high looks” (Isa. 10:5, 12). We cannot here attempt an
exposition of the important passage in which these verses occur — that, in subsequent
chapters, we shall treat in detail of the Antichrist in the Psalms, and the Antichrist in the
Prophets — suffice it now to point out that it treats of the End-time (see vv. 12, 20), and
that the leading characteristics of the Man of Sin can be clearly discerned in what is here
said of the Assyrian. Almost all pre-millennial students of prophecy are agreed that the
“King” of Isa. 30:33 is the Antichrist, and yet in the two verses which precede, this “King”
is identified with “the Assyrian.”
13. The Assyrian
46
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
14. The King of Babylon
“Thou shalt take up this proverb against the King of Babylon, and say, How hath the
oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased!” (Isa. 14:4). We do not wish to anticipate what we
shall discuss at length in our future studies, enough now to state it is our firm conviction
that Scripture plainly teaches that there will be another Babylon which will eclipse the importance
and
glories
of
the
one
of
the
past,
and
that
Babylon
will
be
one
of
the
headquarters
of
the
Antichrist.
He
will
have
three:
Jerusalem
will
be
his
religious
headquarters, Rome his
political, and Babylon his commercial. For those who desire to anticipate our future expositions,
we
recommend
them
to
make
a
minute
study
of
Isa.
10,
11,
13,
14;
Jer.
49:51;
Zech.
5,
and
Rev.
18.
47
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
15. Son of the Morning
“How art thou fallen from heaven O Lucifer, son of the Morning! How art thou cut down
to the ground, which didst weaken the nations” (Isa. 14:12). “Lucifer” is a Latin word which
signifies the “morning star.” “All the ancient versions and all the Rabbins make the word a
noun denoting the bright one, or, more specifically, bright star, or according to the ancients
more specifically still, the Morning Star or harbinger of daylight” (Dr. J. A. Alexander). This
term “Lucifer” has been commonly regarded as one of the names of Satan, and what is here
said of the Morning Star is viewed as describing his apostasy. Against this interpretation we
have nothing to say, except to remark that we are satisfied it does not exhaust this remarkable
scripture. A detailed exposition must be reserved for a later chapter. Sufficient now to point
out that however Isa. 14 may look back to the distant past when, through pride, Satan fell
from his original estate, it most evidently looks forward to a coming day and gives another
picture of the Antichrist. In this same passage “Lucifer” is termed “the Man that did make
the earth to tremble” (v. 16), and in his blasphemous boast “I will be like the Most High”
(v. 14), we have no difficulty in identifying him with the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4. The
force of this particular title “Morning Star” is seen by comparing it with Rev. 22:16, where
we learn that this is one of the titles of the God-man. The “Morning Star” speaks of Christ
coming to usher in the great Day of rest for the earth. In blasphemous travesty of this Satan
will send forth the mock messiah to usher in a false millennium.
48
16. The Spoiler
16. The Spoiler
“Let mine outcasts dwell with thee, Moab; be thou a covert to them from the face of the
Spoiler: for the Extortioner is at an end, the Spoiler ceaseth, the oppressors are consumed
out of the land. And in mercy shall the throne be established: and He shall sit upon it in
truth in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness”
(Isa. 16:4, 5). It will be observed that the verse in which the Antichrist is spoken of as the
Spoiler comes immediately before the one where we read of the throne being established, a
reference, of course, to the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom. These two things synchronize:
the
destruction
of
Antichrist,
and
the
beginning
of
the
real
Messiah’s
reign;
hence
we
read
here
“the
Spoiler
ceaseth.”
A
further
reference
to
the
Man
of
Sin
under
this
title
of
the
Spoiler
is
found
in
Jer.
6:26:
“O
daughter
of
My
people,
gird
thee
with
sackcloth,
and
wallow
thyself
in
ashes:
make
thee
mournings,
as
for
an
only
son,
most
bitter
lamentation:
for
the
Spoiler
shall suddenly come upon thee.” This is another title which views the Antichrist in
connection with Israel. After the return of many of the Jews to Palestine, and after their
rights have been owned by the Powers, and their security and success seem assured; their
enemy, filled with satanic malice, will seek their extermination. “The Spoiler” contrasts him
with the Lord Jesus who is the great Restorer (see Psa. 69:4).
16. The Spoiler
49
17. The Nail
17. The Nail
“In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall the Nail that is fastened in the sure place be
removed, and be cut down, and fall; and the burden that was upon it shall be cut off: for the
Lord hath spoken it” (Isa. 22:25). The last ten verses of this chapter should be read carefully.
They furnish a striking foreshadowment of the End-time. Shebna was holding some office
over (note “government” in v. 21) Israel. Apparently he was a usurper. God announced that
he should be set aside in shame, and the man of His choice — Eliakim — should take his
place. These historical figures merge into prophetic characters. In v. 22 we read that God
says, “And the key of the house of David will lay upon His shoulder, so He shall open, and
none shall shut; and He shall shut, and none shall open.” As we know from Rev. 3:7 this
refers to none other than the Lord Jesus, and of Him it is here said, “And I will fasten Him
as a Nail in a sure place; and He shall be for a glorious throne to His father’s house” (v. 23).
Then, in the closing verse of the chapter we read, “In that day, saith the Lord of hosts, shall
the Nail that is fastened in a sure place be removed, and be cut down, and fall.” Just as
Eliakim foreshadowed Christ, so Shebna pointed forward to the Antichrist; and just as in
v.23 we have a prophecy announcing the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom, so in v. 25
we have foretold the overthrow of the false messiah’s kingdom.
17. The Nail
50
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
18. The Branch of the Terrible Ones
“Thou shalt bring down the noise of strangers, as the heat in a dry place; even the heat
with the shadow of a cloud; the Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought low” (Isa. 25:5).
The first five verses of this chapter contemplate the Enemy’s stronghold — Babylon — and
the remainder of the chapter pictures the blessedness of the millennial era. In the fifth verse
the Antichrist’s overthrow is announced: “The Branch of the terrible ones shall be brought
low.” With this should be compared Isa. 14:19, where of Lucifer it is said, “Thou art cast out
of thy grave like an abominable Branch.” This points another contrast. The “Branch” is one
of the Messianic names: “Behold, I will bring forth My Servant, the Branch” (Zech. 3:8);
“Behold the man whose name is the Branch” (Zech. 6:12). By placing together Isa. 4:2 and
Isa. 14:19 the antithesis will be more evident. Of Christ it is said, “The Branch of the Lord
shall be beautiful and glorious.” Antichrist is called “an abominable Branch”: Christ is “the
Branch of the Lord;” Antichrist is “the Branch ofthe terrible ones.”
51
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
19. The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel
“And thou, profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have
an end, thus saith the Lord God; remove the diadem, and take off the crown; this shall not
be the same; exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn,
overturn it: and it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him”
(Ezek. 21:25-27). The Profane and Wicked Prince of Israel here can be none other than the
Antichrist, for we are expressly told that “his day shall be when iniquity shall have an end.”
The reference is, of course, to Israel’s “iniquity,” and their iniquity shall end at the appearing
of the Messiah (see Dan. 9:24) when “He shall be a priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13).
Here in Ezekiel we see how the Son of Perdition shall ape the Christ of God, for he, too, will
be a priest-king: “Remove the diadem” refers to the insignia of his priesthood (in every
other place in the O. T. where this occurs the Hebrew word here translated “diadem” it is
rendered “mitre” — worn only by the high priest of Israel); “take off the crown” is the
symbol of his kingship.
52
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
20. The Little Horn
“I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another Little Horn,
before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in
this Horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things” (Dan. 7:8).
For a full description of the Antichrist under this title see Dan. 7:8-11, 21-26; 8:9-12, 23-25.
We must reserve our comments on these verses till a later chapter. “Little Horn” refers to
the lowly political origin of the Antichrist, and describes him as he is before he attains governmental
supremacy.
53
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
21. The Prince That Shall Come
“And after three score and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for Himself: and
the people of the Prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary” (Dan. 9:26).
This title connects the Antichrist with the Roman Empire in its final form, and presents
him as the last of the Ceasars.
54
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
22. The Vile Person
“And in his estate shall stand up a Vile Person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries” (Dan.
11:21). This contrasts the Antichrist from “the Holy One of Israel.” His identity is established
by noting what is predicted of him.
55
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
23. The Wilful King
“And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(Dan. 11:36). The Antichrist will not only be the High Priest of the world’s religion, but he
will be King supreme at the head of its government.
56
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
24. The Idol Shepherd
“For, lo, I will raise up a Shepherd in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off,
neither shall seek the young ones, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth
still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces. Woe to the Idol Shepherd
that leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall
be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened” (Zech. 11:16, 17). This is in
evident contrast from the Good Shepherd who gave His life for His sheep. The Idol Shepherd
of deluded Israel will prove himself the monster Desolator, who shall bring upon that people
the severest tribulations ever experiences by that race.
57
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
25. The Angel of the Bottomless Pit
“And they had a king over them, which is the Angel of the bottomless pit, whose name
in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon” (Rev.
9:11). “Abaddon” and “Apollyon” mean Destroyer. It is the “Spoiler” of Isa. 16:4 rendered
“Destroyer” in Jer. 4:7. That his name is here given in the Hebrew and the Greek shows that
he will be connected with both the Jews and the Gentiles.
Other names of the Antichrist which the student may look up are, “The Rod of God’s
anger” (Isa. 10:12); “The Unclean Spirit” (Matt. 12:43); “The Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11); “A Star”
(Rev. 8:10 and 9:1); and “The Vine of the Earth” (Rev. 14:18).
In our next chapter we shall deal with the genius of the Antichrist, and point out the
many striking comparisons and contrasts between him and the Christ of God. Let the student
see how many points of resemblance and opposition he can find.
58
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
The Genius and Character of the Antichrist
For six thousand years Satan has had full opportunity afforded him to study fallen human
nature to discover its weakest points and to learn how best to make men do his bidding.
The Devil knows full well how to dazzle men by the attraction of power, and how to make
them quail before its terrors. He knows how to gratify the craving for knowledge and how
to satisfy the taste for refinement and culture, he can delight the ear with melodious music
and the eye with entrancing beauty. If he could transport the Saviour from the wilderness
to a mountain, in a moment of time, and show Him all the kingdoms of the world and their
glory, he is no novice in the art of presenting alluring objects before his victims today. He
knows how to stimulate energy and direct inquiry, and how to appease the craving for the
occult. He knows how to exalt men to dizzy heights of worldly greatness and fame, and how
to control that greatness when attained, so that it may be employed against God and his
people.
It is true that up to now Satan’s power has been restrained, and his activities have been
checked and often counteracted by the Spirit of God. The brightest fires of the Devil’s
kindling can burn but dimly whilever God sheds around them the power of heavenly light.
They require the full darkness of night in order to shine in the full strength of their deceiving
brightness; and that time is coming. The Word of God reveals the fact that a day is not far
distant when Divine restraint will be removed; the light of God will be withdrawn; and then
shall “darkness cover the earth and gross darkness the people” (Isa. 60:2). Not only will that
which has hindered the full development of the Mystery of Iniquity be removed, but God
will “send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:13), and Satan
will take advantage of this; he will then make full use of all the knowledge which he has acquired
during
the
last
six
thousand
years.
Satan will become incarnate and appear on earth in human form. As we have shown in
previous chapters, the Antichrist will not only be the Man of Sin, but also “the Son of Perdition,”
the
Seed
of
the
Serpent.
The
Antichrist
will
be
the
Devil’s
masterpiece.
In
him
shall
dwell
all
the
fulness
of
the
Devil
bodily.
He
will
be
the
culmination
and
consummation
of
Satan’s
workings.
The
world
is
now
talking
of
and
looking
for
the
Superman;
and
the
Devil
is
soon
to
supply
him.
The
Antichrist
will
be
no
ordinary
person,
but
one
possessed
of
extraordinary
talents.
He
will
be
endowed
with
superhuman
powers.
With
the
one
exception
of
the
God-man
he
will
be
the
most
remarkable
personage
who
has
ever
appeared
upon
the
stage
of
human
history.
But
to
particularize:
59
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
1. He will be an intellectual genius
He will be possessed of extraordinary intelligence. He will be the Devil’s imitation of
that blessed One “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” (Col. 2:3).
This Son of Perdition will surpass Solomon in wisdom. In Dan. 7:20 he is represented as “A
horn that had eyes.” It is a double symbol. The “horn” prefigures strength; “eyes” speak of
intelligence. Again, in Dan. 8:23 he is referred to as “A King of fierce countenance.” who
shall “understand dark sentences.” That which baffles others shall be simple to him. The
Hebrew word here translated “dark sentences” is the same as the one rendered “hard questions”
in
1
Kings
10:1,
where
we
read
of
the
Queen
of
Sheba
coming
to
Solomon
with
her
“hard

questions” in order to test his wisdom. It is also the word that is used in Samson’s
riddle in Judges 14. It indicates that the Antichrist will be master of all the secrets of occult
science. Ezek. 28:3 declares of him “Beholding, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret
that they can hide from thee.” This will be one of his most alluring attractions. His master
mind will captivate the educated world. His marvelous store of knowledge, his acquaintance
with the secrets of nature, his superhuman powers of perception, will stamp him as an intellectual
genius
of
the
first
magnitude.
60
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
2. He will be an oratorical genius
In Dan. 7:20 we are told that he has “a mouth that spake very great things.” As a wizard
of words he will surpass Demosthenes. Here also will the Devil imitate that One “who spake
as never man spake.” The people were “astonished” at Christ’s doctrine (Matt. 7:28), and
said “Whence hath this man this wisdom?” (Matt. 13:54). So will it be with this daring
counterfeiter: he will have a mouth speaking very great things. He will have a perfect command
and
flow
of
language.
His
oratory
will
not
only
gain
attention
but
command
respect.
Rev.
13:2
declares that his mouth is “as the mouth of a lion” which is a symbolic expression
telling of the majesty and awe producing effects of his voice. The voice of the lion excels
that of any other beast. So the Antichrist will out rival orators ancient and modern.
61
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
3. He will be a political genius
He will emerge from obscurity, but by dint of his diplomatic skill he will win the admiration
and
compel
the
cooperation
of
the
political
world.
In
the
early
stages
of
his
career
he
appears
as
“a
little
horn”
(or
power),
but
it
is
not
long
before
he
climbs
the
ladder
of
fame,
and

by means of brilliant statesmanship, ascends its topmost rung. Like the majority of
politicians, he will not scruple to employ questionable methods; in fact it will be by diplomatic
chicanery
and
intrigue
that
he
will
win
his
early
successes.
Dan.
11:21
tells us that at
first they will not give to him the honor of the kingdom, but “he shall come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” Once he gains the ascendancy none will dare to
challenge his authority. Kings will be his pawns and princes his playthings.
62
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
4. He will be a commercial genius
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (Dan. 8:25).
Under his regime everything will be nationalized, and none will be able to buy or sell without
his permission (Rev. 13:17). All commerce will be under his personal control, and this will
be used for his own aggrandizement. The wealth of the world will be at his disposal. There
are several scriptures which call attention to this. For example in Psa. 52:7 we read, “Lo, this
is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches; and
strengthened himself in his substance.” Again, in Dan. 11:38 we are told, “But in his estate
shall he honor the god of forces (Satan): and a god whom his fathers knew not shall be
honor with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.” Even plainer is
Dan. 11:43, “But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt.” In the last verse of Dan. 11 mention is made of his “palace.” He
will be wealthier than Croesus. Ezak. 28:4, 5 speaks of him thus, “With thy wisdom and with
thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy
treasures: By thy great wisdom and by thy traffic hast thou increased thy riches, and thine
heart is lifted up because of thy riches.” Thus will he be able to wield the sceptre of financial
power and outdo Solomon in all his glory.
63
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
5. He will be a military genius
He will be endowed with the most extraordinary powers, so that “he shall destroy
wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy
people” (Dan. 8:24). Before his exploits the fame of Alexander and Napoleon will be forgotten.
None will be able to stand before him. He will go “forth conquering and to conquer” (Rev.
6:2). He will sweep everything before him so that the world will exclaim, “Who is like unto
the Beast? who is able to make war with him?” (Rev. 13:4). His military exploits will not be
confined to a corner, but carried out on a vast scale. He is spoken of as the man who will
“shake kingdoms” and “make the earth to tremble” (Isa. 14:16).
64
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
6. He will be a governmental genius
He will weld together opposing forces. He will unify conflicting agencies. Under the
compelling power of his skill the world Powers will be united. The dream of a League of
Nations will then be realized. The Orient and the Occident shall no longer be divided. A
marvelous symbolic picture of this is given us in Rev. 13:1, 2: “And I stood upon the sand
of the sea, and saw a Beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and
upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy. And the Beast which
I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a bear, and his mouth as the
mouth of a lion: and the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority.”
Here we find the forces of the Roman, the Grecian, the Medo-Persian, and the Babylonian
empires coalesced. He will be the personal embodiment of the world’s political authority in
its final form. So completely will the world be swayed by the hypnotic spell cast over it by
the Beast that the ten kings of the Roman empire in its ultimate form shall “give their kingdoms
unto
him”
(Rev.
17:17).
He
will
be
the
last
great
Caesar.
65
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
7. He will be a religious genius
He will proclaim himself God, demanding that Divine honors should be rendered to
him and sitting in the Temple shall show himself forth that he is God (2 Thess. 2:4). Such
wonders will he perform, such prodigious marvels will he work, the very elect would be
deceived by him did not God directly protect them. The Man of Sin will combine in himself
all the varied genius of the human race, and what is more, he will be invested with all the
wisdom and power of Satan. He will be a master of science, acquainted with all of nature’s
forces, compelling her to give up for him her long held secrets. “In this master-piece of
Satan,” says one, “will be concentrated intellectual greatness, sovereign power and human
glory, combined with every species of iniquity, pride, tyranny, wilfulness, deceit, and blasphemy,
such
as

Antiochus Epiphanes, Mohammed, the whole line of popes, atheists, and
deists of every age of the world have failed to unite in any individual person.”
“All the world wondered after the Beast” (Rev. 13:3). His final triumph shall be that,
wounded by a sword, he shall live again (Rev. 13:3). He shall raise himself from the dead,
and so wonder-struck will men be at this stupendous marvel they will readily pay him Divine
homage, yea, so great will be his dazzling power over men, they will worship his very image
(Rev. 13:14, 15).
Having contemplated something of the genius of Satan’s prodigy, let us now consider
his character. In doing so we shall view him in the light of the Character of the Lord Jesus.
Christ is the Divine plumb-line and standard of measurement by which all character must
be tested.
In our last chapter we pointed out how that the distinguishing title of the coming Superman

the
Antichrist
— has a double significance, inasmuch as it points to him as the imitator
of
Christ
and
the
opponent
of
Christ.
Hence,
in
studying
his
character,
we
find
a
series
of
comparisons
and
a
series
of
contrasts
drawn
between
the
false
christ
and
the
true
Christ;
and
these
we
now
propose
to
set
before
the
reader.
66
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
Satan is the master-counterfeiter, and in nothing will this appear more conspicuously
than in his next great move. He is now preparing the stage for his climactic production,
which will issue in a blasphemous imitation of the Divine incarnation. When the Son of
Perdition appears he will pose as the Christ of God, and so perfect will be his disguise, the
very elect would be deceived, were it not that God will grant them special illumination. It
is this disguise, this simulation of the true Christ which we shall now examine, pointing out
the various parallelisms which Scripture furnishes:
1 Christ was the subject of Old Testament prophecy: so also is the Antichrist; many are
the predictions which describe this coming one, see especially Dan. 11:21-45.
2 The Lord Jesus was typified by many Old Testament characters such as Abel, Joseph,
Moses, David, etc. So also will the Antichrist be: such characters as Cain, Pharaoh,
Absolom, Saul, etc., foreshadow the Man of Sin. We shall devote a separate chapter to
this most fascinating and totally neglected branch of our subject.
3 Christ was revealed only at God’s appointed time: such will also be the case with the
Antichrist. Of the one we read, “But when the fulness of time was come, God sent forth
His Son” (Gal. 4:4); of the other it is said, “And now we know what withholdeth that
he might be revealed in his time” (2 Thess. 2:6).
4 Christ was a Man, a real Man, “the Man Christ Jesus” (1 Tim. 2:5); so also will the
Antichrist be — “that Man of Sin” (2 Thess. 2:3).
5 But Christ was more than a man; He was the God-Man; so also will the Antichrist be
more than a man: the Super-man.
6 Christ was, according to the flesh, a Jew (Rom. 1:3); so also will the Antichrist be —
for proofs see chapter three, section one.
7 Christ will make a covenant with Israel (Heb. 8:8); so also will the Antichrist (Dan.
9:27).
8 Christ is our “Great High Priest;” so Antichrist will yet be Israel’s great high priest
(Ezek. 21:26).
9 Christ was and will be the King of the Jews (Matt. 2:1); so also will the Antichrist be
(Dan. 11:36).
10 Christ will be the King of kings (Rev. 17:14); so also will the Antichrist be (Rev. 17:12,
13).
67
Comparisons between Christ and the Antichrist
11 Christ wrought miracles: of Him it is said “approved of God among you by miracles
and wonders and signs” (Acts 2:22); so also will the Antichrist, concerning whom it is
written, “whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9).
12 Christ’s public ministry was limited to three years and a half; so also will the Antichrist’s
final ministry be (Rev. 13:5).
13 Christ is shown to us riding a “white horse” (Rev. 19:11); so also is the Antichrist (Rev.
6:2).
14 Christ will return to the earth as Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6, 7); so also will the Antichrist
introduce an era of peace (Dan. 11:21); it is to this that 1 Thess. 5:3 directly refers.
15 Christ is entitled “the Morning Star” (Rev. 22:16); so also is the Antichrist (Isa. 14:12).
16 Christ is referred to as Him “which was, and is, and is to come” (Rev. 4:8); the Antichrist
is referred to as him that “was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit”
(Rev. 17:8).
17 Christ died and rose again; so also will the Antichrist (Rev. 13:3).
18 Christ will be the object of universal worship (Phil. 2:10); so also will the Antichrist
(Rev. 13:4).
19 The followers of the Lamb will be sealed in their foreheads (Rev. 7:3; 14:1); so also will
the followers of the Beast (Rev. 13:16, 17).
20 Christ has been followed by the Holy Spirit who causes men to worship Him; so the
Antichrist will be followed by the Anti-spirit — the False Prophet — who will cause
men to worship the Beast (Rev. 13:12).
There is no need for us to make any comments on these striking correspondences: they
speak for themselves. They show the incredible lengths to which God will permit Satan to
go in mimicking the Lord Jesus. We turn now to consider:
68
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
1 In their respective Designations
1 One is called the Christ (Matt. 16:16); the other the Antichrist (1 John 4:3).
2 One is called the Man of Sorrows (Isa. 53:3); the other the Man of Sin (2 Thess.
2:3).
3 One is called the Son of God (John 1:34); the other the Son of Perdition (2 Thess.
2:3).
4 One is called the Seed of woman (Gen. 3:15); the other the seed of the Serpent (Gen.
3:15).
5 One is called the Lamb (Isa. 53:7); the other the Beast (Rev. 11:7).
6 One is called the Holy One (Mark 1:24); the other the Wicked One (2 Thess. 2:8).
7 One is called the Truth (John 14:6); the other the Lie (John 8:44).
8 One is called the Prince of Peace (Isa. 9:6); the other the wicked, profane Prince
(Ezek. 21:25).
9 One is called the glorious Branch (Isa. 4:2); the other the abominable Branch (Isa.
14:19).
10 One is called the Mighty Angel (Rev. 10:1); the other is called the Angel of the
Bottomless Pit (Rev. 9:11).
11 One is called the Good Shepherd (John 10:11); the other is called the Idol Shepherd
(Zech. 11:17).
12 One has for the number of His name (the gematria of “Jesus”) 888; the other has
for the number of his name 666 (Rev. 13:18).
2 In their respective Careers
1 Christ came down from heaven (John 3:13); Antichrist comes up out of the bottom-
less pit (Rev. 11:7).
2 Christ came in Another’s Name (John 5:43); Antichrist will come in his own name
(John 5:43).
3 Christ came to do the Father’s will (John 6:38); Antichrist will do his own will (Dan.
11:36).
4 Christ was energized by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:14); Antichrist will be energized
by Satan (Rev. 13:4).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
69
5 Christ submitted Himself to God (John 5:30); Antichrist defies God (2 Thess. 2:4).
6 Christ humbled Himself (Phil. 2:8); Antichrist exalts himself (Dan. 11:37).
7 Christ honored the God of His fathers (Luke 4:16); Antichrist refuses to (Dan
11:37).
8 Christ cleansed the temple (John 2:14, 16); the Antichrist defiles the temple (Matt.
24:15).
9 Christ ministered to the needy (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist robs the poor (Psa. 10:8, 9).
10 Christ was rejected of men (Isa. 53:7); Antichrist will be accepted by men (Rev.
13:4).
11 Christ leadeth the flock (John 10:3); Antichrist leaveth the flock (Zech. 11:17).
12 Christ was slain for the people (John 11:51); Antichrist slays the people (Isa. 14:20).
13 Christ glorified God on earth (John 17:4), Antichrist blasphemes the name of God
in heaven (Rev. 13:6).
14 Christ was received up into heaven (Luke 24:51); Antichrist goes down into the
Lake of Fire (Rev. 19:20).
Contrasts between Christ and the Antichrist
70
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
The Career of the Antichrist
We now come to the most interesting and yet the most difficult part of our subject.
When will the Antichrist be manifested? where will he appear? what will he do? are questions
which readily occur to all who have given any thought to the matter. It is not our purpose
to seek to satisfy the idly curious, still less is it to gratify those who love the sensational. We
are well aware that our present theme is one that appeals strongly to the curiously inclined,
and were it not for the importance of our inquiry we would leave it alone. But without due
regard to the person and place of the coming Superman, it is impossible to understand the
eschatology of either the Old or New Testaments.
The chief difficulty is to arrange in chronological sequence the many passages which
treat of the Antichrist. It is by no means easy to discover the precise order in which the
prophecies which deal with the Man of Sin will receive their fulfillment. There is great need
for much prayerful study along this line. We can only write according to the light we now
have, and our readers must examine for themselves what we say in the light of the Scriptures.
It ill becomes any one to be dogmatic where the Word itself does not plainly state the exact
time when certain prophecies are to be fulfilled.
In this chapter we are placed somewhat at a disadvantage, because we shall be obliged
to give brief expositions of many scriptures where it will be impossible for us to pause and
furnish proofs or reasons for each interpretation. For example, it is our firm conviction that
the Assyrian of Isa. 10, the king of Babylon of Isa. 14, the Little Horn of Dan. 7, the Little
Horn of Dan. 8, and the first Beast of Rev. 13, each and all view the Antichrist himself in
different relationships. There are some Bible students who may take issue with us on these
points, and complain because that in this chapter we make assertions without endeavoring
to prove them. We regret this, but would ask all to bear with us patiently. In the later chapters
of this book we shall devote separate studies to the Antichrist in the Psalms, in the Prophets,
in the Gospels and Epistles, and in the Apocalypse; when we shall endeavor to examine each
passage separately and attempt to give scriptural proofs for every interpretation adopted.
While it is admittedly difficult, and perhaps impossible, to fit each prophecy concerning
the Antichrist into its proper chronological place, we are able to determine the relative position

of most of them. The career of the Antichrist is divided into two distinct parts, and
there is a clearly defined dividing line between them. In previous chapters we have pointed
out how that the name “Antichrist;” has a double meaning, signifying one who imitates
Christ, and one who is opposed to Christ. This double meaning to his name corresponds
exactly with the two chief parts in his career. In the first, he poses as the true Christ, claiming
to be indeed the Messiah of Israel. This claim will be backed up with the most imposing
credentials, and all excepting God’s elect will be deceived. He will sit in the Temple (a rebuilt
temple in Jerusalem) showing himself forth to be God, and Divine honors will be paid him.
71
The Career of the Antichrist
But at a later stage he will throw off his mask, and appear in his true character as the opponent
of Christ and the defier of God. Then, instead of befriending the Jews, he will turn against
them and seek to exterminate them from the earth. Thus, with many of the scriptures which
describe the person and career of the Antichrist it is a comparatively easy matter to decide
whether they belong to the first or to the second stage of his history. But beyond this it is
difficult, with some scriptures at least to go.
We shall now consider, first the time of Antichrist’s appearing. It is hardly necessary
for us to enter into a lengthy argument to show that the Antichrist (as such) has not already
appeared. Many antichrists have already come and gone, and some are in the world even
now; the same is equally true of the many false prophets foretold in Scripture; but all of
these are but the forecasts and foreshadowings of the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who
are yet to be revealed, and who will receive their final overthrow by the Lord Jesus at His
return to the earth. Before the Antichrist can appear the Holy Spirit must be “taken out of
the way;” (2 Thess. 2:7); the old Roman Empire must be revived and assume its final form
— “divided under ten kings;” — before the “Little Horn;” comes into prominence (Dan.
7:24 — he rises “after them”): Israel must be restored to their land and the Temple be rebuilt,
etc., etc.
At the present time the ultimate development of “the Mystery of Iniquity” is being
hindered. God’s people are the salt of the earth, and their presence here stays the corruption
of the “carcass” (Matt. 24:28 — The “Carcass” is the antithesis of the “Body” of Christ). The
saints are the light of the world, and while they remain in it is impossible for darkness to
cover the earth and gross darkness the people (Isa. 60:2). The Spirit of God is here, indwelling
believers, and His holy presence checks the final outworking of Satan’s plans. But when all
believers of this dispensation have been “caught up to meet the Lord in the air” (1 Thess.
4:16), and the Holy Spirit has departed from the earth, all restraint will be removed, and
Satan will be allowed to bring forth his false christ, who will be “revealed in his time” (2
Thess. 2:6), and it would seem that even now signs are not wanting to show that God has
already given permission to Satan to prepare the stage of action for the ghastly consummation
of his evil efforts. There can be no doubt but that the Devil has desired to reveal the Son of
Perdition long before this, so that by means of him he may reduce the whole world to submission.
But
the
restraining
hand
of
God,
now
so
soon
to
be
removed,
has
held
him
back.
The time, then, when the Antichrist will be revealed is after this present Dispensation
of Grace has run its course; after the Mystical Body of Christ has been completed; after the
whole company of God’s people have been caught up to meet the Lord in the air; after the
Holy Spirit has departed from the world. How soon after we cannot say for certain. The
majority of prophetic students seems to think that the last great Caesar will come into
prominence almost immediately after the rapture of the saints. Personally, we believe there
will be an interval, long or short, between the two. As there was a period of thirty years after
72
The Career of the Antichrist
the birth of the Lord Jesus — a period of silence — before His public ministry commenced,
so there may be a similar interval between the Rapture and the Revelation of Antichrist.
The Antichrist will enter the arena of public affairs before the beginning of Daniel’s
seventieth week, for at the beginning of it he makes a seven-years covenant with the Jews,
then in their land. But at that point he will be the Dictator of the world’s policies, and as he
begins in comparative obscurity (at least from a governmental standpoint), some time —
probably years — must be allowed for his gradual rise to political supremacy. His meteoric
course will not be terminated until the Lord Himself descends to earth to usher in the Millennium.
Just
as
the
reign
of
Saul
preceded
that
of
David,
so
shall
that
of
Antichrist
antedate
that
of
the
true
Christ.
We turn now to consider the place of Antichrist’s appearing. So far as the writer is aware
there are only two scriptures which give direct information upon this point, and they are
each found in the prophecy of Daniel. We refer to the passages which speak of “the Little
Horn.” In Dan. 7:7, 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and, behold, a fourth
beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured
and break in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was diverse from all
the beasts that were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold,
there came up among them another little horn.” This fourth Beast is the last world-empire,
prior to the setting up of the Messianic kingdom. This empire will, at first, be ruled over by
ten kings — the “ten horns” of v.7 and defined as ten kings in v. 24. After them arises another,
the “Little Horn,” which signifies another “king,” see v. 24. He is termed “little” because at
that stage his kingdom is but small compared with that of the others, and the power he then
wields is insignificant when contrasted from the ten kings. But not for long will he remain
weak and insignificant. Soon the ten kings will themselves own allegiance to this eleventh
— see Rev. 17:12, 13. We reserve for a later chapter the proofs that this “Little Horn” is the
Antichrist, asking our readers to study carefully the description furnished of him in Dan.
7:8, 20-27; 8:9-12, 23-25.
Taking it for granted (at the moment) that the Little Horn of Dan. 7 is the Antichrist
let us see how what is there said of him helps us to determine the quarter from which he
will arise. In Dan. 7:7 the “fourth Beast” is described, and in 7:23 we are told, “the fourth
beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms,
and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces.” This
Kingdom will be divided into ten parts, over which will be the ten kings (7:24). This kingdom
will be, we believe, the old Roman Empire revived in its final form, and divided into two
great halves — the Eastern and the Western. This fourth kingdom will include within itself
all the territory and will perpetuate all the dominant characteristics of the other three which
have preceded it, i.e. the Babylonian, the Medo-Persian, and Grecian. Turning now to Dan.
7:8 we are told, “I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another
73
The Career of the Antichrist
little horn.” The Antichrist, then, will have his rise within the limits of the old Roman Empire.
This narrows considerably our circle of inquiry. The next question is, Can we determine
from which part of the empire he will arise — the Eastern or the Western? Dan. 8 furnishes
light upon this point.
In Dan. 8:8, 9 we read, “Therefore the he-goat waxed very great: and when he was strong,
the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of
heaven. And out of one of them came forth a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward
the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant land.” Now v. 21 of this same chapter
tells us, “The rough goat is the king (kingdom) of Grecia,” and v. 22 informs us “and the
great horn that is between his eyes is the first king. Now that being broken, whereas four
stood up for it, four kingdoms (or kings) shall stand up out of the nation.” This, of course,
refers to the act of Alexander the Great who divided his kingdom into four parts — Greece,
Egypt, Syria, and the rest of the domains of Turkey — under his four great generals: Ptolemy,
Cassander, Lysimachus, and Seleucus. This, again, very appreciably narrows our circle of
inquiry. Dan. 7 tells us the Little Horn is to arise in a part of the territory covered by the old
Roman Empire, which Empire gradually included within its domains that the the preceding
empires. Now here in Dan. 8 we learn that the Little Horn will spring from that part of the
revived Roman Empire which was included in the Grecian Empire. But this is not all that
Dan. 8 tells us. The Grecian Empire is here viewed as disintegrated into four parts or kingdoms,
from
which
of
these
parts,
then,
may
we
expect
him
to
issue

Macedonia,
Egypt,
Syria,
or
Thrace?
This
question,
we
believe,
receives
answer
in
Dan.
8:(
where
we
are
told,
that
the
Little
Horn
“waxed
exceeding
great
toward
the
south,
and
toward
the
east,
and
toward
the
pleasant
land.”
Practically
all
students
are
agreed
that
“the
south”
here
refers
to
Egypt,
the

“east” to Persia and Greece and “the pleasant land” to Palestine, hence it would seem
that the country from which Antichrist will first be manifested is Syria. It will be noted that
nothing is said in Dan. 8:9 about the Little Horn “waxing great” toward the north, and we
believe the reason for this is because that is the quarter from whence he shall arise. This is
confirmed by the fact that “the king of Assyria” in Isa. 10:12 is clearly none other than the
Antichrist. We may say this was the current view of Christian writers on prophecy through
the first ten centuries A.D. The late Mr. W. B. Newton in his splendid “Aids to the Study of
Prophetic Inquiry” has succinctly summarized the various arguments of the ancients in the
following language: —
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The Career of the Antichrist
“In the first place, as Nimrod — the founder of Babel, that is, the Tower
of Babylon — a savage tyrant and cruel oppressor of men, was the first person
who declared open war against God; so it is meet that there should arise from
the selfsame Babylon, the last and most atrocious persecutor of the saints —
the Antichrist. Moreover, seeing that Nebuchadnezzar and Antiochus Epiphanes

— two monsters who bore down upon the people of God with an
overwhelming power of destruction, and who were the antichrists of the old
Testament and remarkable types of the Antichrist which is to come; seeing,
I say, that these monarchs reigned in Babylon, it is fitting that the true Antichrist
of
the
New
Testament
should
arise
from
the
same
Babylon.
Besides, no place can be pointed out more meet for the nativity of Antichrist

than Babylon, for it is the City of the Devil — always diametrically
opposed to Jerusalem, which is deemed the City of God; the former city, that
is, Babylon, being the mother and disseminator of every kind of confusion,
idolatry, impiety — a vast sink of every foul pollution, crime, and iniquity
— the first city in the world which cut itself off from the worship of the true
God — which reared the city of universal vice, — which perpetually (according
to
the
record
of
Holy
Writ)
carries
on
the
mystery
of
iniquity,
and
bears
imprinted

on her brow the inscription of blasphemy against the name of
God. The consummation, therefore, of impiety, which is to have its recapitulation
in

Antichrist, could not break forth from a more fitting place than
Babylon.”
Having dwelt at some length on the time and the place of the Antichrist’s appearing,
we shall attempt to give now a brief outline of the leading events in his career. We have seen
that the scriptures which help us to determine the direction from which he will arise, speak
of him under the title of the Little Horn. Now the first thing this title denotes is that he is a
king, king of Assyria. Some, no doubt, will wonder how a Jew will succeed in obtaining the
throne of Syria. Several answers might be suggested, such, for example, as heading a successful
rebellion — the spectacle of an obscure plebeian speedily rising to the rank of national
Dictator, has been forcibly exhibited before our own eyes in Russia. But on this point we
are not left to speculation. Dan. 11:21 tells us that the “Vile Person” will come in peaceably,
and obtain the kingdom by flatteries. With this agrees Rev. 6:2, where the Antichrist is seen
riding a white war-horse, and with bow in hand, but with no arrow fitted to it. The symbol
suggests bloodless victories.
As soon as this Jew acquires the crown of Syria he will speedily enlarge his dominions.
As Rev. 6:2 tells us, he will go forth “conquering and to conquer,” and as we are told further
in Hab. 2:5, “He is a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who enlarged his desire as hell,
and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him all nations, and heapeth
75
The Career of the Antichrist
unto him all people.” The first thing which is predicted of him (as “the Little Horn”) is that
“he shall subdue three kings” (Dan. 7:24). As to what kings these may be, appears to be intimated

in Dan. 8:9 where we are told, “And out of one of them came forth a little horn,
which waxed exceeding great toward the south, and toward the east, and toward the pleasant
land.” He waxes great first toward the south, that is, most probably, by a victorious expedition
into Egypt. Next, he is seen moving toward the east, reducing, to what extent we are not
told, the dominions of Persia and Greece; finally he turns his face toward the pleasant land,
which is Palestine. Without being dogmatic, we would suggest that the three kings he subdues
are those of Egypt, Persia, and Greece.
Having subdued the three kings by his military prowess a “league” is made with him
(see Dan. 11:23). Probably it is the remaining seven kings of the revived Roman Empire,
plus the three vassals of the Antichrist who take the place of the kings he had deposed, that
enter into this League with the Little horn, or king of Assyria; but he shall work deceitfully,
and shall become strong with a small people (Dan. 11:23). So strong does he become that
in a short time he rises to political supremacy, and the whole of the ten kings shall “give
their kingdom unto the Beast.” (Rev. 17:17), and he will then be recognized as the imperial
Emperor. Thus as King of kings he will dictate the policies of Europe and Asia.
“The Little Horn will revive in himself all the personified glory of Babylon, Medo-Persia,
Greece and Rome. And let not this be regarded as an event incredible. We are to remember
that Antichrist will be Satan’s masterpiece; furnished with every auxiliary of influence and
wealth, for wresting the sceptre from the hands of Him who won it by His humiliation of
the Cross. Thus it is said he will ‘resist the God of gods’. The accumulated and restored
honors of each royal successor are thus to crown the brow of this last and greatest of Gentile
monarchs. And so shall he stand in his unrivalled magnificence till the Stone shall smite
him and his power, and grind all to powder” (Mrs. G. Needham).
After the Antichrist has acquired the political sovereignty of the prophetic earth he will
then enter upon his religious role, claiming to be the Christ of God and demanding Divine
honors. At first sight it appears strange, if not incongruous, that a military despot should
be found filling the character of a religious impostor. But history shows that there is a point
at which one character readily merges into the other. Political ambition, intoxicated by
success, finds it an easy step from self-glorification to self-deification, and the popular infatuation
as
easily
passes
from
the
abject
adulation
of
the
tyrant
to
the
adoration
of
the
god.
Or

again; a religious impostor, encouraged by the ascendancy he has acquired over the
minds of men, grasps the sceptre of secular power and becomes the most arbitrary of despots.
Rev. 13:4 makes it plain that the military prowess of the Antichrist first induces men to
render him Divine homage: “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the
Beast: and they worshipped the Beast, saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is able to
make war with him?” But no ordinary honors will suffice him. His religious ambitions are
76
The Career of the Antichrist
as insatiable as his political, for he will “oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God,
or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that
he is God” (2 Thess. 2:4). This claim to be God Himself, incarnate, will be backed up by
imposing credentials, for his coming will be, “after the working of Satan, with all power and
signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). These miracles will be no mere pretenses, but
prodigies of power.
The Jews, previously returned to Palestine, and with temple in Jerusalem rebuilt, will
receive this Son of Perdition as their long-promised “Messiah” (John 5:43). In imitation of
the true Christ who will, at His return to the earth, “make a new covenant with the House
of Israel and with the House of Judah” (Heb. 8:8, compare Jer. 31 and Ezek. 36), the Antichrist
will make a covenant with the Jews (see Dan. 9:27 and 11:22). Under a seven years’ treaty,
and in the guise of friendship, he will gain ascendancy in Jerusalem, only later to throw off
the mask and break the covenant.
About seven months after the Antichrist, the “Prince” (i.e. of the Roman Empire) of
Dan 9:27 has made the Covenant with the Jews he will begin to “practice” in Jerusalem (Dan.
8:24). This we believe is the explanation of the two thousand three hundred days of Dan.
8:14 which has puzzled so many of the commentators. This two thousand three hundred
days is the whole period during which the false messiah will practice in Jerusalem and have
power over the “sanctuary”: two thousand three hundred days is seven years less seven
months and ten days.
There, in Jerusalem, he will pose as the Christ of God, the Prince of Peace. The world
will suppose that the long looked- for Millennium has arrived. There will be every indication
that the eagerly desired Golden Age has, at last, dawned. The great Powers of Europe and
Asia will have been united under the ten-kingdomed Empire. It will be expected that the
League of Nations guarantees the peace of the earth. For a season quietness and amity will
prevail. None will dare to oppose the mighty Emperor. But not for long will the hideous
war-spectre hide himself. Soon will the “white horse” of Rev. 6 be found to change his hue.
A “red horse” will go forth, and then “peace shall be taken from the earth” (Rev. 6). At the
very time the world is congratulating itself that all is well, and the slogan of the hour is
“Peace and Safety,” then “sudden destruction cometh upon them” (1 Thess. 5:3).
In the midst of the seven years the Antichrist will throw off his mask, break his covenant
with Israel, and stand forth as the most daring idolater who has ever trodden this earth.
After he has “practiced” in Jerusalem for two years and five months, he will take away the
daily sacrifice (Dan. 8:11; 9:27) from the Temple, and in its place rear an image to himself
in the holy place, which is the “abomination of desolation” referred to by Christ (see Matt.
24:15).
This brings us to the great dividing line in his career, to which reference was made near
the beginning of this chapter. It is a point not only of interest but of considerable importance
77
The Career of the Antichrist
to ascertain what it is that causes this startling change of front, from posing as the true Christ
to that of the open defier of God. There are several scriptures which throw light on this
point. Satan will cause the Man of Sin to crown his daring imitation of the Christ of God
by being slain and rising again from the dead.
Both the Old and the New Testaments refer to the death of the Antichrist, and attribute
it to the sword. In Rev. 13:14 we read that the false Prophet shall say to them that dwell on
the earth that they should make an image to the Beast, which had the wound by the sword
and did live. In harmony with this we read in Zech. 11:17, “Woe to the Idol Shepherd that
leaveth the flock! The sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye.” It is to be noted
that before we read that “the sword shall be” upon him, we are told that he “leaveth the
flock,” and the previous verse tells us that he was raised up “in the land,” which can only
mean that he was ruling in Palestine. Hence it is clear that he leaves the Land before he receives
his
death
wound
by
the
sword.
In
perfect
accord
with
this
is
what
we
read
in
Isa.
37:6,
7
(in a later chapter we shall treat at length of the future Babylon, restored; the connection
of Antichrist with it, and the typical and prophetical significance of Isa. 37 and 38); “Behold,
I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and return to his own land; and I
will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.”
Leaving Palestine, the Antichrist will “return to his own land,” that is, the land of his
nativity — Assyria — which confirms what we have said previously about Assyria being the
country where Antichrist will first be manifested. There, in his own land, he will fall by the
sword. Most probably he will be slain there by his political enemies, envious of his power
and chafing under his haughty autocracy. In death he will be hated and dishonored, and
burial will be refused him. It is to this that Isa. 14 (speaking of the King of Babylon, see v.4)
refers: “But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of
those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit. As
a carcass trodden under feed, thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou
hast destroyed thy land, and slain thy people” (vv. 19, 20). But his enemies will suddenly be
filled with consternation and then admiration for to their amazement this one slain by the
sword shall rise from the dead, and his deadly wound will be healed — note how this is implied
in
Isa.
14,
for
v.
25
shows him once more in the land of the living, only to meet his final
doom at the hands of the Lord Himself. It is to this amazing resurrection of the Antichrist
that Rev. 13:3, 4 refers: “And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his
deadly wound was healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast. And they worshipped
the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: saying, Who is like unto the Beast? who is
able to make war with him?” Details of his resurrection are supplied in Rev. 9, from which
we gather that just as Christ was raised from the dead by God the Father, so the Antichrist
will be raised from the dead by his father the Devil, see v. 1 where the fallen “Star,” which
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The Career of the Antichrist
refers to Satan, is given the “key to the bottomless pit,” and when this is happened there
comes out of it the mysterious “locusts” whose king is the Destroyer (v. 11), the Antichrist.
A further reference to the resurrection of the Antichrist, his coming forth from the
Bottomless Pit, is found in Rev. 17:8: “The Beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall
ascend out of the Bottomless Pit, and go into Perdition: and they that dwell on the earth
shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the
world, when they behold the Beast that was, and is not, and yet is.” It is to be noted that the
earth-dwellers wonder when they behold the Beast that was (alive), and is not (now alive),
and yet is (raised again). The world will then be presented with the spectacle of a man raised
from the dead. All know him, for his career and amazing progress were eagerly watched;
his wonderful achievements and military campaigns were the subject of daily interest; his
transcendent genius elicited their admiration. They had witnessed his death. They stood
awe-struck, no doubt, at the downfall of this King of kings. And now he is made alive; his
wound of death is healed; and the whole world wonders, and worships him.
It is about this time, apparently, that the “False Prophet” (Rev. 13:11-16), the third
person in the Trinity of Evil will appear on the scene. From a number of scriptures it is
evident that the Antichrist will not spend all his time in Palestine during the last three and
a half years of his career. It seems that shortly after the middle of the “week” the Beast will
turn his face again toward Babylon, leaving the False Prophet to act as his viceregent, compelling
all
in
Jerusalem
to
worship
the
image
of
the
Beast
under
pain
of
death
(Rev.
13:15).
It
is
to
be
noted
that
Hab.
2:5
tells us that the Antichrist is “a proud man, neither keepeth at
home, who enlarged his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth
unto him all nations, and heapeth unto him all people.”
The reason for the Antichrist’s return to Babylon is not far to seek. Having thrown off
his mask of religious pretension, he now stands forth as the Defier of God. His first move
now will be to blot out from the earth everything that bears His name. To accomplish this
the Jewish race must be utterly exterminated, and to this end he will put forth all his power
to banish Israel from the earth. He will make war with the saints (the Jewish saints) and
prevail against them (Dan. 7:21; 8:24): this is the going forth of the “red horse” of Rev. 6:4.
Those of the godly remnant who are left will “flee to the mountains” (Matt. 24:16), and
there they will be hunted like partridges. It is then they will cry, “Keep not Thou silence, O
God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine enemies make a tumult:
and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken crafty counsel against Thy
people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said, Come, and let us cut them
off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance” (Psa.
83:1-4). Then, because many of the Jews will be found in that day dwelling in Babylon (see
Jer. 50:8; 51:6, 45; Rev. 18:4) the Antichrist will go thither to wreak his vengeance upon
them. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his blasphemous and bloody course.
79
The Career of the Antichrist
Soon will heaven respond to the cries of the faithful remnant of Israel, and terrible shall be
the punishment meted out on their last enemy. This, however, must be left for consideration
in our next chapter, when we shall treat of the last days and doom of the Antichrist.
80
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
The Doom of the Antichrist
If there is a measure of difficulty attending the placing and elucidation of some of the
prophecies which depict the various phases and stages of the Antichrist’s career, the cloud
lifts as the end is neared. And this is in full accord with many other things which pertain to
the closing days of the Age. The nearer we come to the blessed event of our Lord’s return
to this earth, the more light has God seemed to cast on those things which immediately
precede the Second Advent. It is as though, at first, God furnishes only a bare outline, but
ultimately He fills in the details for us. It is thus with the end of the Antichrist. The Holy
Spirit has been pleased to supply us with a most comprehensive and vivid description of
the closing scenes in the career of the Son of Perdition. It is with mingled feelings that we
turn and ponder what has thus been recorded for our learning.
The awful course which is followed by the Man of Sin cannot but shock us. The frightful
hypocrisy, the shocking duplicity and treachery, the terrible cruelty, and the amazing impiety
of this Monster of wickedness, make us marvel at the forbearance of God, who endures
“with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction.” But when we come to
the final scenes, and behold the Antichrist openly challenging heaven, publicly defying God,
and making a deliberate and determined effort to prevent the Lord Jesus returning to this
earth, we are well nigh rendered speechless by the unthinkable lengths to which sin will go.
On the other hand, as we learn that all of this is the ending of that long dismal night which
precedes the Day of Christ, the Millennium, we see that it is but the dark background to
bring into more vivid relief the glories of the God-Man. The destruction of the Antichrist
will be followed at once by the setting up of the Messianic Kingdom which shall bring peace
and blessing to all the earth. And the contemplation of this cannot but fill us with joy and
thanksgiving.
“The end of the Man of Sin marks an era of sublimest interest to the believing children
of God. It shall be the day of our triumphant manifestation, and the Jubilee of all creation.
The day, Oh, Hallelujah! when Satan’s crown of pride shall be smitten, and his glory trailed
in the dust; when his long-continued and persistent temptations shall have an end; and his
power receive the wounding from which it shall never recover itself. That blessed, blessed
day when He whose right it is, shall reign, and the kingdom of Israel be no more overturned
and dishonored. The sweet, sweet day, when the mockings, the scourgings, the bonds, the
imprisonments, the afflictions, and the torments of the great multitude of whom the world
was not worthy, shall cease to annoy forever, and the whole earth be at rest, and break forth
into gladness” (Mrs. E. Needham).
But before that blessed Day arrives, the last hour of the night of Christ’s absence has to
run its course, and as the darkest hour precedes the dawn, so the last hour of this “night”
shall be the most foreboding of all. The period which immediately precedes the return of
81
The Doom of the Antichrist
Christ to the earth will witness the most awful events ever chronicled. It was of this period
that Daniel spoke when he said, “There shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since
there was a nation even to that same time” (12:1). It was to this same time that Christ referred
when He declared, “For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning
of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be. And except that the Lord
had shortened those days, no flesh should be saved: but for the elect’s sake, whom He hath
chosen, He hath shortened the days” (Mark 13:19, 20). This is “the hour of temptation which
shall come upon all the world” (Rev. 3:10). It will be a time of unparalleled wickedness, and
a time of unprecedented suffering. It is the time when God shall avenge the murder of His
Son, when He shall take to task a world that has so long despised His Word, and trampled
His commandments under foot. The very Antichrist will be one of the instruments of His
vengeance — “the rod of His anger” (Isa. 10:5).
It is because men received not the love of God’s truth. He shall send them strong delusion
that they should believe the Devil’s lie. It is because men had “pleasure” in “unrighteousness”
they shall be deceived by the Lawless One. It is because Israel refused that blessed One who
came in His Father’s name that they shall receive the one who comes in his own name. This
is why the Antichrist will, for a season, be suffered to prosper, and apparently to defy God
with impugnity. But when God has used him to perform His own pleasure, then shall He
empty upon his kingdom and upon his subjects the vials of His wrath. Just as God has set
the bounds of the sea, saying thus far shalt thou go and no further, so has He fixed the limits
to which He will allow the Antichrist to go. And when that limit is reached the Son of Perdition
will
find
himself
as
helpless
to
pass
beyond
what
God
has
decreed
as
a
worm
would
be
beneath
the
foot
of
an
elephant.
This
will
be
made
evident
as
we
proceed.
At the close of our last chapter we followed the career of the Antichrist to the point
where he turns upon the Jewish people and seeks to cut them off from being a nation.
Fearful will be his assaults upon them, and bitter will be their wailings. It is at that time the
Remnant will cry, “O God; why hast Thou cast us off forever? why doth Thine anger smoke
against the sheep of Thy pasture? Remember Thy congregation, which Thou hast purchased
of old; the rod of Thine inheritance, which Thou hast redeemed; this mount Zion, wherein
Thou hast dwelt. Lift up thy feet unto the perpetual desolations; even all that the Enemy
hath done wickedly in the sanctuary. Thine enemies roar in the midst of Thy congregations;
they set up their ensigns for signs. A man was famous according as he had lifted up axes
upon the thick trees. But now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes
and hammers. They have cast fire into Thy sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down
the dwelling-place of Thy name to the ground. They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them
together; they have burned up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs:
there is no more any profit neither is there any among us which knoweth how long. O God,
how long shall the Adversary reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?
82
The Doom of the Antichrist
Why withdrawest Thou Thy hand, even Thy right hand? Pluck it out of Thy bosom” (Psa.
74:1-11).
It is at this time that the prophecy of Amos 8 will receive its final fulfillment: “The Lord
hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their works. Shall
not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that dwelleth therein? and it shall rise
wholly as a flood; and it shall be cast out and drowned, as by the flood of Egypt. And it shall
come to pass in that day, saith the Lord God, that I will cause the sun to go down at noon,
and I will darken the earth in the clear day: And I will turn your feasts into mourning, and
all your songs into lamentation; and I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness
upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only son, and the end thereof as
a bitter day. Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land,
not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but the hearing the words of the Lord: And
they shall wander from sea to sea, and from the north even to the east, they shall run to and
fro to seek the word of the Lord, and shall not find it. In that day shall the fair virgins and
the young men faint for thirst” (Amos 8:7-13). How remarkably does Psa. 74 interpret this
prophecy of Amos! The reason why the godly Remnant shall run to and fro to seek the word
of the Lord and shall not find it, and the meaning of the famine of hearing the words of the
Lord is that all the synagogues in the land shall have been burned up.
But not for long will this frightful persecution continue: “Therefore thus saith the Lord
God of hosts, O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrain: he shall smite
thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For yet a
very little while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction” (Isa.
10:24, 25). Once the Antichrist turns upon Israel his days are numbered, for to touch that
nation is to touch the apple of God’s eye (Zech. 2:8). God shall “stir up a scourge for him”
(Isa. 10:26). What this scourge is we learn from Dan. 11:40: “And at the time of the end shall
the king of the south push at him; and the king of the north (the Antichrist) shall come
against him (i.e. the king of the south) like a whirlwind with chariots, and with horsemen,
and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow, and pass
over” (Dan. 11:40).
The king of the south who pushes it — assails — the Antichrist is the king of Egypt. The
Antichrist, here termed the king of the north, i.e. Assyrai, shall leave Babylon, and marshalling
his imperial forces, which he has ready for immediate action, shall lead them against him
(the king of Egypt) like a whirlwind. The rapidity of his movements and the immensity of
his armies, is intimated by the words, “He shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow
and pass over.” His progress will be as the rushing of an overwhelming torrent from the
mountains, that spreads over the land, and carries everything before it. “He shall enter also
into the glorious land, and many countries shall be overthrown” (Dan. 11:41). His route
from Babylon to Egypt will take him through Palestine, the land which is soon to be the
83
The Doom of the Antichrist
glory of all lands; and, although we are not told here what he will do there at that time, his
hand will, no doubt, be heavy upon it, as also upon the many other countries which he will
overthrow. “But these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of
the children of Ammon” (Dan. 11:41). These three peoples will escape his fury. The reason
for their escape seems to be a double one. In Ps. 83, which describes an event at a little
earlier period, we are told, “they have taken crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted
against Thy hidden ones. They has said, Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation;
that the name of Israel may be no more in remembrance. For they have consulted together
with one consent, they are confederate against Thee: the tabernacles of Edom and the Ishmaelites;
of
Moab,
and
the
Hagarenes;
Gebal,
and
Ammon,
and
Amalck;
the
Philistines
with
the
inhabitants
of
Tyre;
Assur
(the
Assyrian)
also
is
joined
with
them”
(Psa.
83:3-8).
Thus
we
see
that
these
three
peoples
acted
in
concert
with
the
Antichrist
when
a
determined
effort
was
made
to
utterly
exterminate
the
Jewish
people.
The
Antichrist,
therefore,
spares
these
submissive
allies
of
his
when
he
goes
forth
to
overthrow
the
other
countries.
So much for the human side as to why “these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom,
and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.” But there is a Divine side, too. These
peoples are spared at that time in order that they may be dealt with later by God Himself.
Thus did Jehovah declare of old through Balaam the heathen prophet: “There shall come a
Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab,
and destroy all the children of Sheth. And Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a
possession for his enemies” (Num. 24:17, 18). This will be right at the beginning of the
Millennium. Israel, too, shall be used by God in this work of judgment upon their ancient
enemies: “But they shall fly upon the shoulders of the Philistines toward the west; they shall
spoil them of the east together: they shall lay their hand upon Edom and Moab; and the
children of Ammon shall obey them” (Isa. 11:14).
“He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not
escape. But he shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the
precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” (Dan.
11:42, 43). The victorious King will then take possession of those countries which were
overthrown by him during his march from Babylon to Egypt. Having now reached this land
which dared to push at him — the land never completely subjugated by the previous kings
of the north referred to in the earlier part of Dan. 11 — its king and subjects must now bow
before his iron sceptre. He becomes master of its treasures of gold, silver, and precious
things. The Libyans and Ethiopians, who were the allies of Egypt, will be compelled to follow
in this train. Thus will he crush this Egyptian rebellion, and demonstrate once more his
military prowess. Yet not for long will he be permitted to defy Heaven with impugnity.
“But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him: therefore he shall go
forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). What these
84
The Doom of the Antichrist
troublous tidings are we learn from Jer. 51. A serious attack will be made upon his Babylonian

headquarters, and during his absence from there, the kings of Ararat, Minni, and
Ashchenaz — no doubt emboldened by the insubordination of Egypt — will besiege and
capture one end of the Capital. The time is nigh at hand when God shall utterly destroy that
City of the Devil, and a preliminary warning of this is now given: “And I will render unto
Babylon and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion in
your sight, saith the Lord. Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, saith the Lord,
which destroyeth all the earth: and I will stretch out Mine hand upon thee, and roll thee
down from the rocks, and will make thee a burnt mountain. And they shall not take of thee
a stone for a corner, nor a stone for foundations; but thou shalt be desolate forever, saith
the Lord” (Jer. 51:24-26).
As a beginning to this end, the Lord says, “Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the
trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the
kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz (all situated in the vicinity of Armenia); appoint
a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers. Prepare against
her the nations with the kings of the Medes, the captains thereof, and all the rulers thereof,
and all the land of his dominion. And the land shall tremble and sorrow: for every purpose
of the Lord shall be performed against Babylon, to make the land of Babylon a desolation
without an inhabitant. The mighty man of Babylon hath forborne to fight, they have remained
in their holds: their might hath failed; they became as women: they have burned their
dwelling places; her bars are broken” (Jer. 51:27-30).
It is this ominous news — the tidings which trouble him of Dan. 11:44 — which reaches
the ears of Babylon’s King, then absent in Egypt. The alarming tidings that part of the city
has already been destroyed arouses him to fierce anger, for we are told, “therefore he shall
go forth with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many” (Dan. 11:44). As he
nears the capital, “one post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another,
to show the King of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, and that the passages are
stopped, and the reeds they have burned with fire, and the men of war are affrighted” (Jer.
51:31, 32). The end is not far distant: “For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel;
the daughter of Babylon is like a threshing floor, it is time to thresh her: yet a little while,
and the time of her harvest shall come” (Jer. 51:33). God now calls on the Jews who are
found dwelling within that city to leave at once, lest they be caught in the storm of His fierce
anger: “My people, go ye out of the midst of her, and deliver you every man his soul from
the fierce anger of the Lord” (Jer. 51:45). A graphic description of Babylon’s destruction is
found at the end of Jer. 51 and also in Rev. 18.
The fury of the Antichrist at the destruction of Babylon will know no bounds. Enraged
at his loss, and incensed against God, he will now turn his face toward Palestine, and at the
head of his vast forces will bear down upon the glorious land. Even so, it is God who is dir-
85
The Doom of the Antichrist
ecting him and his blinded dupes — directing him to finish the work of judgment upon Israel,
and directing him to his awful doom. Habakkuk gives a fearful description of the spirit in
which the King of Babylon and his hosts shall fall upon the dwellers of Palestine: — “For,
lo, I raise up the Chaldeans, that bitter and hasty nation, which shall march through the
breadth of the land, to possess the dwelling places that are not theirs. They are terrible and
dreadful: their judgment and their dignity shall proceed of themselves. Their horses also
are swifter than the leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves: and their horsemen
shall spread themselves, and their horsemen shall come from far; they shall fly as the eagle
that hasteth to eat. (How this verse anticipates the cruel aerial war-weapons!). They shall
come all for violence: their faces shall sup up as the east wind, and they shall gather the
captivity as the sand. And they shall heap dust, and take it. Then shall his mind change, and
he shall pass over, and offend, imputing this his power unto his god” (Note how this last
verse serves to identify the “Chaldean” with the “King” of Dan. 11:38, 39). So terrible will
be this onslaught that we are told, “And it shall come to pass, that in all the land, saith the
Lord, two parts therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein” (Zech.
13:8).
His course is vividly sketched by Isaiah in the tenth chapter of his prophecy: “He is come
to Aiath, he is passed to Migron; at Mickmash he hath laid up his carriages: They are gone
over the passage: they have taken up their lodging at Geba; Ramah is afraid; Galim: cause
it to be heard unto Laish, O poor Anathoth. Madmena is removed; the inhabitants of Gebim
gather themselves to flee. As yet shall he remain at Nob that day” (Isa. 10:28-32). Nob is his
camping-ground for that day, and it is there he will “plant the tabernacles of his palace
between the seas in the goodly holy mountain” (Dan. 11:45). Nob must be some elevation
commanding a distant view of Jerusalem from the west. As he stands on the hill that night
and looks at the Holy City, he “shall shake his hand against the mount of the daughter of
Zion, the hill of Jerusalem” (Isa. 10:32).
We now come to the closing scene. The following morning the Man of Sin leads his
forces to the famous Armageddon, there awaiting his final re-inforcements before attacking
Jerusalem. It is of this that Joel speaks: “Proclaim ye this among the Gentiles; Prepare war,
wake up the mighty men, let all the men of war draw near; let them come up: Beat your
plowshares into swords, and your pruning hooks into spears: let the weak say, I am strong.
Assemble yourselves, and come all ye heathen, and gather yourselves together round about:
thither cause Thy mighty ones to come down, O Lord. Let the heathen be wakened, and
come up to the valley of Jehoshaphat; for there will I sit to judge all the heathen round about.
Put ye in the sickle, for the harvest is ripe: come, get you down; for the press is full, the fats
overflow; for their wickedness is great. Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for
the day of the Lord is near in the valley of decision” (Joel 3:9-14).
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The Doom of the Antichrist
It is to this that Micah refers: “Now also many nations are gathered against thee, that
say, Let her be defiled, and let our eye look upon Zion. But they know not the thoughts of
the Lord, neither understand they His counsel: for He shall gather them as the sheaves into
the floor” (4:10, 11). But it is not in the valley that the battle is fought, but around Jerusalem,
where the Beast and his armies deliver the final blow of God’s judgment on that city ere the
Deliverer appears. It is then that God will say, “O Assyrian, the rod of Mine anger, and the
staff in their hands is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, and
against the people of My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the
prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the streets. Howbeit he meaneth not so, neither
doth his heart think so; but it is in his heart to destroy and cut off nations not a few. For he
saith, Are not my princes altogether kings? Is not Calno as Carchemish? Is not Hamath as
Arpad? Is not Samaria as Damascus? As my hand hath found the kingdoms of the idols,
and whose graven images did excel them of Jerusalem and of Samaria; Shall I not, as I have
done unto Samaria and her idols, so do to Jerusalem and her idols? Wherefore it shall come
to pass, that when the Lord hath performed His whole work upon mount Zion and on Jerusalem,
I
will
punish
the
fruit
of
the
stout
heart
of
the
King
of
Assyria,
and
the
glory
of
his
high
looks”
(Isa.
5-12).
The
Antichrist
is
but
the
Lord’s
instrument
after
all.
Just
as
Moses
picked
up
and
held
in
his
hand
the
rod
which
became
a
serpent,
so
shall
this
offspring
of
the
Serpent
be
wielded
by
the
hand
of
God
to
accomplish
His
predetermined
counsels.
Once again, though, the Beast appears to be successful. Jerusalem falls before his onslaught
as
Jehovah
had
foretold
that
it
should

“For
I
will
gather
all
nations
against
Jerusalem
to
battle;
and
the
city
shall
be
taken,
and
the
houses
rifled,
and
the
women
ravished;
and
half
of
the
city
shall
go
forth
into
captivity,
and
the
residue
of
the
people
shall
not
be
cut
off
from
the
city”
(Zech.
14:2).
Intoxicated
by
their
success,
it
is
then
that
the
heathen
shall
rage
and
the
people
imagine
a
vain
thing:
“The
kings
of
the
earth
set
themselves,
and
the
rulers
take
counsel
together,
against
the
Lord,
and
against
His
anointed,
saying,
Let
us
brake
their
bands
asunder,
and
cast
away
their
cords
from
us”
(Psa.
2:2,
3).
And then comes the grand finale. The heaven will open and from it will descend the
King of kings and Lord of lords, seated on a white horse, with His eyes “as a flame of fire”
(Rev. 19:11, 12). Attending Him will be the armies of heaven, also seated on white horses
(Rev. 19:14). Far from being appalled at this awe-inspiring spectacle, the Beast and the kings
of the earth and their armies shall gather together to “make war against Him that sat on the
horse, and against His armies” (Rev. 19:19). “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against
those nations, as when He fought in the day of battle” (Zech. 14:3). At last the Christ of God
and the christ of Satan will confront each other. But the instant the conflict begins, it is
ended. The Foe will be paralyzed, and all resistance cease.
Scripture has solemnly recorded the end of various august evil personages. Some were
overwhelmed by waters; some devoured by flames; some engulfed in the jaws of the earth;
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The Doom of the Antichrist
some stricken by a loathsome disease; some ignominiously slaughtered; some hanged; some
eaten up of dogs; some consumed by worms. But to no sinful dweller on earth, save the Man
of Sin, “the Wicked One,” has been appointed the terrible distinction of being consumed
by the brightness of the personal appearing of the Lord Jesus Himself. Such shall be his unprecedented
doom,
an
end
that
shall
fittingly
climax
his
ignoble
origin,
his
amazing
career,
and
his
unparalleled
wickedness.
“Hitherto proud boastings have issued from the lips of Satan’s king; but now he falls
helplessly to the ground blasted by the lightening which streams from the King of kings;
and together with the False Prophet and in the full sight of his countless armies, he is seized
by the angels of the Lord, to be hurled alive into the lake which burneth with fire and
brimstone” (G. H. Pember).
The overthrow of the Antichrist is described as follows: — “But with righteousness shall
He judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and He shall smite
the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked”
(Isa. 11:14).
“And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall
magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many; he shall also stand up against
the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand” — an expression which always
refers to that which is supernatural (Dan. 8:25).
“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy
mountain; yet shall he come to his end, and none shall help him” (Dan. 11:45).
“And then shall that Wicked (One) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the
spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (2 Thess. 2:8).
“And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles before
him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the Beast, and them that
worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone”
(Rev. 19:20).
“For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; he hath made it deep and
large: the pile: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream
of brimstone, doth kindle it” (Isa. 30:33).
“And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where
the Beast and the False Prophet are, and (they) shall be tormented day and night for ever and
ever” (Rev. 20:10).
Frightful, too, shall be the doom meted out to the followers of the Antichrist. Zech. 14
tells us, “And this shall be the plague wherewith the Lord will smite all the people that have
fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet,
and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongues shall consume away in
their mouth. And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the Lord shall
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The Doom of the Antichrist
be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hands of his neighbour, and his
hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour” (vv. 12, 13). So, also Rev. 19:21 declares,
“And the remnant were slain with the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which sword
proceeded out of His mouth; and all the fowls were filled with their flesh.”
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
Antichrist in the Psalms
The references to the Man of Sin in the book of Psalms are, for the most part, more or
less incidental ones. With rare exceptions he comes into view only as he is related to Israel,
or as he affects their fortunes. One cannot appreciate the force of what is there said of him
except as that is examined in the light of its prophetic setting. The time when the Antichrist
will be in full power is during the Tribulation period, and it is not until we discover, by
careful searching, which of the Psalms describe the Time of Jacob’s trouble, that we know
where to look for their last great Troubler.
Politically and ecclesiastically the Antichrist may be viewed in a threefold connection,
first, as he is related to the Gentile; second, as he is related to the apostate Jewish nation;
third, as he is related to the godly Jewish Remnant, who separate themselves from their
unbelieving brethren. More details are furnished us in the Psalms upon this third relationship
than upon the other two, though we have occasional allusions to Antichrist’s connections
with the Gentiles and the Jewish nation as a whole.
The second Psalm gives us a brief but vivid picture of that which will wind up the
Tribulation period, and while the Antichrist is not directly named, yet the light which other
scriptures throw upon it reveals the dreadful personality who heads the rebellion there described.

This second Psalm is prophetic in its character and has, like most (if not all)
prophecy, a double fulfillment.
“Why do the heathens rage, and the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth
set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His
anointed, saying, Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us” (Psa.
2:1-3). A part of this passage is found quoted in Acts 4, but it is striking to note where the
quotation ceases. Peter and John had been arraigned before the religious authorities of Israel,
because that in the name of Jesus Christ they had healed an impotent man. The apostles
boldly and faithfully vindicated themselves, and after being admonished and threatened
were allowed to depart to their own company. Then it was that they “lifted up their voice
to God with one accord, and said, Lord, Thou art God, which hast made heaven, and earth,
and the sea, and all that in them is: Who by the mouth of Thy servant David hath said, Why
did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up,
and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against His Christ” (Acts 4:24-26).
Notice they quoted only the first two verses of Psalm 2, and this they did not say was now
“fulfilled.” What they did say was, “For of a truth against Thy holy child Jesus, whom Thou
hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel,
were gathered together, for to do whatsoever Thy hand and Thy counsel determined before
to be done” (v. 28). In the apprehension of Christ and in His trials before the Jewish and
Gentilish authorities, this prophecy through David had received a partial fulfillment, but
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Antichrist in the Psalms
its final one is yet future. The time when Psalm 2 is to receive its complete accomplishment
is intimated in the middle section — it is just prior to the time when Christ returns to the
earth as “King,” and receives the heathen for His inheritance and the uttermost parts of the
earth for His possession; in other words, it is just before the dawn of the Millennium, namely,
the end of the Tribulation period.
As we re-read this second Psalm in the light of Rev. 16:14 and 19:19 we find that it depicts
the final act in the blatant and defiant career of the last great Caesar. it is an act of insane
desperation. The Son of Perdition will gather his forces and make a concerted effort to
prevent the Christ of God entering into His earthly inheritance. This we believe is evident
from the terms of the Psalm itself.
The Psalm opens with an interrogation: “Why do the heathen (the Gentiles) rage (better,
‘tumultuously assemble’), and the people (Israel) imagine (meditate) a vain thing?” The fact
that this is put in the form of a question is to arrest more quickly the reader’s attention, and
to emphasize the unthinkable impiety of what follows. “The kings of the earth set themselves,
and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against His Anointed.” Notice
that this rebellion is staged not only against the Lord but also against His “Anointed,” that
is, His Christ. The madness of this effort (headed by Antichrist) is intimated in v. 4: “He
that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.” The futility of
this movement is seen in v. 6: “Yet have I set My King upon My holy hill of Zion.” The “yet”
here has the force of “notwithstanding”: it shows the aim and the object which the insurrectionists
had
in
view,
namely,
an
attempt
to
prevent
Christ
returning
to
earth
to
set
up
His
millennial

kingdom. The response of heaven is noted in v. 5: “Then shall He speak unto
them in His wrath, and vex them in His sore displeasure.” This is enlarged upon in Rev.
19:20, 21. Psalm 2, then, brings us to the end of the Antichrist’s history and treats only of
the closing events in his awful career. In the other Psalms where he is in view earlier incidents
are noted and his dealings with the Jews are described.
The next Psalm in which the Antichrist appears is the fifth. This Psalm sets forth the
petitions which the faithful Remnant of Israel will make to God during the Tribulation
period. It would carry us beyond our present bounds to attempt anything like a complete
exposition of this Psalm in the light of its prophetic application. We shall do little more than
generalize.
The Tribulation period is the time when Satan is given the freest rein, when lawlessness
abounds, and when to the unbelieving heart it would seem that God had vacated His throne.
But the eye of faith recognizes the fact that Jehovah is still ruling amid the armies of the
heavens and among the inhabitants of the earth. Hence the force of the Divine title in v. 2
— the remnant address Jehovah as “My King and my God.” The most awful wickedness and
rebellion is going on around them, but they are fully assured that God is quite able to cope
with the situation. “The Wicked shall not stand in Thy sight: Thou hatest all workers of
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Antichrist in the Psalms
iniquity. Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the Lord will abhor the bloody and
deceitful man” (vv. 5, 6).
The “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is plainly the Man of Sin. He is denominated “bloody”
by virtue of his military ferocity; he is called “deceitful” because of his political duplicity.
One after another of his opponents will fall before him: through a sea of blood will he advance
to his imperial throne. Utterly unreliable will be his word, worthless his promises. A manifest
incarnation of that one who is the father of the Lie will he be. Most completely will he deceive
the Jews. A first, posing as their friend; later, standing as their arch-enemy. All doubt as to
the identity of this “Bloody and Deceitful Man” is removed by what is said of his “mouth.”
From Psalm 5 we turn to Psalm 7 where we find the godly Jewish Remnant crying unto
the Lord against their persecutors, chief of which is the Antichrist. This is clear from the
first two verses, where the change from the plural to the singular number is very significant
— “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me,
and deliver me: Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to
deliver.” The Remnant plead their innocency before God and call down upon themselves
the Enemy’s curse if they have acted unjustly — “O Lord my God, If I have done this; if
there be iniquity in my hands; if I have requited him that did evil unto me, or spoiled mine
adversary unto emptiness; Let the Enemy pursue my soul, and overtake it” (vv. 4-6, Jewish
translation). This at once serves to identify the individual of v. 2 who would tear their souls
like a “lion” (not like a bear) — showing his kinship with that awful one who “goeth about
as a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” Observe, too, the word he “was at peace,”
but now “without cause is mine enemy.” Clearly it is the Antichrist that is here in view, and,
as manifested in the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week, when he shall have thrown off
his mask and stood forth revealed in all his dreadfulness. The twelfth verse goes on to say,
“If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he hath bent his bow and made it ready.” It is this
which causes the Remnant to cry, “O Lord my God, in Thee do I put my trust: save me from
all them that persecute me, and deliver me” (v. 1). The fourteenth verse unmistakably
identifies this end-time Enemy of Israel, and again stamps him as a worthy son of the father
of the Lie — “Behold, he travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought
forth falsehood.” In the sixteenth verse the Remnant express their assurance of the certain
fate of their Foe: “His mischief shall return upon his own head, and his violent dealing shall
come down upon his own pate.”
The eighth Psalm is closely connected with the seventh. In the last verse of the seventh
we hear the Remnant saying, “I will praise the Lord according to His righteousness: and will
sing praise to the name of the Lord most high.” This anticipates the time when they shall
be delivered from their awful Enemy, and when the glorious Millennium shall have dawned
— “The Lord most high” is His distinctive millennial title. Psalm 8 follows this with a lovely
millennial picture, when Jehovah will be worshipped because His name is then “excellent
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Antichrist in the Psalms
in all the earth.” Then shall the Remnant say, “Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast
Thou ordained strength because of Thine enemies, that Thou mightiest still the Enemy and
the Avenger” (v. 2). The Enemy and the Avenger, more literally “the Foe and the Revenger,”
are two of the many names of the Antichrist.
Much in the ninth Psalm also anticipates millennial conditions and celebrates the
overthrow of the Man of Sin. Sings the Remnant, “For Thou hast maintained my right and
my cause; Thou satest in the throne judging right. Thou has rebuked the heathen, Thou
hast destroyed the Wicked” (vv. 4, 5). That the Wicked, or Lawless One, is the Antichrist,
is clear from the next verse: “The destructions of the Enemy are come to a perpetual end:
and their cities hast Thou destroyed.” We hope to show in a later chapter that “their cities”
which God will destroy are the cities of Antichrist and the False Prophet, namely, Babylon
and Rome. Again; in vv. 15, 16 of this Psalm we read, “The heathen are sunk down in the
pit that they made: in the net which they hid is their own foot taken. The Lord is known by
the judgment which He executeth: the Wicked is snared in the work of his own hands!”
This refers to the destruction of the Antichrist and his forces at Armageddon.
In the tenth Psalm we have the fullest description of the Antichrist found in any of the
Psalms. This Psalm is divided into four sections: first, the Cry of the Remnant (v. 1); second,
the Character of the Antichrist (vv. 2-11); third, the Cry of the Remnant renewed (vv. 12-15);
fourth, the Confidence of the Remnant (vv. 16-18). In its opening verse we discover its dispensational
key

the
“Times
of
Trouble”
(cf.
Jer.
30:7)
being
the
great
Tribulation.
Observe
now
what
is
here
said
of
the
Wicked
One.
In
v.
2
we read, “The Wicked in his pride doth
persecute (R. V. ‘hotly pursue’) the poor.” The “poor” (referred to in this Psalm seven times
— vv. 2, 8, 9, 9, 10, 14, and “humble” in v. 17 should be “poor” — emphasizing the completeness
of their poverty) are the faithful Remnant who have refused to receive the mark of the
Beast, and as the result are suffered to neither buy nor sell (see Rev. 13:17). In vv. 3, 4 we
are told, “For the Wicked (One) boasteth of his heart’s desire, and curseth, yea, abhorreth
the Lord (see Hebrew). The Wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek
after God: all his thoughts are — no God.” This tells of his frightful impiety and reveals his
satanic origin. In v. 6 his consuming egotism is depicted: “He hath said in his heart, I shall
not be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.” Then follows a description of his awful
wickedness: “His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief
and vanity. He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages: in the secret places doth he murder
the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.” Notice in this last verse the mention
of “the secret places.” It was to them our Lord referred in His Olivet Discourse, when He
said, “Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: Behold,
he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.” This whole Psalm will well repay the most minute
study.
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Antichrist in the Psalms
In the opening verse of the fourteenth Psalm we have what we doubt not is another
reference to the Antichrist, here called “The Fool.” He is the arch-fool, who, in his blatant
defiance, says in his heart — “no God.” The mark of identification is found in the marginal
reading of Psalm 10:4: All his thoughts are — “no God”. Does not this title point out another
contrast between Christ and the Antichrist: One is “the wonderful Counseller,” the other is
“the Fool!”
In the seventeenth Psalm, which contains the confession of the Remnant, (pleading
their innocency before God), reference is again made to the antichrist. “By the word of God’s
lips” will the believing Jews be “kept from the paths of the Destroyer.” This is another of his
titles which points a contrast: Christ is the Saviour; Antichrist the Destroyer. That it is the
Antichrist who is here in view is clear from what follows in vv. 12 and 13, where we read,
“Like as a lion that is greedy of his prey, and as it were a young lion lurking in secret places.
Arise, O Lord, disappoint him, cast him down: deliver my soul from the Wicked, by Thy
sword.” The “Wicked” is here in the singular number. Note again the reference to the “secret
places,” about which we shall have something to say, in our exposition of Matt. 24, vv. 25,
and 26 when we treat of the Antichrist in the Gospels.
We pass over several Psalms which contain incidental allusions to the Wicked One and
turn now to the thirty-sixth. The wording of the first verse is somewhat ambiguous, and we
believe its force comes out better by rendering it, with the Sept., Syriac and Vulgate, “the
transgression of the Wicked saith within his heart, that there is no fear of God before his
eyes.” He defies Jehovah and fears not Elohim. “For he flattereth himself in his own eyes,
until his iniquity be found to be hateful” (v. 2). Haughty conceit fills him, but in the end he
shall reap as he has sown. “The words of his mouth are iniquity and deceit; he hath left off
to be wise, and to do good” (v. 3). This refers to his treacherous dealings with the Jews, and
takes note of the two great stages in his career; first, when he poses as Israel’s friend, later
when he comes out in his true character as their enemy.j Verse 4 describes his moral character:
“he
deviseth
mischief
upon
his
bed;
he
setteth
himself
in
a
way
that
is

not good; he
abhorreth not evil.”
The thirty-seventh Psalm, which in its ultimate application has to do with the godly
Remnant in the Tribulation period, contains a number of references to the Antichrist. In
the seventh verse the Remnant is exhorted to “rest in the Lord and wait patiently for Him”
(i.e. for His personal appearing) and to “fret not because of him who prospereth in his way,
because of the Man who bringeth wicked devices to pass” — a manifest allusion to the Man
of Sin. In the tenth verse they are assured, “for yet a little while, and the Wicked shall not
be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be.” In vv. 12 and 13 we read,
“the Wicked plotteth against the just, and gnasheth upon him with his teeth. The Lord shall
laugh at Him: for He seeth that his day is coming.” This brings out the satanic malice of
Antichrist against the people of God, and also marks the Lord’s contempt for him as He
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Antichrist in the Psalms
beholds the swiftly approaching doom of this one who has so daringly defied Him. The end
of the Wicked is noticed in v. 35. “I have seen the Wicked in great power, and spreading
himself like a green bay tree. Yet he passed away, and, lo, he was not: yea, I sought him, but
he could not be found.” The whole of this wondrous Psalm calls for close study. It throws
a flood of light on the experiences of the Remnant amid the awful trials of the end of the
age.
“I said, I will take heed to my ways, that I sin not with my tongue: I will keep my mouth
with a bridle, while the Wicked is before me” (Psa. 39:1). This sets forth the resolutions of
the Remnant in view of the troublesome presence of the Wicked One; while in v. 8 they are
seen praying that they may not be made the reproach of the Foolish One — “Deliver me
from all my transgressions: make me not the reproach of the Foolish.”
The forty-third Psalm opens with the plaintive supplications of the Remnant in view of
the contempt and opposition of the Jewish nation as a whole, at the head of which will be
the false Messiah: “Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver
me
from
the
deceitful
and
unjust
Man.
For
Thou
art
the
God
of
my
strength:
why
dost
Thou
cast
me
off?
Why
go
I
mourning
because
of
the
oppression
of
the
Enemy?”
The
allusion
to
the
deceit
and
injustice
of
the
man
of
Sin
views,
of
course,
his
breaking
of
the
covenant.
In the forty-fourth Psalm we are given to hear more of the bitter lamentations of the
Remnant, betrayed as they have been by the one who posed as their benefactor, and scorned
as they are by their fellow Jews: “Thou makest us a byword among the heathen, a shaking
of the head among the people (Israel). My confusion is continually before me, and the shame
of my face covered me, For the voices of him that reproacheth and blasphemeth; by reason
of the Enemy and Avenger.”
The fiftieth Psalm is one of deep interest in this connection. It announces the response
of Jehovah to the cries of His faithful people. It declares that “God shall come, and shall not
keep silence: a fire shall devour before Him, and it shall be tempestuous round about Him”
(v. 3). It promises that He will gather His saints together unto Him (v. 5). It contains an
exposulation with Israel as a whole (see vv. 7-14). And then, after bidding His people call
upon Him “in the Day of Trouble” and assuring them He will deliver them, God addresses
their Enemy as follows: — “But unto the Wicked God saith, What hast thou to do to declare
My statutes, or that thou shouldest take My covenant in thy mouth? Seeing thou hatest instruction,
and
casteth
My
words
behind
thee.
When
thou
sawest
a
thief,
then
thou
consentedst
with
him,
and
hast

been partaker with adulterers. Thou givest thy mouth to evil, and thy
tongue frameth deceit. Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; thou slanderest thine
own mother’s son” (vv. 16-22). First, God rebukes the Antichrist for his hypocrisy, referring
to the time when, at the beginning of his career, he had (like Satan in tempting the Saviour)
come declaring God’s statutes and taking the Divine Covenant in his mouth (v. 16). Second,
He charges him with his treachery when, at the midst of the seventieth week, he had cast
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Antichrist in the Psalms
God’s words behind him (v. 17). Third, He exposes his depravity and shows that he is altogether
destitute
of
any
moral
sensibility
(vv.
18-20).
Fourth,
He
reminds
him
of
how
he
had
congratulated
himself
that
he
should
continue
on
his
vile
course
with
impugnity
and
escape
the
due
reward
of
his
wickedness
(v.
21).
Finally,
He
announces
the
certainty
of
retribution
and
the
fearful
doom
which
awaits
him
(v.
22).
The fifty-second continues and amplifies what has just been before us from the closing
verses of the fiftieth Psalm. Here again the Antichrist is indicted by God — no doubt through
the Remnant. “Why boastest thou thyself in mischief, O mighty man? The goodness of God
endureth continually. Thy tongue deviseth mischiefs; like a sharp razor, working deceitfully.
Thou lovest evil more than good; and lying rather than to speak righteousness. Selah. Thou
lovest all devouring words, O thou deceitful tongue. God shall likewise destroy thee forever,
and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Selah.
The righteous also shall see, and fear, and shall laugh at him: Lo, this is the man that made
not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself
in his wickedness” (vv. 1-7). The pride, the enmity, the treachery, the moral corruption, and
the vaunting of the incarnate Son of Perdition are all noticed and charged against him. The
certainty of his doom, and his degradation before those he had persecuted, is graphically
depicted.
The prophetic application of the fifty-fifth Psalm first found its tragic realization in the
treachery of Judas against the Lord Jesus, but its final accomplishment yet awaits a coming
day. In it we may see a pathetic description of the heart-pangs of the Remnant, mourning
over the duplicity of the mock Messiah. Driven out of Jerusalem, they bewail the awful
wickedness now holding high carnival in the holy city: “Wickedness is in the midst thereof:
deceit and guile depart not from her streets. For it was not an enemy that reproached me;
then I could have borne it: neither was it he that hated me that did magnify himself against
me; then I would have hid myself from him: But it was thou, a man mine equal (i.e. a Jew),
my guide, and mine acquaintance” (vv. 11-13). Thus will the Jews in a coming day be called
upon to endure the bitter experience of betrayal and desertion by one whom they regarded
as their friend. Concerning their Enemy the Remnant exclaim, “He hath put forth his hand
against such as be at peace with him: he hath broken his covenant. The words of his mouth
were smoother than butter, but war was in his heart: his words were softer than oil, yet were
they drawn swords” (vv. 20, 21). The reference is to the seven-year Treaty which the final
Caesar makes with Palestine, and which after three and one half years is treated as a scrap
of paper. But such treachery will not go unpunished. In the end Antichrist and his abettors
will be summarily dealt with by the Judge of all the earth: “But Thou, O God, shalt bring
them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their
days” (v. 23).
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Antichrist in the Psalms
Psalm seventy-one contains another of the Remnant’s prayers during the End-time.
“Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the Wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous
and cruel Man” (v. 4). The reference is, again, to the Man of Sin who has acted unjustly, and
whose fiendish delight it will be to persecute the people of God.
In Psalm seventy-two we find expressed the confidence of the Remnant. They are there
seen anticipating that joyful time when God’s King shall reign in righteousness. With glad
assurance they exclaim: “He shall judge Thy people with righteousness, and Thy poor with
judgments. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the little hills Thy righteousness.
He
shall
judge
the
poor
of
the
people,
He
shall
save
the
children
of
the
needy,
and
shall
break

in pieces the Oppressor” (vv. 2-4). Mighty as their Enemy appeared in the eyes of
men, and invincible as he was in his own estimation, when God’s appointed time comes he
shall be broken in pieces as easily as the chaff is removed by the on-blowing wind.
The seventy-fourth Psalm makes reference to the violence of the Antichrist against the
believing Remnant: “They said in their hearts, Let us destroy them together: they have burned
up all the synagogues of God in the land. We see not our signs: there is no more any profit:
neither is there any among us that knoweth how long. O God, how long shall the Adversary
reproach? Shall the Enemy blaspheme Thy name forever?” (vv. 8-10). This contemplates
the time when the Man of Sin and his lieutenants will make a desperate effort to cut off Israel
from the earth and abolish everything which bears the name of God. Note it does not say
“all the synagogues” will be burned up, but the “synagogues of God,” that is, where the true
and living God is owned and worshipped.
The eighty-third Psalm carries us to a point a little nearer the end. Not only will the
synagogues of God be all destroyed, but an attempt will be made to exterminate those who
still worship God in secret. Listen to the tragic pleadings of this Satan-hunted company,
“Keep not Thou silence, O God: hold not Thy peace, and be not still, O God. For, lo, Thine
enemies make a tumult: and they that hate Thee have lifted up the head. They have taken
crafty counsel against Thy people, and consulted against Thy hidden ones. They have said,
Come, and let us cut them off from being a nation; that the name of Israel may be no more
in remembrance” (vv. 1-4). As to who is responsible for this the verses following show. In
v. 5 we read, “For they have consulted together with one consent: they are confederate against
Thee.” Then will be realized man’s dream of a League of Nations. It is remarkable that just
ten nations are here named — see vv.6-8. “Assur” in v. 8 is “the Assyrain” — the Antichrist
in his king-of-Babylon character. This verse is one of the few passages in the Psalms which
shows the Antichrist in connection with the Gentiles. Psalm 110:6 also contains a reference
to him as related to the Gentiles — “He hath stricken the Head over many countries” (R.
V.).
The one hundred and fortieth appears to be the last of the Psalms that takes note of the
Antichrist. There we hear once more the piteous cries of the Remnant to God: “Deliver me,
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Antichrist in the Psalms
O Lord, from the Evil Man: preserve me from the Violent Man: Keep me, O Lord, from the
hands of the Wicked; preserve me from the Violent Man; who hath purposed to overthrow
my goings[hellip]Grant not, O Lord, the desires of the Wicked: further not his wicked device”
(vv. 1, 4, 8).
Thus we have glanced at no less than twenty Psalms in which allusion is made to the
Antichrist. This by no means exhausts the list; but sufficient has been noted to show what
a prominent place is there given to this dreadful monster. Let it not be supposed that we are
denying the present value and application of the Psalms to ourselves. Nothing is more foreign
to our desire. We not only firmly believe that all Scripture is given by inspiration of God
and is “profitable for doctrine,” but we readily and gladly unite with the saints of all ages in
turning to this precious portion of God’s Word to provide us with language suited to express
to God the varying emotions of our hearts. But while allowing fully the experimental and
doctrinal value of the Psalter for us today, it needs to be pointed out that many of the Psalms
have a prophetic significance, and will be used by another company of believers after the
Church which is the body of Christ has been removed from these scenes of sin and suffering.
We would urge those of our readers who are interested in dispensational truth to re-study
these lyrics of David with a view of discovering how much they reveal of things to come.
98
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The Antichrist in the Prophets
The references to the Antichrist in the Prophets are numerous; nor is this to be wondered
at. It is there, more than anywhere else in Scripture, that we learn of the future of both Israel
and the Gentiles. It is there we have the fullest information concerning End-time conditions,
and the completest description of the varied parts which the leading characters shall play
in those days. It would carry us beyond the scope designed for these articles were to examine
every passage in the Prophets which makes mention of the Man of Sin and the numerous
roles he will fill. Yet we do not desire to pass by any of the more important allusions to him.
We shall, therefore, make a selection, and yet such a selection that we trust a complete outline
at least will be supplied. Certain scriptures, notably those which view the Antichrist in
connection with Babylon, will be waived now, because they will receive separate consideration
in a later chapter.
One other introductory remark needs to be made. We are conscious that this chapter
will probably be somewhat unsatisfactory to a few of our readers, inasmuch as we shall be
obliged to take a good deal for granted. It is manifest that we cannot here attempt to give a
complete analysis of the passages where the different allusions to the Antichrist occur, nor
should this be necessary. We are writing to Bible students, therefore we shall ask them to
turn to the different places from which we quote and examine the contexts so as to satisfy
themselves that they treat of End-time conditions. While in most instances the context will
show that we are not reading into the Scriptures what is not there, yet in a few cases they
may fail us. This is sometimes true with passages which contain prophecies concerning
Christ. It is often the case in the prophets that the Holy Spirit is treating of something near
at hand and then, without any warning, projects the view into the distant future. But just
as the New Testament enables us to determine which Old Testament passages speak of
Christ, so other scriptures help us to identify the person of the Antichrist in verses where
there is but an indefinite and passing allusion to him.
99
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
A brief notice is taken of the Man of Sin in chapter 16. The opening verses make it clear
that conditions in the Tribulation period are being described. They intimate how that the
persecuted Jews flee to the land of Moab for refuge — “Hide the outcasts; betray not him
that wandereth,” makes this clear. These outcasts are definitely identified in v. 4, where Jehovah
terms
them
“Mine
outcasts.”
The
same
verse
goes
on
to
tell
why
they
were
outcasts,
outcasts
from
Palestine:
“Let
Mine
outcasts
dwell
with
thee,
Moab;
be
thou
a
covert
to
them
from
the
face
of
the
Spoiler:
for
the
Extortioner
is
at
an
end,
the
Spoiler
ceaseth,
the
oppressors
are
consumed
out
of
the
land.”
Here
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist
is
noted.
A
further
proof
that
these
verses
describe
what
immediately
precedes
the
Millennium
is
found
in
the
next
verse,
which
conducts
us
to
the
beginning
of
the
Millennium
itself:
“And
in
mercy
shall
the
throne
be
established:
and
He
shall
sit
upon
it
in
truth
in
the
tabernacle
of
David,
judging,
and

seeking judgment, and hasting righteousness.” Thus, in the light of other scriptures,
there is little room for doubt that the Spoiler and the Extortioner refer to none other than
the Son of Perdition.
In 22:25 we have another incidental reference to the Antichrist. For our comments on
this verse we refer the reader to chapter 4, section 17.
“In that day the Lord with His sore and great and strong sword shall punish, Leviathan
the piercing Serpent, even Leviathan that crooked Serpent; and He shall slay the Dragon
that is in the sea” (Isa. 27:1). This chapter is by no means easy to analyze: its structure seems
complex. That its contents point to a yet future date is intimated by its opening words —
compare other verses in Isaiah where “in that day” occur. As one reads the chapter through
it will be found that there is a peculiar alternation between references to the Tribulation
period and conditions in the Millennium. The closing verse clearly refers to the end of the
Tribulation period. So, also, does the first verse with which we are now chiefly concerned.
Leviathan, the piercing Serpent, is, we believe, one of the names of the Antichrist,
compare chapter 3, section II, 2. A comparison with a passage in Job confirms this conclusion.
It is generally agreed that “leviathan” in Job 41 refers to the crocodile, yet the commentators
do not appear to have seen in it anything more than a description of that creature. But surely
a whole chapter of Scripture would scarcely be devoted to describing a reptile! Personally,
we are satisfied that under the figure of that treacherous and cruel monster we have a remarkable
silhouette
of
the
Prince
of
darkness.
Note
the
following
striking
points:
In verses 1 and 2 (of Job 41) the strength of Leviathan is referred to. In v. 3 the question
is asked “will he speak soft words unto thee?”: this is meaningless if only a crocodile is in
view; but it is very pertinent if we have here a symbolic description of Antichrist. In v. 4 the
question is put, “Will he make a covenant with Thee?”: this, too, is pointless if nothing but
a reptile is the subject of the passage; but if it looks to some Monster more dreadful, it serves
100
1. Antichrist in Isaiah
to identify. “None is so fierce that dare stir him up” (v. 10): how closely this corresponds
with Rev. 13:4 — “Who is able to make war with the Beast?” “His teeth are terrible round
about” (v. 14): how aptly this pictures the fierceness and cruelty of the Antichrist! “His heart
is as firm as a stone; yea, as hard as a piece of the nether millstone” (v. 24): how accurately
this portrays the moral depravity of the Antichrist! “When he raiseth up himself the mighty
are afraid[hellip]the arrow cannot make him flee” (vv.25, 26, 28): how these words suggest
the invincibility of Antichrist so far as human power is concerned. “Upon earth there is not
his like, who is made without fear. He beholdeth all high things: he is a king over all the
children of pride” (vv.33, 34). Surely these last verses remove all doubt as to who is really
before us here! The whole of Job 41 should be studied carefully, for we are assured that it
contains a remarkable but veiled amplification of Isa. 27:1.
In Isa. 33 there is another reference to the Antichrist. This chapter, like so many in
Isaiah, passes from a notice of Tribulation conditions to the Millennial state and back again.
The opening verse reads, “Woe to thee that spoileth, and thou wast not spoiled; and dealest
treacherously, and they dealt not treacherously with thee! When thou shalt cease to spoil,
thou shalt be spoiled; and when thou shalt make an end to deal treacherously, they shall
deal treacherously with thee.” This is evidently a judgment pronounced upon the head of
the false messiah. Two things serve to identify him: he is the great Spoiler, and the one who
shall deal treacherously with Israel. It is in view of the perfidy and rapacity of their Enemy
that the godly remnant cry, “O Lord, be gracious unto us; we have waited for Thee: be Thou
their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of trouble” (v. 2). A further word
concerning the Antichrist is found in v. 8: “The highways lie waste, the wayfaring man
ceaseth: he hath broken the covenant, he hath despised the cities, he regardeth no man.”
The last three statements in this verse make it certain who is there in view. It is the Antichrist
displayed in his true colors; the one who breaks his covenant with Israel, sacks their cities,
and defies all human government to resist him.
A brief notice must be taken of 57:9 ere we turn from Isaiah. In this chapter we find
God arraigning Israel for their horrid idolatries and wickedness. The opening verse again
makes it clear that it is the Tribulation period which is in view: “The righteous perisheth,
and no man layeth it to heart,” etc. Following this we have the various indictments which
God makes against the unfaithful Jews — “But draw near hither, ye sons of the sorceress,
the seed of the adulterer and the whore” (v. 3, etc.). The remainder of the chapter continues
in the same strain. Among the many charges which God brings against Israel is this: “And
thou wentest to the King with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes, and didst send
thy messengers far off, and didst debase thyself even unto hell” (v. 9). It is evident that as
this chapter is describing the sins of Israel committed in the End-time that “the King” here
must be the false messiah. Incidentally this verse furnishes one of the many proofs that the
Antichrist will be king over the Jews.
1012. Antichrist in Jeremiah
2. Antichrist in Jeremiah
In the 4th chapter of this prophet there is a vivid description of the fearful afflictions
which shall come upon the inhabitants of Palestine. Doubtless, what is there said received
a tragic fulfillment in the past. But like most, if not all prophecy, this one will receive a later
and final accomplishment. There are several statements found in it which indicate that it
treats of the End-time. The plainest of these is found in the closing verse, where we read,
“For I have heard a voice as of a woman in travail, and the anguish as of her which bringeth
forth her first child, the voice of the daughter of Zion.” It is the “birth-pangs” of Matt. 24:8
(see Greek) which is in view. The sore trials which Israel shall then undergo are tragically
depicted: “Blow ye the trumpet in the land: cry, gather together, and say, Assemble yourselves,
and let us go into the defenced cities. Set up the standard toward Zion: retire, stay not: for
I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction. The Lion is come up from his
thicket, and the Destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way; he is gone forth from his place to
make thy land desolate; and thy cities shall be laid waste, without an inhabitant” (vv. 5-7).
The Destroyer of the Gentiles now turns to vent his fiendish malignity upon the holy land.
Destruction is in his heart. Terrible shall be his onslaught: “Behold, he shall come up as
clouds, and his chariots shall be as a whirlwind: his horses are swifter than eagles. Woe unto
us! for we are spoiled” (v. 13). Fearful will be the devastations his fury shall accomplish:
“The whole city shall flee for the noise of the horsemen and bowmen; they shall go into
thickets, and climb up upon the rocks: every city shall be forsaken, and not a man dwell
therein” (v. 29).
In 6:26, 27 there is a remarkable statement made concerning the Antichrist: “O daughter
of My people, gird thee with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes: make thee mourning,
as for an only son, most bitter lamentation: for the Spoiler (Destroyer, as in 4:7) shall suddenly
come upon us.” This Spoiler is the Destroyer of the Gentiles. But it is what follows in the
next verse which is so striking: “I have set thee for a tower and a fortress among My people,
that thou mayest know and try their way.” Here we learn that, after all, the Antichrist is but
a tool in the hands of Jehovah. It is He who sets him in the midst of Israel to “try” them. A
parallel statement is found in Isa. 10:5, 6, where the Lord says of the Assyrian “I will send
him against a hypocritical nation.” It reminds us very much of what we read concerning
Pharaoh in Rom. 9:17. He was “raised up” by God to accomplish His purpose. Even so shall
it be with this one whom Pharaoh foreshadowed. He shall be an instrument in God’s hand
to chastise recreant Israel.
Chap. 15 contains brief allusions to the Antichrist. In v.8 we have a statement similar
to what was before us in the last passage. Speaking to Israel God says, “I have brought upon
them against the mother of the young men a Spoiler at noonday: I have caused him to fall
upon it suddenly, and terrors upon the city.” It is the Lord, then, (behind Satan) who brings
102
2. Antichrist in Jeremiah
this Spoiler against them. After His purpose has been accomplished, after the Antichrist has
done what (unknown to himself) God had appointed, we read how that the Lord assures
His people, “I will deliver thee out of the hand of the Wicked, and I will redeem thee out of
the hand of the Terrible” (v. 21). Thus will God demonstrate His supremacy over the Son
of Perdition.
25:38 takes us back a little and notices the awful desolation which the Antichrist brings
upon the land of Israel: “He hath forsaken his covert, as the lion: for their land is desolate
because of the fierceness of the Oppressor, and because of his fierce anger.”
103
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
3. Antichrist in Ezekiel
We shall notice here but two passages in this prophet. First, in 21:25-27 — “and thou,
profane wicked Prince of Israel, whose day is come, when iniquity shall have an end, Thus
saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, and take off the crown: this shall not be the same:
exalt him that is low, and abase him that is high. I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and
it shall be no more, until He come whose right it is; and I will give it Him.”
So far as we are aware, all pre-millennial students regard this passage as a description
of the Antichrist. It pictures him as Satan’s parody of the Son of Man seated upon “the
throne of His glory.” It sets him forth as the priest-king. Just as in the Millennium the Lord
Jesus will “be a Priest upon His throne” (Zech. 6:13), so will the Antichrist combine in his
person the headships of both the civil and religious realms. He will be what the popes have
long aspired to be — head of the World-State, and head of the World-Church.
“And thou, O deadly wounded Wicked One, the Prince of Israel, whose day is come, in
the time of the iniquity of the end; thus saith the Lord: remove the mitre, and take off the
crown” (R. V.). This is clearly Israel’s last king, ere the King of kings and Lord of lords returns
to the earth. He is here termed “the Prince of Israel” as the true Christ is denominated
“Messiah the Prince” in Dan. 9:25. The description “O deadly wounded Wicked One” looks
forward to Rev. 13:12, where we read, “The first Beast whose deadly wound was healed!”
“Remove the mitre and take off the crown” point to his assumption of both priestly and
kingly honors. The Heb. word for “mitre” here is in every other passage used of the headdress
of
Israel’s
high
priest!
Finally,
the
statement
that
his
“day
is
come[hellip]in
the
time
of
iniquity
of
the
end”
establishes,
beyond
a
doubt,
the
identity
of
this
person.
In the opening verses of Ezek. 28 we have a striking view of the Man of Sin under the
title of “the Prince of Tyre,” just as what is said of “the King of Tyre” in the second half of
the chapter is an esoteric allusion to Satan. First, we are told his “heart is lifted up” (v. 2),
which is precisely what is said to his father, the Devil, in v. 17. Second, he makes the boast
“I am God” and “I sit in the seat of God” (v. 2), which is parallel with 2 Thess. 2:4. Third, it
is here said of him, “Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide
from thee” (v. 3), which intimates he will be endowed with superhuman wisdom by that
one of whom this same chapter declares, “Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom” (v. 12).
Fourth, it is said of him, “By thy wisdom and by thine understanding thou hast gotten thee
riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures” (v. 4). Thus will he be able to dazzle
the worshippers of Mammon by his Croseus-like wealth, and out-do Solomon in the glory
of his kingdom. Finally, his death by the sword is here noted, see vv. 7, 8.
104
4. Antichrist in Daniel
4. Antichrist in Daniel
4. Antichrist in Daniel
It is here that we find the fullest description of the Man of Sin. First, he is looked at
under the figure of “the little horn.” As there has been some dispute whether this expression
really applies to him, we propose to examine the more carefully what is here said of “the
little horn.” Personally, we have long been convinced that this expression refers to none
other than the Antichrist. There are a number of plain marks which make it comparatively
easy to recognize his person, whenever Scripture brings him before us. For example: his
insolent and blasphemous pride; his exalting himself against and above God; his impious
and cruel warfare against the people of God; his sudden, terrible, and supernatural end. Let
us compare these features with what is said of “the little horn” in Dan. 7 and 8.
We turn first to Dan. 7. In vv.7 and 8 we read, “After this I saw in the night visions, and
behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron
teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it was
diverse from all the beasts which were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns,
and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three
of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes
of man, and a mouth speaking great things.” This refers to the rise of “the little horn” within
the bounds of the Roman Empire, for that is what is represented by the “fourth beast.” The
first thing said of the little horn is that he has eyes like the eyes of man, which speak of intelligence,
and
a
mouth
speaking
great
things

the
Heb.
word
signifies
“very
great,”
and
the
reference
is,
no
doubt,
to
his
lofty
pretensions
and
his
daring
blasphemies.
In 7:21 it is further said of him that he “made war with the saints, and prevailed against
them.” This contemplates his persecution of the godly Jews, and agrees perfectly with Rev.
13:7; “And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them.” In
v. 25 we are told, “He shall speak great words against the Most High.” Surely this serves to
identify this “little horn” as the first beast of Rev. 13: “And there was given unto him a mouth
speaking great things and blasphemies” (v. 5). If further proof be needed, it is supplied by
the remainder of verse 25: “And shall wear out the saints of the Most High[hellip]and they
shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.” A “time” equals
a year (see Dan. 4:23 and Rev. 12:14, and cf. 12:6), so that a “time and times and the dividing
of time” would be three and one-half years during which the saints are given into his hand.
This corresponds exactly with Rev. 13:5, where of the first Beast, the Antichrist, it is said,
“And power was given unto him to continue forty and two months” — in a later chapter
we shall give a number of proofs to show that the first Beast of Rev. 13 is the Antichrist.
In Dan. 8 the Little Horn is before us again, and that it is the same dread personage as
in chapter 7 appears from what is predicted of him. First, he is referred to as “a king of fierce
countance” (8:23), which agrees with “whose look was more stout than his fellows” (7:20).
105
4. Antichrist in Daniel
Second, it is said of him that he “waxed exceeding great (first) towards the south, and (second)
towards the east, and (third) toward the pleasant land” (8:9), which agrees with “there came
up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked
up” (7:8). Third, it is said that he “shall destroy the mighty and the holy people” (8:24),
which agrees with “and the same horn made war with the saints and prevailed against them”
(7:21). There should, then, be no doubt whatever that the “little horn” of Dan. 7 and the
“little horn” of Dan. 8 refer to one and the same person. Their moral features coincide: both,
from an insignificant beginning, become great in the end: both persecute the people of God:
both are stricken down by direct interposition of God. We may add that Messrs. B. W.
Newton, James Inglis, G. H. Pember, Sir Robert Anderson, Drs. Tregilles, J. H. Brookes,
Haldeman, and a host of other devout scholars and students, take the same view, namely,
that the “little horn” of Dan. 7 and 8 and the Man of Sin is one and the same person.
Let us now consider briefly what is revealed concerning the Antichrist under this title
of his, the “little horn.” We confine ourself to Dan. 8:23-25.
First, he is “a king of fierce countenance.” This we believe is a literal description of his
facial expression, though we are satisfied that it also has a moral significance. In Deut. 28:50
we read of “a nation of fierce countenance, which shall not regard the person of the old nor
show favor to the young.” In the light of this scripture it seems clear that when the Antichrist
is denominated the “King of fierce countenance” the reference is not only to his actual features,

but that it also intimates he will be empowered to face the most perplexing and
frightful dangers and the most appalling scenes of horror without flinching or blanching.
It is significant that the reference in Deut. 28:50 is to the Romans, while what is said of the
Antichrist in Dan. 8:23 relates, specially, to his connections with Greece. The two dominant
characteristics of these Powers will be combined in the Man of Sin. There will be concentrated
in him the irresistible will of the Romans and the brilliant intellect of the Greeks.
Second, we are told that he shall be able to “understand dark sentences.” The Heb. noun
for “dark sentences” is used of Samson’s riddle (Judges 14:12, of the Queen of Sheba’s hard
questions (1 Kings 10:1), and of the dark sayings of the wise (Prov. 1:6), which are too profound
to
be
understood
by
the
simple.
This
characteristic
of
the
King
of
fierce
countance,
that
he
shall
be
able
to
“understand
dark
sentences,”
suggests
an
attempted
rivalry
of
Christ
as
the
Revealer
of
secret
things.
This
is
one
of
the
fascinations
by
which
the
Antichrist
will
dazzle
humanity.
He
will
present
himself
as
one
in
whom
are
hidden
treasures
of
wisdom
and
knowledge.
He
will
bewitch
the
world
by
his
solutions
of
the
enigmas
of
life,
and
most
probably
by
his
revelation
of
occult
powers
implanted
in
men
hitherto
unsuspected
by
most,
and
of
forces
and
secrets
of
nature
previously
undiscovered.
Third, it is said “And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power” (8:24). This
is explained in Rev. 13:2, where we are told, “And the Dragon gave him his power, and his
throne, and great authority.” Just as we read of the Lord Jesus, “The Father that dwelleth in
106
4. Antichrist in Daniel
Me, He doeth the works” (John 14:10), so shall the Son of Perdition perform his prodigies
by power from his father, the Devil. This is exactly what 2 Thess. 2:9 declares, “Whose
coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders.” Thus will
men be deceived by the miracles he performs.
Fourth, he will “destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practice, and shall destroy
the mighty and the holy people” (8:24). This has received enlargement in the previous
chapter, where we have given several illustrations from the Psalms of the Antichrist persecuting
Israel.
Fifth, “And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand” (8:25).
The Heb. word for “policy” denotes wisdom and understanding. It was the word used by
David to Solomon, when he said, “Only the Lord give thee wisdom” (1 Chron. 22:12), as it
is also employed by Huram when writing to Solomon: “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel,
that made heaven and earth, who hath given to David the king a wise son, endued with
prudence” (2 Chron. 2:12). The Heb. word for “craft” — “He shall cause craft to prosper”
— is the one employed by Isaac when speaking to Esau concerning Jacob: “Thy brother
came with subtilty” (Gen. 27:35). It has in view the chicanery and treacherous methods the
Antichrist will employ. “By peace shall destroy many” (v. 25) refers to the fact that he will
pose as the Prince of peace, and after gaining men’s confidence — particularly that of the
Jews — will take advantage of this to spring his bloody schemes upon them.
Sixth, it is said “He shall also stand up against the Prince of princes” (8:25). This unmistakably
identifies
him
with
the
Beast
of
Rev.
19:19,
where
we
are
told,
“And
I
saw
the
Beast,
and

the kings of the earth, and their armies, gathered together to make war against Him
that sat on the horse, and against His army.”
Seventh, “But he shall be broken without hand” (8:25). This expression means that he
shall come to his doom without human intervention or instrumentality — see Dan. 2:45; 2
Cor. 5:1, etc. That the King of fierce countenance shall be broken without hand refers to his
destruction by the Lord Himself — “And He shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth,
and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the Wicked” (Is. 11:4).
We turn now to Dan. 9:26, 27. This forms a part of the celebrated prophecy of the seventy
“weeks” or hebdomads. We cannot now attempt an exposition of the whole prophecy: sufficient

to point out its principal divisions and examine that part of it which bears on our
present theme.
The prophecy begins with v. 24 and concerns the seventy hebdomads, a word signifying
“sevens.” Each “hebdomad” equals seven years, so that a period of 490 years in all is here
comprehended. These seventy “sevens” are divided into three portions: First, seven “sevens”
which concerned the re-building of Jerusalem, following the Babylonian captivity. Second,
sixty-two “sevens” unto “Messiah the Prince,” that is, unto the time when He formally
presented Himself to Israel as their King: this receiving its fulfillment in the so-called “Tri-
107
4. Antichrist in Daniel
umphal Entrance into Jerusalem.” Third, the last “seven” which is severed from the others.
It should be carefully noted that we are expressly told that “after threescore and two weeks
(which added to the preceding seven would make sixty-nine in all up to this point) shall
Messiah be cut off.” The reference is to the Cross when Christ was cut off from Israel and
from the land of the living. This occurred after the sixty-ninth week before the seventieth
began.
The sixty-ninth terminated with the formal presentation of Christ to Israel as their
“Prince.” This is described by Matthew (the distinctively Jewish Gospel) in chapter 21. The
rejection of their Prince caused the break between Christ and Israel. It is very striking to
note that (following the rejection) Matthew records three distinct proofs or evidences of
this break. The first is found in Matt. 21:19 in the cursing of the “fig tree,” which signified
the rejection of the Nation. The second was His sorrowful announcement from the brow
of Olivet that the time of Israel’s visitation was past and her overthrow now certain (Matt.
23:37 and cf. Luke 19:41-44). This was the abandonment of the City. The third was His
solemn pronouncement concerning the Temple: “Behold your House is left unto you desolate.
For I say unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh
in the name of the Lord” (Matt. 23:38, 39). This was the giving up of the Sanctuary.
The entire Christian dispensation (which began with the crucifixion of Christ) is passed
by unnoticed in this prophecy of the “seventy weeks.” It comes in, parenthetically, between
the sixty-ninth and the seventieth. What follows in Dan. 9:26, 27 concerns what will happen
after the Christian dispensation is ended when God again takes up Israel and accomplishes
His purpose concerning them. This purpose will be accomplished by means of sore judgment
which will be God’s answer to Israel’s rejection of His Son. But let us examine more closely
the form this judgment will take.
The judgment of God upon the people who were primarily responsible for the cutting
off of their Messiah was to issue in the destruction of their city and sanctuary (9:26). This
destruction was to be brought about by the people of a Prince who should subsequently
appear, and be himself destroyed. The Prince here is the Antichrist, but the Antichrist connected
with
and
at
the
head
of
the
Roman
Empire
in
its
final
form.
1
Now we know that it
in A. D. 70, but that “the Prince” here does not refer to the one who then headed the Roman
armies is clear from the fact that Dan. 9:27 informs us this Prince is to play his part in the
yet future seventieth week — further proof is furnished in that v. 26 carries us to the end
(i.e. of Israel’s desolations) which is to be marked by a “flood,” and Isa. 28:14, 15 intimates
that this is to be after Israel’s covenant with Antichrist: “Wherefore hear the word of the
Lord, ye scornful men, that rule this people which was in Jerusalem. Because ye have said,
1 It is the Man of Sin who is to be the last great Caesar: this will be made clear in our study of the Antichrist
in the Revelation.
108
4. Antichrist in Daniel
We have made a covenant with Death, and with Hell are we at agreement; when the overflowing
scourge
shall
pass
through
it,
it
shall
not
come
unto
us:
for
we
have
made
lies
our
refuge,
and
under
falsehood
have
we
hid
ourselves.”
To
this

God replies, “Your covenant
with Death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell shall not stand; when the
overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down by it” (v. 18). The
“overflowing scourge” is, literally, “the scourge coming in like a flood.”
A few words remain to be said on 9:27: “And he shall confirm the covenant with many
for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to
cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the
consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.” The subject of this
verse is the Antichrist, “the Prince that shall come” of the previous verse. By the time he
appears on the scene large numbers of Jews will have been carried back to their land (cf. Isa.
18). With them the Prince makes a covenant, as of old Jehovah made one with Abraham,
and as Christ will yet do with Israel, see Jer. 31. This will be regarded by God with indignation,
as a covenant with Death, and an agreement with Sheol. But while this covenant is accepted
by the majority of the Jews, God will again reserve to Himself a remnant who will refuse to
bow the knee to Baal: hence the qualification, “He shall confirm the covenant with many,”
not all.
“In the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease.” The returned
Jews
will
rebuild
their
temple
and
there
offer
sacrifices.
But
these,
so
far
from
being
acceptable
to
God,
will
be
an
offense.
There
seems
a
clear
reference
to
this
in
the
opening
verses
of
Isa.
66,
which
describe
conditions
just
before
the
Lord’s
appearing
(see
v.
15).
And
here
the
Lord
says,
“He
that
killeth
an
ox
is
as
if
he
slew
a
man;
he
that
sacrificeth
a
lamb,
as
if
he
cut
off
a
dog’s
neck,”
etc.
(v.
3).
But
three
and
a
half
years
before
the
end,
the
Prince
will
issue
a
decree
demanding
that
the
sacrifices
must
cease,
and
the
worship
of
Jehovah
be
transferred

to himself, for it is at this point he shall “exalt himself above all that is called
God, or that is worshipped” (2 Thess. 2:4). The fact that we are here told that he causes the
sacrifices and the oblation to cease, at once identifies this Prince of the Romans as the Antichrist

cf.
8:11.
The
remaining
portion
of
9:27
will be considered when we come to Matt.
24:15.
We turn now to Dan. 11, which is undoubtedly the most difficult chapter in the book.
It contains a prophecy which is remarkable for its fulness of details. Much of it has already
received a most striking fulfillment, but like other prophecies, we are fully satisfied that this
one yet awaits its final accomplishment. That Dan. 11 treats of the Antichrist all pre-millennial
students
are
agreed,
but
as
to
how
much
of
it
refers
to
him
there
is
considerable
difference
of
opinion.
A
small
minority,
from
whom
we
must
dissent,
confine
the
first
thirty-five
verses
to
the
past.
Others
make
the
division
in
the
middle
of
the
chapter
and
regard
all
from
v.
21
onwards
as
a
description
of
the
Man
of
Sin,
and
with
them
the
writer
is
in
hearty
accord.
A
109
4. Antichrist in Daniel
few consider the entire chapter, after v. 2, as containing a prediction of the Antichrist under
the title of “The King of the North,” and while we are not prepared to unreservedly endorse
this, yet it is fully allowed that there is not a little to be said in its favor.
We shall here confine ourself to the second half of Dan. 11. Our present limits of space,
however, will permit of nothing more than brief notes upon it. Commencing at v. 31 we
read, “And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honor
of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.” The
history of this “vile person” is here divided into three parts: first, the means by which he
obtains the kingdom: vv. 21, 22; second, the interval which elapses between the time when
he makes a covenant with Israel, the taking away of the daily sacrifice and the setting up of
the abomination of desolation: vv. 23-31; third, the brief season when he comes out in his
true colors and enters upon his career of open defiance of God, reaching on to his destruction:
vv. 32-45. Thus from v. 21 to the end of the chapter we have a continuous history of the
Antichrist.
“In his estate shall stand up a vile person[hellip]he shall come in peaceably, and obtain
the kingdom by flatteries.” This epithet “the vile person” is a manifest antitheses from “the
Holy One of God.” This twenty-first verse takes notice of the Man of Sin posing as the Prince
of peace. He shall achieve what his antitype, Absalom, tried but failed to do — “Obtain the
kingdom by flatteries.”
“And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be
broken; yea, also the Prince of the Covenant” (v. 22). This Vile Person is denominated “the
Prince of the Covenant,” which, at once, identifies him with the Prince of 9:26, 27. Then we
are told in v.23 “And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall
come up, and shall become strong with a small people.” This “league” or “covenant” is
doubtless the seven-years-treaty confirmed with Israel, which is made at an early point in
the Antichrist’s career, and which corresponds with the fact that at the first he appears as a
“little horn,” the “small people” being the Syrians — cf. our remarks on Dan. 8:8, 9 in chapter
six.
Vv. 25 and 26 describe his victory over the king of Egypt. Then, in v. 28 we read, “Then
shall he return into his land with great riches.” His land is Assyria. The mention of great
riches corresponds with what we are told of the Antichrist in Psa. 52:7; Ezek. 28:4, etc.
“And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength and
shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.”
This is clear evidence that these verses are treating of that which takes place during the
seventieth week. The mention of polluting the Sanctuary is an unmistakable reference to
“the abomination of desolation,” i.e. the setting up of an idol to the Antichrist in the Temple.
Note the repeated use of the plural pronoun in this verse; the “they” refer to the Antichrist
110
4. Antichrist in Daniel
and the False Prophet, cf. Rev. 13. It is significant that in the next verse (v. 32) there is an
allusion made to the faithful remnant — “The people that do know their God.”
“And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify
himself above every god, and shall speak marvelous things against the God of gods, and
shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done”
(v. 36). That “the King” here is the “Vile Person” is not only indicated by the absence of any
break in the prophecy, as also by the connecting “and” with which the verse opens, but is
definitely established by the fact that in v. 27 (note context) the Vile Person is expressly
termed a “king!” The contents of this thirty-sixth verse clearly connects “the king” with the
Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:3, 4, and also as definitely identifies him with the “little horn” —
cf. 7:23 and 8:25. The remaining verses of Dan. 11 have been before us in previous chapters
and need not detain us now.
111
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
5. Antichrist in the Minor Prophets
Here a wide field of study is opened, but we must content ourself with but a few selections
and brief comments on them. Hosea makes several references to the Man of Sin. In 8:10 he
is termed “the King of princes,” as such he is Satan’s imitation of the King of kings. In 10:15
he is named “the King of Israel,” which shows his connection with the Jews. In 12:7 he is
called a “Merchant” or Trafficker, and of him it is said, “The balances of deceit are in his
hands: he loveth to oppress,” with this should be compared Rev. 6:5. These words denote
his twofold character in connection with the Jews: first he makes them believe he is the true
Christ; second, he ultimately stands forth as their great Enemy.
Joel alludes to him as the head of the “northern army,” i.e. the Assyrian. And here God
declares that He will “drive him into a land barren and desolate, with his face toward the
east sea; and his stink shall come up, and his ill savor shall come up, because he has magnified
to do great things” (2:20).
Amos speaks of him as “an Adversary” which shall be “even round about the land; and
he shall bring down thy strength from thee, and thy palaces shall be spoiled” (3:11). That
this is referring to the End-time is clear from the verses that follow, where we read, “That
in the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him,” etc. (v. 14).
Micah terms him “the Assyrian,” and of him it is said, when he “shall come into our
land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds,
and eight principal men[hellip]thus shall he deliver us from the Assyrian” (5:5, 6).
Nahum has this to say of him: “There is one come out of thee, that imagineth evil against
the Lord, a wicked counseller. Thus saith the Lord; Though they be quiet, and likewise many,
yet thus shall they be cut down, when he shall pass through. Though I have afflicted thee, I
will afflict thee no more[hellip]for the Wicked shall no more pass through thee” (1:11, 12,
15). These verses contain another of the many antitheses between Christ and the Antichrist.
The One is the “Wonderful Counseller” (Isa. 9:6); the other, the “Wicked Counseller.”
Habakkuk describes him as one whose “soul is lifted up” and “is not upright in him,”
and as one who “transgresseth by wine,” as “a proud man, neither keepeth at home, who
enlargeth his desire as hell, and is as death, and cannot be satisfied, but gathereth unto him
all nations, and heapeth unto him all people” (2:4, 5).
Zechariah denominates him “the Idol Shepherd that leaveth the flock,” and then pronounces
judgment
upon
him

“The
sword
shall
be
upon
his
arm,
and
upon
his
right
eye”
(11:17).
112
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
The Old and New Testaments have many things in common — far more than some
teachers of “dispensational” truth seem to be aware of — but there are also some noticeable
contrasts between them. Speaking generally, the one is principally prophetic; the other
mainly didactic. There is far more said in the former about the future of Israel than there is
in the latter. Much more space in the Old Testament than in the New is devoted to describing
the conditions which shall obtain in the Tribulation period. And far more was revealed
through the prophets about the Antichrist than was made known through the apostles. It
is in full keeping with this that we find there is one book in the New Testament which is a
noticeable exception, and that is the one which is peculiarly prophetic in its character and
contents, namely, the Revelation. There, perhaps, more is told us concerning the person
and career of the Man of Sin than in all the rest of the New Testament put together.
The passages which refer directly to the Antichrist in the four Gospels are few in number;
but in addition to these there are several indirect references to him, and these call for a more
careful examination because of their apparent obscurity. The writer believes there may be
other passages in the Gospels treating of the Man of Sin in his varied relations, and which
contain an esoteric view of him, but which the Holy Spirit has not yet been pleased to reveal
unto students of prophecy. Let not the reader then regard this chapter as in any-wise a
complete or exhaustive treatment of the subject, rather let its brief hints bestir him to make
prayerful and patient examination for himself.
The Antichrist receives an even more scant notice in the Epistles than he does in the
four Gospels. So far as we have been able to discover he is alluded to only in 2 Thess. 2 and
in John’s Epistles. The reason for this is not difficult to discover. The Epistles concern those
who are members of the Body of Christ, and by the time the Antichrist appears upon the
stage of human history, they shall be far above these scenes — with their blessed Lord in
the Father’s House. Nevertheless, “all Scripture” is profitable for our instruction and necessary
for our enlightenment. God has been pleased to reveal much concerning those things which
must shortly come to pass, and it may be that they who now ignore or neglect the study of
the prophetical portions of Scripture will be overtaken by surprise when, in a coming day,
they shall behold with wonder the fulfillment of prophecy; and possibly this surprise (due
to culpable ignorance) is included in what the apostle refers to when he speaks of not being
“ashamed before Him at His coming” (1 John 2:28). Certainly it is our duty as well as privilege
to examine diligently all that God has been pleased to make known in His Word.
1. Passing by the typical teaching of Matt. 2, which will come before us in a later chapter,
we turn first to Matt. 12 which is one of the most important chapters in that book, supplying
as it does one of the principal keys to its dispensational interpretation. In it is recorded the
first great break between the Jews and Christ, which eventually terminated in their crucifying
113
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Him. In v. 14 we read, “Then the Pharisees went out, and held a council against Him, how
they might destroy Him.” This is the first time we read of anything like this in Matthew’s
Gospel. Following this we read, “Then was brought unto Him one possessed with a demon,
blind, and dumb; and He healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and
saw” (v. 22). Up to that time this was by far the most remarkable miracle our Lord had
performed. Its effect upon those who witnessed it was general and deep — “And all the
people were amazed, and said, Is not this the Son of David?” (v. 23). It must be the longpromised
Messiah
who
now
stood
in
their
midst.
But
the
Pharisees
were
blinded
by
their
hatred
of
Him,
and
committed
the
sin
for
which
there
is
no
forgiveness:
“This
fellow
doth
not
cast
out
demons,
but
by
Beelzebub
the
prince
of
the
demons”
(v.
24).
Then,
following
His
reply
to
their
awful
blasphemy
and
terming
them
“a
generation
of
vipers”
(v.
34),
our
Lord
uttered
a
prophetic
parable
which
bears
directly
on
our
present
theme:
“When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking
rest, and findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out;
and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh
with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there:
and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked
generation” (vv. 43-45). The first thing to note concerning this mysterious and remarkable
passage is its setting. This, as we have sought to indicate above, has to do with Christ’s solemn
pronouncement on those who had determined to destroy Him, and who were guilty of the
unpardonable sin. In it He declares the judgment which God shall yet send upon apostate
Israel.
Our next concern is to ascertain the meaning of this parabolic utterance. The central
figure is “The unclean spirit.” This unclean spirit is viewed here in three connections: first,
as indwelling a man; second, as going out of the man; third, as returning to the man and
indwelling him again. In v. 44 the man is termed by the unclean spirit “my house.” This
man unquestionably represents Israel, for at the close of the parable Christ says, “Even so
shall it be also unto this wicked generation.” Who, then, is referred to by “the unclean spirit?”
We believe that it is the Son of Perdition. The following reasons lead us to this conclusion:
First, mark attentively the use of the definite article: it is not simply an unclean spirit, but
the unclean spirit. Second, note his threefold relation to Israel. At the time the Saviour
uttered these words the Son of Perdition was then present in Israel’s midst. But a little later
he was no longer so. When he hanged himself he passed out of these scenes into the next
world; as Acts 1:25 compared with Rev. 11:7 tells us, into the Pit. His present state in the
Abyss is graphically and solemnly depicted — “He walketh through dry places, seeking rest,
and findeth none” (v. 43). Then, he says, “I will return into my house from whence I came
out.” This, we are satisfied, refers to the reincarnation of the Son of Perdition, when he appears
on
earth
for
the
last
time
as
the
Man
of
Sin.
Then,
in
a
special
sense,
will
Israel
be
his
114
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
“house.” A third reason why we believe “The Unclean Spirit” is the Son of Perdition is furnished
by
Zech.
13:2
— “And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord of hosts, that
I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered:
and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.” Clearly this
verse speaks of the End-time. What follows is very striking. Vv. 3 and 4 concern the
prophets who shall prophesy falsely. But in v. 5 there is a noticeable change from the plural
to the singular number: “But he shall say, I am no prophet,” etc. The only antecedent to this
pronoun is “The Unclean Spirit” of v. 2, which here in v. 5 is shown to be no mere abstraction
but a definite person. And then in v. 6 the question is asked, “What are these wounds in
thine hands?” We believe this intimates that God will even permit the Man of Sin to imitate
the Saviour to the extent that he will appear with wounds in his hands: thus will he be the
better able to pose as the true Christ.
When the Son of Perdition returns to Israel, he finds his house “empty, swept, and
garnished.” This depicts the moral and spiritual state of the Jews at the time the Antichrist
is manifested. Though clean from the horrible idolatries which defiled them of old, and
though adorned with all that temporal prosperity will bring them, Israel, nevertheless, will
be devoid of the Shekinah-glory, and have no Holy Spirit indwelling them. Next, we are
told, “Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself,
and they enter in and dwell there.” We believe that this has a double meaning. One plus
seven equals eight and in Scripture eight signifies a new beginning. This is in keeping with
the re-incarnation of the Son of Perdition. But we think there is also a reference here to
Satan’s blasphemous imitation of what we are told in Rev. 5:6, where we read of the Lamb
having seven eyes, which are “the seven spirits of God.” Just as the Christ of God will come
back to earth endued with the Spirit of God in the sevenfold plentitude of His power, so will
the Antichrist present himself to Israel in the sevenfold fulness of satanic power and uncleanness.
Then,
indeed,
shall
Israel’s
last
state
be
worse
than
their
first

i.e.
when
they
rejected
Christ
in
the
days
of
Judas.
2. We turn now to Matt. 24, which contains a lengthy forecast concerning the end of
this Age. Here we find our Lord describing the conditions which shall obtain during the
Tribulation period. Christ announces with considerable detail those things which are to
precede His own return to the earth. The whole chapter sets forth the Master’s answers to
three questions asked by His disciples, namely, as to when the Temple was to be destroyed,
what was to be the sign of His coming, and of the end of the Age (see v.3). A similar, but by
no means identical prophecy, is to be found in Luke 21. The main difference between them
being that Luke 21 treats of conditions which obtained prior to the destruction of Jerusalem
in A. D. 70 — it is not until v. 25 that the Tribulation period is reached; whereas the whole
of Matt. 24 is yet future.
115
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
It is striking to note that our Lord begins His prophecy by saying; “Take heed that no
man deceive you, for many shall come in My name, saying I am Christ; and shall deceive
many” (vv.4, 5). The significance of this appears by comparing v. 11, “And many false
prophets shall arise, and shall deceive many.” These false christs and false prophets are to
head up in the Antichrist and the False Prophet, who will be the arch-deceivers. When we
reach v. 15 a clear allusion is made to the Man of Sin: “When ye therefore shall see the abomination
of
desolation,
spoken
of
by
Daniel
the
prophet,
stand
in
the
holy
place,
whoso
readeth,
let
him
understand.”
This
reference
of
Christ
to
“the
abomination
of
desolation”
which
is
to
“stand
in
the
holy
place,”
looks
back
to
Dan.
12:11:
“And
from
the
time
that
the
daily
sacrifice
shall
be
taken
away,
and
the
abomination
that
maketh
desolate
set
up,
there
shall

be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.” This, in turn, carries us back to Dan.
9:27: “And in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease,
and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate.” With these verses
should be compared Rev. 13:11-15, where we are told that the False Prophet who shall perform
great
wonders,
will
command
men
that
“they
should
make
an
image
to
the
beast.”
The
False
Prophet
will
have
“power
to
give
life
unto
the
image
of
the
beast,
that
the
image
of
the
beast
should
both
speak,
and
cause
that
as
many
as
would
not
worship
the
beast
should
be
killed.”
By
linking
these
scriptures
together
the
following
facts
are
brought
out:
First, an “image” is going to be made to the Antichrist (Rev. 13:15). Second, this “image”
will “stand in the holy place” (Matt. 24:15), that is, in the re-built Temple at Jerusalem.
Third, this “image” will possess supernatural power, for it shall be able to “speak” (Rev.
13:15). Fourth, this “image” unto the beast shall be an object of worship, and those who refuse
to worship it shall be killed (Rev. 13:14, 15). Fifth, this “image” is termed “abomination of
desolation.” The term “abomination” is an Old Testament expression connected with idolatry,
and signifies some special idol or false god (see Deut. 7:26; 1 Kings 11:5-7). Sixth, this “abomination”
or
idol-god
will
be
set
up
during
the
middle
of
Daniel’s
seventieth
week,
or
three
and

one half years from the end of Antichrist’s career. This is clear from Dan. 12:11 and
9:27. The taking away of “the daily sacrifice” occurs when the Antichrist throws off his mask
and stands forth as the Defier of heaven. In the re-built Temple of the Jews sacrifices shall
once more be offered by them to God. These their King suffers, while he is posing as the
Christ. But when he drops his religious pretensions and defies heaven as well as earth, the
“sacrifices” will be taken away, and in their place worship to an image of himself will be
substituted. Seventh, the setting up of this “image” to the Antichrist will, most probably, be
attended with supernatural phenomenon. We gather this from Dan. 9:27, where we read,
“And he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations

he shall make it desolate.” Now the word here translated “overspreading” is
never so rendered elsewhere. Seventy times is this word translated “wing” or “wings.” It is
the word used of the wings of the cherubim in Ex. 25:20 and Ezek. 10:5, etc. And in Psa.
116
Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
18:10 we read of Jehovah that “He rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, He did fly upon the
wings of the wind.”
One profound Hebrew scholar has rendered the last clause of Dan. 9:27 as follows, “And
upon the wing of abominations he shall come desolating.” Remembering that “abomination”
has reference to an idol or false god, the force would then be “upon the wing of a false god
shall he come desolating.” Now in view of Psa. 18:10 it is highly probable that Dan. 9:27
refers to a satanic imitation of the Chariot of the Cherubim. This is strengthened by 1 Cor.
10:20 — “The things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons, and not to God”
— which shows the demoniacal nature of the “idols” or “abominations” worshipped. If this
view be correct, then the Antichrist will be supernaturally borne aloft (in invisible demons),
and apparently descending from on high (in blasphemous mimicry of Mal. 3:1) will finally
persuade the world to worship him as God. The apostate Jews will, no doubt, believe that
their eyes at last behold the long-awaited sign from heaven, and the return of the Glory to
the Temple. For it is thither the false christ will be borne, and there his image set up. We
believe that the words of 2 Thess. 2:4, “He as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that HE IS GOD” may, most likely, have reference to this same event.
Coming back now to the words of Christ, Matt. 24:15 will, we trust, be much more intelligible.

What our Lord there said was designed specially for the godly Jewish remnant
who will be in Palestine during the Tribulation period. When the “abomination of desolation”
is set up in the holy place, whoso readeth should “understand.” How wondrously this agrees
with other scriptures, and what a value it places upon the written Word! No supernatural
revelation will be granted — these all ceased when the Cannon of Scripture closed. Then,
as now, “understanding” is made dependent upon the reading of what God has revealed.
What, then, is it that those godly Jews should “understand?” Why, that a crisis has been
reached. That the Antichrist now stands fully revealed for the impious impostor that he is.
And now that his career is clearly manifested, let them beware. Let them turn to Rev. 13:14,
15, and they will discover that death awaits them should they tarry any longer in Jerusalem.
Therefore, says Christ, “Let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains: let him that is
on the housetop not come down to take anything out of his house[hellip]for then shall be
great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever
shall be” (Matt. 24:16-21). How marvelously one scripture throws light on another! How
clearly does Rev. 13:14, 15 explain the need for this hurried flight of the faithful remnant!
There is one other reference to the Antichrist in this 24th chapter of Matthew, namely,
in vv. 23-26: “Then if any man shall say unto you, Lo, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.
For there shall arise false christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders;
insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the very elect. Behold, I have told you
before. Wherefore if they shall say unto you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth: behold,
he is in the secret chamber; believe it not.” The reference to the “great signs and wonders”
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
is explained, at least in part, in Rev. 13. We have already seen that the False Prophet will
have power to give “life” or “breath” unto the image of the Beast, so that the image shall
speak (v. 15). In addition, it is recorded how that “He doeth great wonders, so that he maketh
fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men, and deceiveth them that dwell
on the earth by those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast” (vv. 13,
14).
We had hoped to be able to say something further on the “secret chambers” of Matt.
24:26, but in the absence of any clear light from other scriptures, we refrain from speculations
of our own. It seems plain, however, that the reference is to the occult powers and activities
of the Wicked One, who ever loveth darkness rather than light.
3. Our next passage will be the first eight verses of Luke 18, where in a parable the Lord
gives us another view of the Antichrist: “And He spake a parable unto them, that men ought
always to pray, and not to faint; Saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God,
neither regarded man: And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying,
Avenge me of mine adversary. And he would not for awhile: but afterward he said within
himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man; yet because this woman troubleth me, I
will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me. And the Lord said, Hear what
the unjust judge saith. And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night
unto Him, though He bear long with them? I tell you that He will avenge them speedily.
Nevertheless when the Son of Man cometh, shall He find faith on the earth?”
Like many of Christ’s parables, this one is plainly prophetic in its character. It looks
forward to a coming day: it treats of conditions which are to obtain during the Tribulation
period. This is easily seen from the context. Luke 18 opens with the word “and,” and the
last eighteen verses of the previous chapter, with which the 18th is thus connected, treat of
those things which are to immediately precede the establishing of the Messiah’s Kingdom
— note particularly v. 26. So, too, the closing words of the parable now before us read,
“When the Son of Man cometh shall He find faith on the earth?”
Having thus pointed out the time when this prophetic parable is to receive its fulfillment,
our next concern is to ascertain the significance of its terms. The parable revolves around
a “widow” and an “unjust judge.” Once we discover who are represented by these, everything
will be simple. Our task ought not to be difficult seeing that we have already learned the
time when these characters are to appear.
The “widow” in Scripture is ever the figure of desolation, loneliness, weakness. Dispensationally,
Israel
is the widow, spiritually dead as she now is to her Divine Husband. Here in
the parable of Luke 18 it is the new Israel, the “Israel of God,” the faithful remnant, which
is in view. To quote one scripture is sufficient to establish this: “Fear not; for thou shalt not
be ashamed: neither be thou confounded; for thou shalt not be put to shame: for thou shalt
forget the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
more. For thy Maker is thine Husband; the Lord of Hosts is His name; and thy Redeemer
the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth shall He be called. For the Lord hath
called thee as a widow forsaken and grieved in spirit, and a wife of youth, when thou wast
refused, saith thy God. For a small moment have I forsaken thee; but with great mercy will
I gather thee” (Isa. 54:4-7). These are the words which Christ will speak to the remnant right
at the beginning of the Millennium, after they have made Isa. 53 their own repentant confession.
In the chapter on the Antichrist in the Psalms attention was repeatedly directed to passages

which treat of the condition of the godly Jewish remnant during the Tribulation
period. We saw that their lot is to be a bitter one. Severe will be their testings; terrible their
sufferings. Not the least painful of their experiences will be the fierce opposition of their
unbelieving brethren. Just as the worst enemies of the Saviour were found among His
brethren according to the flesh, and just as the most relentless persecutors of the saints
during this dispensation have been those who professed to be the followers of Christ, so the
most merciless foes of the Jewish remnant will be the unbelieving portion of their own nation.
These, too, are noticed in our parable: they are the “adversary” against which the “widow”
appeals to the “Judge” — “Avenge me of mine adversary” is her plea.
In the light of what has been said above it is easy to discover who is represented by the
one to whom the “widow” appeals — appeals no doubt some little time before the end of
the Tribulation period is reached. Clearly it is the Antichrist himself, and what is here said
of him establishes this beyond a reasonable doubt. First, he is termed “a Judge,” so that he
is viewed as being in the position of authority: we may add, it is the same word as rendered
“Judge” in James 5:9 which speaks of the Lord Jesus. Second, he is represented as being
located in a certain “city”: whether this is Jerusalem or Babylon, we cannot say; but we rather
think it is the latter. In the third place, it is said of this Judge that he “feared not God, neither
regarded man.” We need not tarry to point out how fully this accords with what is elsewhere
said of the Man of Sin. Godlessness and lawlessness are the two most prominent elements
in his character. In the fourth place, the Lord specifically terms him “the unjust Judge” (v.
6). The word signifies “unrighteousness.” This word points an antithesis between him and
the true Christ who shall reign in righteousness. In the fifth place, his callousness is noted
in the words, “and he would not for awhile” (v. 4). The Greek verb of v. 3 signifies that the
widow came to this “Judge” again and again. But in his hard-heartedness he repeatedly
turned a deaf ear to her entreaties. Such will be the brutal indifference of the Antichrist to
the sufferings of the faithful Jews. In the sixth place, his untruthfulness and treachery are
clearly implied. In v. 5 this unjust Judge is represented as saying, “Because this widow
troubleth me, I will avenge her,” etc.; but that he fails to keep his word is clear from what
we read in the seventh verse — “Shall not God avenge His own elect?” etc. The Antichrist
does not avenge him, but God will. Finally, his doom is hinted at in the words last quoted.
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
When God “avenges” the elect remnant the Antichrist will be destroyed together with those
of his followers who had persecuted them.
There is only one difficulty in the way of the above interpretation and that is the appeal
of the Jewish remnant to the Antichrist. Can it be possible that they should seek help from
him! But is there any real difficulty in this? Let us consult our own experience for answer.
How often, in the hour of trial, do we turn to the arm of flesh for relief! Even the Apostle
Paul appealed to Caesar! But lest this be thought an invention of ours to meet a pertinent
objections against the interpretation advanced above, note carefully the wording of the
seventh verse: “And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night unto Him,
though He bear long with them?” Do not the words “bear long with them” intimate that
though they had cried unto God day and night, yet they had also sought help from some
one else. Even clearer is the testimony of Isa. 10:20 — “And it shall come to pass in that day
that the remnant of Israel and such as are escaped of the house of Jacob, shall no more again
stay upon him that smote them; but shall upon the Lord!”
4. “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if another shall come in his
own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). This scripture has already been before us (see
chapter three I:5) so it need not detain us long. It speaks of the Antichrist in connection
with unbelieving Israel. It draws a double contrast between the Son of god and the Son of
Perdition. The Christ of God, in lowly condescension, came not in His own name, but in
that of His Father — in perfect subjection; but the christ of Satan, in lofty arrogance, shall
come in his own name. This will at once appeal to the corrupt hearts of fallen men. The very
meekness of the Lord Jesus was an offense to the Jews; but the pride and egotism of the Man
of Sin will make him acceptable to them. By the apostate Nation Christ was not received.
As we read in this same Gospel, “He came unto His own, and His own received Him not”
(1:11). But the Antichrist shall be welcomed by them — “him ye will receive,” says the Lord.
They will receive him as their long-expected Messiah. They will receive him as their king.
They will receive him as the promised Deliverer. His yoke will be accepted. Divine honors
will be paid him. But bitterly will they rue it; and terrible will be God’s judgment upon them.
5. “Ye are of your father the Devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a
murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him.
When he speaketh the Lie, he speaketh of his own (son): for he is a liar, and the father of it”
(John 8:44). The Greek word for “lie” is “pseudos.” It occurs in the New Testament just nine
times — the number of judgment. I always has reference to that which is opposed to the
truth. It is a fit appellation for the Antichrist, who is the son of him who is the Arch-liar,
the Devil. The Christ of God is “The Truth;” the christ of Satan, “The Lie.” That this is one
of the many names of the Man of Sin is clear from 2 Thess. 2. There we are told that his
coming is “after the working of Satan will all power and signs and lying wonders and with
all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
of the truth, that they might be saved.” Then we are told, “And for this cause God shall send
them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie” (cf. chapter three, v.11).
Upon John 8:44 we cannot do better than quote from Sir Robert Anderson: “To speak
a lie” is not English. In our language the proper expression is “to tell a lie.” But no one would
so render the Greek words here. It is not the false in the abstract which is in view, but a
concrete instance of it. And thus the connection is clear between Satan the liar and Satan
the murderer. He is not the instigator of all murders, but of the murder, there and then in
question, the murder of the Christ; he is not the father of lies, but the father of the Lie. In 2
Thess. 2:11 it is again the Lie of John 8:44. God does not incite men to tell lies or to believe
lies. But of those who reject the truth, it is written, “He shall send them strong delusion that
they should believe the Lie. Because they have rejected the Christ of God, a judicial blindness
shall fall upon them that they should accept the Christ of humanity, who will be Satan incarnate”
(The
Silence
of
God).
6. “While I was with them in the world, I kept them in Thy name: those that Thou gavest
Me I have kept, and none of them is lost, but the Son of Perdition; that the Scripture might
be fulfilled” (John 17:5). That our Lord was referring to the Antichrist is unequivocally established
by
2
Thess.
2:3,
where
the
Man
of
Sin
is
denominated
“the
Son
of
Perdition.”
That
Judas,
here
termed
the
Son
of
Perdition,
was
more
than
a
man
is
clear
from
John
6:70
where
we read, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a Devil?” In no other passage is
the word “Diabolos” applied to anyone but Satan himself. Just as the Lord Jesus was God
incarnate, so will Judas be the Devil incarnate; and, as we have shown in chapter three (third
main section) Judas will be re-incarnated in the Antichrist.
Perhaps one other should be said on John 17:12 before we pass from it. Some have
thought that this verse weakens the doctrine of the absolute security of the saints, but in act
it does nothing of the kind. Notice Christ did not say, “Those that Thou gavest Me I have
kept, and none of them is lost except the Son of Perdition,” instead, He said, “None of them
is lost but the Son of Perdition.” The word “but” is used adversatively, not exceptively; that
is to say, Judas is here opposed to those that were given to Christ (for other scriptures with
a similar construction see Matt. 12:4, Acts 27:22, Rev. 21:27). This interpretation is unequivocally
established
by
John
18:9
— “Of them which Thou gavest Me have I lost none.”
7. 2 Thess. 2 contains the chief passage in the Epistles concerning the Antichrist. Here
he is denominated “that Man of Sin, the Son of Perdition” (v. 3). It is solemnly true that all
men are sinners (Rom. 3:23), but the Antichrist will be more than a sinner, he will be the
Man of Sin. As such he will be the direct opposite of Christ, who was the Holy One of God.
Sin in all its terrible satanic treachery, daring blasphemy, and tremendous appeal to the
corrupt hearts of men, will be consummated in this frightful monster. For fuller notes on
the force of these titles we again refer the reader to chapter three.
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
Concerning the Man of Sin it is said, “Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that
is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing
himself that he is God” (v. 4). Here he reaches the climax of his frightful blasphemy. He will
assume Divine honors, and under pain of death (Rev. 13:15) will demand the worship of
all. In vindication of his impious claims he will compel men to regard his mandates as
transcending all laws and customs, whether of human or Divine origin (Dan. 7:25). For a
season the Almighty will suffer his satanic impiety, the Hinderer having been taken out of
the way (v. 7). No lightning flash will strike down his blasted form to the dust. The earth
will not open her mouth to swallow him up alive. The Angel of the Lord, who smote Herod
with death for a much milder blasphemy, will restrain His hand from the hilt of the sword.
For a season Heaven will remain silent while this haughty rebel is doing according to his
will. But at the appointed hour “the Lord shall consume (him) with the spirit of His mouth,
and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming” (v. 8).
“Even him whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying
wonders” (v. 9). The Antichrist will be the culmination and consummation of Satan’s craft
and genius. He will be endowed with superhuman energy so that he shall perform miracles
which will be no mere pretenses, but prodigies of power. By means of these miracles and
signs he will deceive the entire world. No doubt he will mock the miracles of Christ, as of
old Jannes and Jambres duplicated the miracles of Moses. His marvelous deeds will reach
their climax in his own resurrection from the dead.
8. “Who is a liar but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist, that denieth
the Father and the Son” (1 John 2:22). For our comments on the significance of this name
“the Antichrist” we refer our readers to the fourth chapter. There it will be seen that we
understand this official title to have a double significance, corresponding to the two main
divisions in his career. First, he will pose as the true Christ; later he will stand forth as the
avowed opponent of Christ. The above verse presents him as the Arch-apostate. He will,
eventually, repudiate the distinguishing truth of Judaism, namely that “Jesus is the Christ;”
as he will also set himself against that which is vital in Christianity — the revelation of “the
Father and the Son.”
9. A brief word upon 1 John 4:3 and we must conclude. “And every spirit that confesseth
not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of Antichrist,
whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world.” It is to
the last clause we would here direct attention. The spirit of Antichrist, that which is preparing
the way for his appearing, is even now already “in the world.” This statement is parallel with
2 Thess. 2:7, “For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only He who now letteth
(hindereth) will let, until He be taken out of the way.” The Mystery of Iniquity, which concerns
the
incarnation
of
Satan,
is
the
direct
antithesis
of
“the
Mystery
of
Godliness”
(1
Tim.
3:16)
which
has
to
do
with
the
Divine
incarnation.
Just
as
there
was
a
long
preparation
by
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Antichrist in the Gospels and Epistles
God preceding the advent of His Son, so the Devil is now paving the way for the advent of
the Son of Perdition. The Mystery of Iniquity “doth already work;” so in 1 John 4:3 of the
spirit of Antichrist we read, “Even now already is it in the world!” How far advanced the
preparations of Satan now are for the bringing forth of his Masterpiece is becoming increasingly
evident
to
those
who
are
granted
wisdom
to
discern
the
signs
of
the
times.
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
The scope of the Apocalypse is indicated by its place in the Sacred Canon. Coming as
it does right at the close of the Scriptures, we should naturally expect to find it outlining the
last chapters of the world’s history. Such is indeed the case. The Revelation is mainly devoted
to a description of the judgments which God will yet send upon the earth. It furnishes by
far the most complete description of the conditions which are to obtain during the Tribulation
period. It treats at greatest length with the character and career of the Antichrist, who will
be the “Rod” in the hands of an angry God to chastise recreant Israel and apostate
Christendom. All of this is, of course, preparatory to the establishment of Messiah’s kingdom,
which will exist during the last of earth’s dispensations.
It is impossible to understand the Apocalypse without a thorough acquaintance with
the books that precede it. The more familiar we are with the first sixty-five books of the
Bible, the better prepared are we for the study of its sixty-sixth. There is little that is really
new in the Revelation. Its varied contents are largely an amplification of what is to be found
in the preceding scriptures. Each of its figures and symbols are explained if not on its own
pages, then somewhere within the compass of the written Word. For Scripture is ever selfinterpreting.
Most
of
our
difficulties
with
the
Revelation
grow
out
of
our
ignorance
and
lack
of
acquaintance
with
the
earlier
books.
Daniel
and
Zechariah
especially
should
be
examined
minutely,
for
they
shed
much
light
upon
the
various
and
prophecies
of
the
Patmos
seer.
The Apocalypse not only reveals much concerning the person and work of the Man of
Sin, but it describes his doom, as it also announces the complete overthrow of the Trinity
of Evil. This, no doubt, accounts for much of the prejudice which obtains against the study
and reading of this book. It is indeed remarkable that this is the only book in the Bible
connected with which there is a distinct promise given to those who read and hear read its
prophecy (1:3). And yet how very rarely it is read from the pulpits of those churches which
are reputed as orthodox! Surely the great Enemy is responsible for this. It seems that Satan
fears and hates above every book in the Bible this one which tells of his being ultimately cast
into the Lake of Fire. But “we are not ignorant of his devices” (2 Cor. 2:11). Then let him
not keep us from the prayerful and careful perusal of this prophecy which tells of those
things “which must shortly come to pass.”
1. We turn first to the sixth chapter of the Revelation, where a fourfold view is presented
of the Son of Perdition. Just as at the beginning of the New Testament the Holy Spirit has
given us a fourfold delineation of Christ in the Gospels, so at the commencement of His
description of the judgments of God on the earth He has furnished us with a fourfold picture
of Christ’s great opponent. We believe that the contents of the first four of the “seals” describe
four aspects of the Antichrist’s character, and also outline four stages in his career. First, he
is seen aping the Christ of God as the Righteous One. The “white horse” on which he is
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
seated, speaking of righteousness. Just as we are told in 2 Cor. 11:14 that “Satan himself is
transformed into an angel of light,” and “therefore it is no great thing if his ministers also
be transformed as the ministers of righteousness,” so the Antichrist will pose as the friend
of law and order. Second, he is seen mimicking the Christ of God as the mighty Warrior.
Just as the Lord Jesus at His return will make a footstool of His enemies, and trample in fury
all who defy Him (Isa. 63:3), so the Man of Sin shall slay all who dare to oppose him. Third,
he is seen imitating Christ as the Bread of Life, for the third seal views him as the Foodcontroller.
Fourth,
he
is
seen
with
his
mask
off,
depicted
as
one
whose
name
is
Death
and
Hades,
that
is,
as
the
Destroyer
of
men’s
bodies
and
souls.
Let us see how the identity of this Rider of the various colored horses is established. In
6:2 we are told, “And I saw, and behold a white horse: and he that sat on him had a bow;
and a crown was given unto him: and he went forth conquering, and to conquer.” Notice
first, that he is here viewed as seated upon a “white horse.” This is in imitation of the Christ
of God, who, at the time of His second advent to the earth, will also appear seated upon “a
white horse” (Rev. 19:11). Second, it is said that “a crown was given unto him.” This at once
serves to connect him with the first Beast — the Antichrist — of Rev. 13, for of him it is
written, “And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast” (v. 4). Again;
in 6:4 we are told, “And there went out another horse that was red: and power was given to
him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another: and
there was given unto him a great sword.” Notice first, the last clause — “There was given
unto him a great sword.” This stamps him plainly as the pseudo christ, for of the true Christ
it is written, “Out of His mouth goeth a sharp sword” (19:15). Second, it is said “power was
given to him to take peace from the earth.” So, too, of the first Beast of Rev. 13 we read, “And
power was given him over all kindreds, and tongues, and all nations” (v. 7). In the third seal
he is viewed as the Food-controller, weighing out the necessities of life at famine prices.
This, no doubt, corresponds with what we read of in 13:17. Finally, in the fourth seal he is
named “Death and Hell.” This double title removes all doubt as to who is in view. When
God remonstrates with Israel for having made the seven-years treaty, He does so in the following
language:
“And
your
covenant
with
Death
shall
be
disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand”
(Isa.
28:18).
Thus
the
Riders
of
the
four
horses
of
Rev.
6
are not
four different persons, but one person presented in a fourfold way, as the Lord Jesus is in
the four Gospels.
Before we pass from Rev. 6 a few words should be added by way of amplification of our
remarks above, namely, that in the first part of Rev. 6 we have outlined four stages in the
Antichrist’s career. The preparation of the Man Christ Jesus for His public ministry — the
long years spent quietly at Nazareth — are passed over by the four Evangelists. So here in
Rev. 6 the early days of the Man of Sin — in his “little horn” character — are not noticed.
Under the first seal he is viewed as seated on a white horse, having a bow. The color of the
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
horse and the fact that no arrow is seen attached to the bow, suggests bloodless victories,
for he goes forth “conquering and to conquer.” This first seal at once conducts us to the
time when the Prince of Darkness poses as the Christ of God and presents himself to the
Jews for their acceptance. He does not come out in his true satanic character, rather does
he simulate the Prince of Peace. The first seal is parallel with Dan. 11:21, 23, where we learn
that he will gain the kingdom by flatteries and political diplomacy. But not for long will he
fill this pacific role. War is in his heart (Psa. 55:21), and nothing short of universal dominion
will satisfy his proud ambitions. As God has plainly warned, at the very time when men
shall be saying, Peace and safety, “then sudden destruction cometh upon them, as travail
upon a woman with child; and they shall not escape” (1 Thess. 5:3).
It is to this the second seal brings us. Here the Antichrist is seen no longer upon a white
horse, but upon a red horse. And in perfect accord with this, it is added, “And power was
given to him that sat thereon to take peace from the earth[hellip]and there was given to him
a great sword” (v. 4). Little wonder that he is called “the Destroyer of the Gentiles” (Jer. 4:7).
At the time of his overthrow it will be exclaimed, “Is this the man that made the earth to
tremble, that did shake kingdoms; that made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the
cities thereof?” (Isa. 14:17, 18). Jer. 25:29 throws light upon this “great sword” which is given
to him — “For, lo, I begin to bring evil on the city which is called by my name, and should
ye be utterly unpunished? Ye shall not be unpunished: for I will call for a sword upon all
the inhabitants of the earth, saith the Lord of hosts” (read verses 15 to 33).
In the third seal he is portrayed as the Harbinger of famine conditions. This is intimated
by the change of the color of the horse: for “black” in connection with famine see Jer. 14:1,
2 and Lam. 5:10. The symbolic significance of the “black” horse is intensified by the figure
of the “pair of balances in his hand” (compare Hosea 12:7, Amos 8:4-6). What follows describes
the
wheat
being
doled
out
at
famine
prices.
But
it
is
added,
“See
thou
hurt
not
the
oil
and
the
wine.”
This
intimates
that
the
famine
is
by
no
means
universal:
yea,
it
suggests
that
side
by
side
with
abject
suffering
there
is
abundance
and
luxury.
We
therefore
regard
this
third
seal
as
denoting
the
Antichrist’s
persecution
of
the
godly
Jews
which,
from
other
scriptures
we
learn,
will
be
the
fiercest
during
the
last
three
and
one
half
years
of
his
career.
Rev.
13:17
makes it known that they who will not be suffered to buy or sell are the ones who
refuse to receive his mark. These, of course, are the faithful remnant of the Jews. But they
who do render allegiance to the Beast will not want — “oil and wine” shall be their portion.
The fourth seal, plainly conducts us to the end of Antichrist’s course. The fact that he
is named Death and that we are told Hades (that which receives the soul) followed with
him, makes known the awful doom which shall overtake this Son of Perdition and all his
blinded followers — see Rev. 19:20, 21.
2. The next allusion to the Antichrist is found in Rev. 9:11 where he is given a threefold
appellation, namely, King over the locusts, The Angel of the Abyss, and the Destroyer. A
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
few remarks upon the context are required if we are to expound, even briefly, the significance
of these three titles. The majority of pre-millennial commentators are agreed upon the
identity of the personage named in Rev. 9:11, though there is considerable difference of
opinion among them concerning the meaning of the context. We can here only offer a few
remarks on the preceding verses according to our present light and submit the reasons for
our conclusions.
The immediate context takes us back to the opening verse of Rev. 9 where a “star” is
seen falling from heaven unto the earth, unto whom is given the key to the Bottomless Pit.
This we believe refers to Lucifer, or “Day-star” (see Isa. 14:12 margin). The reference, we
think, is not to his original fall, but to what is described in Rev. 12:9. The fact that the key
of the Abyss is given to him is in keeping with the fact that during the Tribulation period
God allows him free rein and suffers him to do his worst. The R. V. correctly renders verses
one and two as follows — “And there was given to him the key of the Pit of the Abyss. And
he opened the Pit of the Abyss,” etc., or, as it may literally be rendered, “the well of the Bottomless
Pit.”
This
expression
occurs
nowhere
else
in
Scripture.
The
“well
of
the
Bottomless
Pit”
is
to
be
distinguished
from
the
Bottomless
Pit
itself,
mentioned
in
9:11;
11:7;
17:8,
20:3.
What
the
distinction
is
we
shall
presently
suggest.
Out of the well of the Bottomless Pit issued a smoke, so great that the sun and the air
were darkened (v. 2), and out of the smoke came “locusts upon the earth.” We regard these
locusts as identical with the creatures referred to in the prophecy of Joel (2:1-11). By noticing
what is said of them in Joel 2 and Rev. 9 it is at once apparent that they are no ordinary locusts.

Joel says of them, “A great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like,
neither shall be any more after it” (2:2). It is said, “When they fall upon the sword they shall
not be wounded” (2:8). The fact that they issue from the Pit also denotes that they are supernatural

beings. In the description furnished in Rev. 9 they seem to be a kind of infernal
cherubim, for “the horse” (v. 7), the “man” (v. 7), the “lion” (v. 8), and “the scorpion” (v.
19) are combined in them. Their number is given as two hundred thousand thousand. Who,
then, are these infernal beings? No commentator that we are acquainted with has attempted
an answer. It is therefore with diffidence that we suggest, without being dogmatic, that they
are, most likely, fallen angels now imprisoned in Tartarus. We give three reason which, in
our judgment, point to this conclusion.
First, we know from 2 Pet. 2:4 that the angels which sinned were “cast down to Tartarus,”
and in Rev. 9:2, 3 we are told there “arose a smoke out of the Pit[hellip]and there came out
of the smoke locusts upon the earth.” Now, as pointed out, these infernal locusts issue from
“the well of the Pit,” an expression occurring nowhere else in Scripture, and only the locusts
are said to come from there. So also the term Tartarus is found nowhere but in 2 Pet. 2:4.
It seems likely, then, that the well of the Pit may be only another name for Tartarus (with
which only fallen angels are connected), just as the Lake of Fire is only another name for
127
Gehenna. Who else could these locusts be but the fallen angels? To say we do not know may
savor of humility, but shall the writer be deemed presumptuous because he has sought to
furnish an answer by comparing scripture with scripture?
In the second place, it is surely significant that the “king” of these “locusts” is termed
in Rev. 9:11 “the angel of the Bottomless Pit!” A title which is nowhere else given to him.
Just as Christ, the Angel of the Covenant (Mal. 3:1 — cf Isa. 63:9, etc.) is, again and again,
termed an angel in the Apocalypse (see 8:3, 10:1, etc.), so the Antichrist is here denominated
“the Angel of the Bottomless Pit.” And just as we learn from Matt. 25:31 that “the Son of
Man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him” (cf Matt 24:31), so when the
Son of Perdition is manifested, all the unholy angels will be with him!
In the third place, let the language of 2 Pet. 2:4 be carefully examined: “For if God spared
not the angels that sinned, but cast them down to Tartarus, and delivered them into chains
of darkness, to be reserved unto judgment.” It is to the last clause we wish to direct attention.
Let it be compared with the 9th verse of the same chapter — “The Lord knoweth how to
deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to
be punished.” Wicked human beings are said to be reserved “unto the Day of Judgment to
be punished.” But this is not what is said of the angels that sinned, though, of course,
eternal punishment awaits them as we learn from Matt. 25:41. 2 Pet. 2:4 simply says they
are “reserved unto judgment,” and we believe this means that God is holding them in Tartarus
until His time comes for Him to use them as one of His instruments of judgment upon an
ungodly world. The time when God will thus use them is stated in Jude 6 — it will be in “the
judgment of the great day” (compare Rev. 6:17 for “the great day”). Confirmatory of this,
observe that in Joel 2:11 the Lord calls the supernatural locusts “His army,” then employed
to inflict sore punishments on apostate Israel.
1
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
If our interpretation of 2 Pet. 2:4 be correct,
namely, that it makes no reference to the future punishment of the fallen angels, this explains
why the Lord in Matt. 25:41 when referring to future punishment was careful to mention
them specifically.
Returning now to Rev. 9:11 the Antichrist is here termed the “King over” the locusts.
Let the reader pay careful attention to what is predicted of these infernal beings in Joel 2
and here in Rev. 9, and let him remember they number no less than two hundred millions,
and then see if it does not throw new light on Rev. 13:4, where concerning the Antichrist
the question is asked, “Who is able to make war with him?!!” How utterly futile to engage
in conflict one who commands an army of two hundred millions, none of whom are subject
to death! In the second place, he is here termed “the Angel of the Bottomless Pit,” a title
peculiarly appropriate as the leader of the fallen angels; and, as well, a title which denotes
the superhuman nature of the Son of Perdition. In the third place, we are here told that his
1 Psa. 78:49 speaks of God using “evil angels” (those mentioned in Rev. 12:7) in His judgments on Egypt.
128
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
name “in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon, but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.”
This title serves to establish beyond a shadow of doubt the identity of this “King” of the infernal
locusts,
this
Angel
of
the
Bottomless
Pit.
The
Hebrew
and
the
Greek
names
signify
the

same thing in English — the Destroyer. It is the Destroyer of the Gentiles of Jer. 4:7,
translated “Spoiler” in Isa. 16:4 and Jer. 6:24. Suitable name is this for the one who is the
great opponent of the Saviour. “Destroyer” is close akin to “Death” in Rev. 6:8. The reason
why his name is given here in both Hebrew and Greek is because he will be connected with
and be the destroyer of both Jews and Gentiles! But why give the Hebrew name first? Because
the order in judgment, as in grace, is “the Jew first” — see Rom. 2:9 and 1:16 for each, respectively.
3. “And when they shall have finished their testimony, the Beast that ascendeth out of
the Bottomless Pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them”
(Rev. 11:7). This is the first time in the Revelation that the Antichrist is seen in his character
of “the Beast.” The last scripture which we have examined serves at once to identify him.
He is termed “the Angel of the Bottomless Pit,” because in a peculiar sense the Abyss is his
home. There he has been during all the centuries of this Christian era. In Acts 1:23 (cf chapter
3, Section 3) the Pit is called “his own place.” Here the Beast is shown ascending out of the
Bottomless Pit. What, then, is the Abyss? It appears to be the special abode of infernal
creatures. As we have seen, out of its well issue the fallen angels. From it comes the Beast.
And in it Satan himself is incarcerated for the thousand years (Rev. 20:3). The Abyss is quite
distinct from Hades in which the souls of lost human beings are now being tormented; as
it must also be distinguished from Gehenna or the Lake of Fire in which all the lost shall
suffer for ever and ever.
4. We come now to Rev. 13. A lengthy paper might readily be devoted to its exposition,
but as we have had occasion to refer to its contents so frequently in earlier chapters, we shall
here be as brief as possible. The contents of this chapter center around two “Beasts.” As to
which of them represent the Antichrist there is a difference of opinion. The majority of
those who have written upon the subject regard the first Beast as the Man of Sin, and with
them we are in hearty accord. We shall devote our next chapter to a setting forth of some
of the many proofs that the first Beast is the Antichrist. Here we shall take the point for
granted.
“And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having
seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name
of blasphemy” (v.1). There is here, as frequently in Scripture, a double reference. Two objects
quite distinct though intimately connected are in view. We believe that this Beast which
arises from the sea points to the Roman Empire revived and in its final form, that is, resuscitated
and
confederated
under
the
form
often
kingdoms.
In
Dan.
7:3
we read, “And four
great beasts came up from the sea, diverse one from another.” These four great beasts are
129
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
interpreted in the verses which follow as four kingdoms. In v. 7 we are told this fourth Beast
(the Roman Empire) “had ten horns.” So the Beast of Rev. 13:1 also has ten horns. Each of
the successive Beasts or kingdoms of Dan. 7 retained the territory of the previous one, though
enlarging on it. In the symbolic description there furnished the first Beast is likened unto
“a lion” (v. 4); the second to “a bear” (v. 5); the third to “a leopard” (v. 6). So also in Rev. 13
the Beast there is “like unto a leopard,” has feet like “a bear,” and has the mouth of “a lion”
(v. 2). Thus we learn that the Roman Empire in its final form will include within its borders
the territory controlled by the earlier Empires and will also perpetuate the dominant characteristics
of
the
ancient
Babylonians,
Medo-Persians,
and
Grecians.
But it is very clear from what follows in Rev. 13 that there is something more than the
Empire here in view. In vv. 3-8 it is a person that is before us. We are satisfied that this same
person is also described, symbolically, in the opening verses. As is frequently the case in the
prophetic scriptures, the king and his kingdom are here inseparably united. Rev. 13:1, 2
portrays both the Empire and its last Emperor. One of the proofs for this is found in Dan.
9:26, 27, where (as we have shown in Chapter 9) the Antichrist is denominated “the prince”
of that people who destroyed Jerusalem in A. D. 70. We shall therefore interpret here according
to
this
principle.
“And I saw[hellip]a Beast rise up out of the sea.” In Scripture, the troubled “sea” is frequently

a figure of restless humanity away from God. The Antichrist will come upon the
scene at a time of unprecedented social disturbance and governmental upheaval. He will
appear at a crisis in the history of the world. From other prophetic scriptures we gather that,
following the removal of the Church from this earth, and some time before Daniel’s seventieth

week begins, there will be a complete overthrow of law and order, both civil and
political. All Divine restraint being removed, lawlessness will prevail. We have no doubt
that Satan will designedly bring this about. It will create a situation beyond the diplomatic
skill of earth’s statesmen. This will provide the desired opportunity for the coming Superman,
who will be a diplomatic genius. Just as many leaders today are satisfied that a League of
Nations would be the best device for preserving peace, so in the day to come the Man of Sin
will satisfy the world that this is the only solution to the baffling problems then confronting
the Powers of earth. Thus will the Antichrist resurrect the old Roman Empire at a time of
universal confusion and tumult. He will himself be the acknowledged head or Emperor, the
last of the Caesars. Hence the double significance of this figure — “a Beast rising out of the
sea.” Out of a state of anarchy will come forth this might Despot, who will speedily arrogate
to himself all authority, both Divine and human; and in the end it will be seen that he embodies
a
lawlessness
even
worse
and
more
fatal
than
that
out
of
which
he
sprang.
A
Beast
indeed
will
he
soon
appear
to
be.
Pregnant
with
meaning
is
this
title.
Having
rejected
God’s
“Lamb;”
a
Beast
shall
be
the
world’s
ruler.
This
will
be
God’s
reply
to
the
satanic
teaching
of
Evolution
now
so
popular
almost
everywhere.
The
leaders
of
modern
thought
insist
on
130
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
the beastial origin of man, and so a Beast shall yet lead the majority of his generation to
Perdition!
“Having seven heads and ten horns.” It is most significant that identically the same
features are attributed to the Dragon in 12:3. He, too, is there said to have “seven heads and
ten horns.” This clearly implies his satanic origin: he will be a human replica of the Devil
himself. As wrote the late G. H. Pember (from whom we have borrowed a number of valuable
points), the Beast will be “the effulgence of the Antigod’s glory, and the very image of his
substance.” We take it that the “seven heads” are symbolic of full intelligence, and the “ten
horns” speak of imperial dominion.
“And the Beast which I saw was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the feet of a
bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion” (v. 2). Like the Beast rising up out of the sea of
the previous verse, we believe the terms of this second verse have a double significance.
First, as intimated above, they denote that the Empire will include the territory and preserve
the dominant features of the earlier Empires. Second, they supply a figurative description
of the Emperor himself. The Antichrist will combine in his personality the characteristics
of the leopard (beauty and subtlety), of the bear (strength and cruelty), and of the lion
(boldness and ferocity).
“And the Dragon gave him his power, and his seat, and great authority” (v. 2). This is
the Devil’s travesty of what God the Father will yet do to His Son: — “I saw in the night
visions, and, behold, one like the Son of Man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to
the Ancient of Days, and they brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him
dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve
Him” (Dan. 7:13, 14).
“And I saw one of his heads as it were wounded to death; and his deadly wound was
healed: and all the world wondered after the Beast” (v. 3). It is clear from a number of
scriptures that during the early part of the second half of Daniel’s seventieth week the Antichrist
will
be
slain
by
the
sword

cf
Isa.
14:18,
19;
37:7;
Ezek.
21:25
R. V.; Zech. 11:17: see
our comments on these in the closing portion of Chapter 6. It is equally clear that this wound
of death will be healed (Rev. 13:4) and that the Beast shall again live (Rev. 13:14).
Satan
will be permitted to bring his son from the dead. This is no wild speculation of ours but a
view which has been propounded by quite a number of devout students. In his “Coming
Prince,” Sir Robert Anderson said, “The language of Rev. 13:3, 12 suggests that there will
be some impious travesty of the resurrection of our Lord.” It is useless to reason about it:
we simply believe the record of Scripture upon it. The raising of the Beast from the dead
will remove whatever doubt men may have entertained concerning his supernatural character.
2 It is remarkable that just three times (the number of resurrection) the healing of the Antichrist’s wound of
death is referred to here in Rev. 13 — see vv. 3, 12, 14!
2
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Antichrist in the Apocalypse
“All the world wondered after him” is the statement which immediately follows the reference
to the healing of his wound of death.
“And they worshipped the Dragon which gave power unto the Beast: and they worshipped
the
Beast,
saying,
Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?
Who
is
able
to
make
war
with
him?”
(v.
4).
This
cry
of
the
world,
“Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?”
is
a
travesty
of
the
song
of
Moses.
When
celebrating
Jehovah’s
overthrow
of
their
enemies
at
the
Red
Sea,
Israel
sang,
“Who
is
like
unto
Thee,
O
Lord,
among
the
Gods!
Who
is
like
Thee,
glorious
in
holiness,
fearful
in
praises,
doing
wonders!”
(Ex.
15:11).
The
additional
exclamation,
“Who
is
able
to
make
war
with
him?”
is
evoked
by
the
vast
army
of
infernal
creatures
at
his
command,
and
by
his
own
triumph
over
death
in
battle.
“And there was given unto him a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies” (v. 5).
This is the one great distinguishing mark of the Antichrist — cf. Psa. 52:1-4; Isa. 14:13, 14;
Dan. 7:11, 20; 11:36; 2 Thess. 2:4, etc. But not for long will he be suffered to continue his
God-defying course. Another forty-two months and his career shall be ended. This number
— here designedly used by the Holy Spirit, rather than three and one half years or twelve
hundred and sixty days — is a very significant one. Its factors are 6 and 7, which stand for
man and completeness. It is man in his fallen condition, here the Man of Sin, fully manifested.
Forty-two stands for intensified apostasy. Thus Num. 33 gives the various stopping places
of unbelieving Israel in the wilderness as forty-two in number. Judges 12:6 tells us that the
number of the apostate Ephraimites which fell before the Gileadites were 42 thousand. See
also 2 Kings 2:4 and 10:14.
“And it was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them: and
there was given to him authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation. And
all they that dwell on the earth shall worship him, every one whose name hath not been
written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb that hath been
slain” (vv. 7, 8, R. V.). The “saints” here mentioned are the godly Jewish remnant who will
refuse to worship the Beast. Those “overcome” are they who disobeyed the command of
Christ recorded in Matt. 24:16; those who obey will be preserved by God — see Rev. 12:6.
Note how election is seen here: only they whose names were written from the foundation
of the world in the book of life will be preserved from the unpardonable sin of worshipping
the Antichrist — cf Matt. 24:22, 24.
“And I beheld another Beast coming up out of the earth; and he had two horns like a
lamb, and he spake as a dragon” (v. 11). This brings before us the second Beast, called in
19:20 the False Prophet. He is the third person of the Trinity of Evil. As there is to be an
Antichrist who will both counterfeit and oppose the Christ of God, so there will be an Antispirit

who will simulate and oppose the Spirit of God. Just as the great work of the Holy
Spirit is to glorify Christ, so the one aim of the Anti-spirit will be to magnify the false christ
(see 13:12). Just as the coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost was visibly attended by “cloven
132
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
tongues like as of fire” (Acts 2:3), so we read of the Anti-spirit that “he doeth great wonders,
so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men” (v. 13).
And just as it is the Holy Spirit who now quickens dead sinners into newness of life, so of
the Anti-spirit we are told, “He had power to give life unto the image of the Beast” (v. 15).
5. “And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship
the Beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, the same shall
drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of
His indignation, and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the
holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb” (Rev. 14:9, 10). This looks back to what we
read of in the closing verses of the preceding chapter. “And he causeth all, both small and
great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
and that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the Beast, or
the number of his name” (13:16, 17). This “mark” will be the official sign of allegiance to
the Emperor stamped either upon the hand or forehead of his loyal subjects. It will be the
satanic travesty of the “seal” which the angel will stamp on the foreheads of God’s servants.
This “mark” on the persons of the subjects of the Beast will be, we believe, the name of the
Devil, (cf. Rev. 13:4), as the seal on the foreheads of God’s servants is defined in 14:1 as
“having their Father’s name written on their foreheads.” Here in Rev. 14:9-11 we have one
of the most solemn warnings in all the Bible. An angel from heaven will announce the terrible
punishment which shall be visited upon those who honor the Beast. It is set over against
the threats of the Beast and the False Prophet, who will terrify men by the sentence of
physical death for all who defy them. But here God, by His angel, declares that all who heed
the Beast and his coadjutor will share their awful doom. This no doubt will strengthen the
faith and patience of the saints, and enable them to endure unto the end.
6. “And another angel came out from the altar, which had power over fire; and cried
with a loud cry, to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in thy sharp sickle, and
gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe. And the angel thrust
in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great
winepress of the wrath of God” (14:19, 20). The “Vine of the earth” refers, we believe, to the
Man of Sin at the head of apostate Israel. This appellation points one more contrast. In John
15, we find the Lord Jesus saying, “I am the true Vine, ye are the branches.” The true Vine,
then, consists of the Christ of God and His people in fellowship with Him. Over against this
is “the vine of the earth,” which is the Antichrist and those allied to him, particularly,
renegade Israel. In Deut. 32 there is a reference to the “Vine of the earth” — “For their rock
is not as our Rock, even our enemies themselves being judges. For their Vine is of the vine
of Sodom, and their clusters are bitter” (v. 31, 32). That this is speaking of apostate Israel is
clear from v. 28 — “For they are a nation void of counsel, neither is there any understanding
in them.” That the passage is speaking of apostate Israel in the days of the Antichrist appears
133
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
from v. 35 — “To me belongeth vengeance, and recompense; their foot shall slide in due
time: for the day of their calamity is at hand, and the things which shall come upon them
make haste” (v. 35).
7. In Rev. 15:2 there is a brief allusion to the Beast, in connection with the godly Remnant:
“And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory
over the Beast, and over his image, and over his mask, and over the number of his name,
stand on the sea of glass having the harps of God,” etc. The reference is to those who had
been slain by the Antichrist because they had refused to render him any honor or worship.
The same company is seen again in 20:4.
8. Rev. 16 describes the “vial” judgments which are executed just before the end of the
Tribulation. The Beast is noticed several times in the chapter. In v.2 we read, “And the first
went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous sore
upon the men which had the mark of the Beast, and upon them which worshipped his image”
(v. 2). This is a foretaste of the grievous torments awaiting the worshippers of the Beast.
Again in v.10 we read, “And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the Beast;
and his kingdom was full of darkness and they gnawed their tongues for pain.” Here the
Beast himself receives intimation of the doom awaiting him. In vv. 13 and 14 we are told,
“And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the Dragon, and out
of the mouth of the Beast, and out of the mouth of the False Prophet. For they are the sprites
of demons, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth and of the whole
world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God Almighty.” Here we behold, in
symbolic guise, each of the persons in the Evil Trinity. The figure of the “frog” is very suggestive.
Frogs
are
creatures
which
love
the
darkness
rather
than
the
light:
they
wallow
in
the
mire
and
filth:
their
croaking
is
heard
in
the
dusk
of
twilight
and
by
night.
Thus
they
are
an
apt
symbol
of
the
persons
in
the
Trinity
of
Evil.
Their
very
form
suggests
inflation
by
pride.
The

reference here in Rev. 16:13, 14 indicates the superhuman character of the False
Prophet as well as of the Beast and the Dragon.
9. Rev. 17 calls for a lengthy exposition, so we must defer to a later chapter the consideration

of its details. The central figures in it are “the great whore” and the Beast. While
freely granting that, historically, the great whore has received its fulfillment in the Roman
Catholic system, and while allowing that it will yet represent the whole of apostate
Christendom, nevertheless, we believe that the ultimate reference is to apostate Israel. Here
in Rev. 17 the “woman” is first seen sitting upon the scarlet colored Beast — the Antichrist
in his imperial glory (v.3); but later we see him suffering his ten kings to destroy her (v. 16).
This accords perfectly with the dual relation of Antichrist to Israel: first posing as their Benefactor

(here seen in v. 3 supporting her), later standing forth as her great Enemy. The
eighth verse (see our comments on it in Chapter 3, Section III,6) is one of the scriptures
which show that Antichrist is a re-incarnation of Judas.
134
Antichrist in the Apocalypse
10. Rev. 19:19, 20 describes the end of Antichrist’s career. We need not enlarge now
upon these verses for we have already commented on them in Chapter 7. The final reference
to the Antichrist is in Rev. 20:10 where we read of the Devil being cast into the Lake of Fire
where the Beast and the False Prophet are, to be, with them, tormented for ever and ever.
135
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
In the thirteenth chapter of Revelation two Beasts are there described. The first is the
final Head of the last great Empire before the establishment of the millennial kingdom of
our Lord. The second Beast is denominated, in other passages, “the False Prophet.” There
is a difference of opinion as to which of these Beasts represents the Antichrist. In the Appendix

to our book “The Redeemer’s Return,” where this subject is discussed and from
which we shall here freely transcribe, we have stated that opinion is about equally divided.
But during the last five years we have made a much wider investigation, and as the result
we have found that the great majority of those who have written on the subject regard the
first Beast as the Antichrist, and that only a comparative few — nearly all of whom belong
to a particular school — favor the alternative view. However, the writings of the few have
had a wide circulation and have exerted a considerable influence on students of prophecy,
and therefore these papers on the Antichrist would lack completeness, and probably some
of our readers would be disappointed, if we said nothing on the subject. It is in no spirit of
controversy that we now present our own reasons for believing it is the first Beast of Rev.
13 who is the Antichrist.
The book of Revelation makes known the fact that there is a Trinity of Evil. Each of
these three evil persons comes into view in Rev. 13. First, there is “the Beast” (v. 2). Second,
there is “the Dragon” (v. 2). Third, there is “another Beast” (v. 11). The fact that of this third
Beast it is said “He spake as a dragon” (v. 11) at once intimates his satanic nature and character,
for
the
speech
corresponds
to
the
heart.
The
demoniacal
nature
of
each
of
these
evil
persons
comes
out
clearly
in
Rev.
16:13,
14,
where
we
read,
“And
I
saw
three
unclean
spirits
like
frogs
come
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
Dragon,
and
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
Beast,
and
out
of
the
mouth
of
the
False
Prophet.
For
they
are
the
spirits
of
demons,
working
miracles.”
Finally,

in Rev. 19:19, 20 we are told, “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False
Prophet[hellip]these both were cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone,” and
then in 20:10 we read, “And the Devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and
brimstone, where the Beast and the False Prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night
for ever and ever.”
The above scriptures clearly establish the fact that there is a Trinity of Evil. Now it surely
needs no argument to prove that these three evil persons are opposed to and are the antithesis
of
the
three
Persons
in
the
Godhead.
The
Devil
stands
opposed
to
God
the
Father

“Ye
are
of
your
father,
the
Devil,”
John
8:40,
etc.
The
Antichrist
stands
opposed
to
God
the
Son

— his very name shows this. The remaining evil person stands opposed to God the
Spirit. If this be the case, then our present task is greatly simplified: it is merely a matter of
noting what is separately predicted of the two Beasts in Rev. 13 so as to ascertain which of
them stands opposed to Christ and which to the Holy Spirit.
136
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
Now there are only two arguments of any plausibility which have been advanced to
support the view that it is the second Beast of Rev. 13 which is the Antichrist, but so far as
we are aware no one has endeavored to show that the first Beast represents the third Person
in the Trinity of Evil! Yet he must be so if the second is the Antichrist! This is unmistakably
clear from Rev. 16:13, 14 and 19:19, 20. The first argument used is drawn from the language
of 13:11, where of the second Beast it is said, “He had two horns like a lamb, and he spake
as a dragon.” This, we are told, indicates that it is the Antichrist who is here in view, aping
the Lamb of God. Personally, we are amazed that such an assertion should have been made
in soberness. It is difficult to imagine anything more wide of the mark, seeing that not only
is it not said this beast with the two horns was “like the lamb” but in this same book “the
Lamb” is pictured with “seven horns” (see. 5:6). But if this second Beast, the False Prophet,
be the opponent of God the Spirit, then the two horns have a pertinent significance, for two
is the number of witness, and just as Christ declared the Spirit of God should “testify (lit.,
bear witness) of Me” (John 15:26), so the third person in the Trinity of Evil bears witness
to the first Beast — see 13:12, 14, 16. In the second place, it is said that the first Beast of Rev.
13 is presented as the political Head, while it is the second who is viewed as the religious
Head. But if this is not a bad mistake, it certainly needs to be modified. It is the first Beast,
not the second, who is worshipped (v. 12)! Having thus noticed briefly the two leading objections
which
have
been
brought
against
the
position
we
are
about
to
define
and
defend,
we
shall
now
present
some
of
the
many
arguments
on
the
other
side.
In the first place, to regard the Antichrist as limited to the religious realm and divorced
from the political, seems to us, to leave out entirely an essential and fundamental element
of his character and career. The Antichrist will claim to be the true Christ, the Christ of
God. Hence, it would seem that he will present himself to the Jews as their long-expected
Messiah — the One foretold by the Old Testament prophets — and that before apostate
Christendom, given over by God to believe the Lie, he will pose as the returned Christ.
Therefore, must we not predict, as an inevitable corollary, that the pseudo christ, will usher
in a false millennium, and rule over a mock messianic kingdom? That this conclusion is
fully borne out by Scripture we shall show in a moment.
Why was it (from the human side) that, when out Lord tabernacled among men, the
Jews rejected Him as their Messiah? Was it not because He failed to fulfill their expectations
that he would take the government upon His shoulder and wield the royal sceptre as soon
as He presented Himself to them? Was it not because they looked for Him to restore the
Kingdom to Israel there and then? Is it not therefore reasonable to suppose that when the
Antichrist presents himself to them, that he will wield great temporal power, and rule over
a vast earthly empire? It would certainly seem so. Happily we are not left to logical deductions
and conclusions. We have a “thus saith the Lord” to rest upon. In Dan. 11:36 — a scripture
upon which all are agreed concerning its application — the Antichrist is expressly termed
137
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
“the king (which) shall do according to his will.” Here then is unequivocal proof that Antichrist
will
exercise
political
or
governmental
power.
He
will
be
a
king

“the
king”

and
if
a
king
he
must
be
at
the
head
of
a
kingdom.
In the second place, if the Antichrist is to be a perfect counterfeit of the true Christ, if
he is to ape the millennial Christ as set forth in Old Testament prophecy — for, of course,
he will not mimic the “suffering” Christ of the first advent — then it necessarily follows that
he will fill the role of king, yea, that he will reign as a King of kings, as Satan’s parody of the
Son of man seated upon “the throne of His glory.” That the Antichrist will also be at the
head of the religious world, that he will demand and receive Divine honors, is equally true.
Just as in the Millennium the Lord Jesus will “be a Priest upon His Throne” (Zech. 6:13), so
the Antichrist will combine in his person the headships of both the political and the religious
realms — see our notes on Ezek. 21:25, 26 in Chapter 9. And just as the Son of Man will be
the Head of the fifth world-empire (Dan. 2:44) so, the Man of Sin will be the head of the
revived fourth world-empire (Dan. 2:40).
In the third place, to make the Antichrist and “the False Prophet” one and the same
person is to involve us in a difficulty for which there seems to be no solution. In Rev. 19:20
we read, “And the Beast was taken, and with him the False Prophet that wrought miracles
before him[hellip].These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone.”
Now, if the False Prophet be the Antichrist, then who is “the Beast” that is cast with him
into the Lake of Fire? The Beast here cannot be the Roman Empire (the people in it), for no
member of the human race (as such) is cast into the Lake of Fire until after the Millennium
(see Rev. 20). That “the Beast” is a separate entity, another individual than the False
Prophet is also clear from Rev. 20:10 — “And the Devil that deceived them was cast into
the lake of fire and brimstone, where the Beast and the False Prophet are.” In this last quoted
scripture, each of the three persons in the Trinity of Evil is specifically mentioned, and if
“the Beast” is not the Antichrist, the Son of Perdition, the second person in the Trinity of
Evil, who is he?
In the fourth place, what is predicted of the first Beast in Rev. 13 comports much better
with what is elsewhere revealed concerning the Antichrist, than what is here said of the
second Beast. In proof of our assertion we submit the following:
Points of resemblance between the first Beast of Rev. 13 and the Man of Sin of 2 Thess.
2:-
1. The first Beast receives his power, seat, and great authority from the Dragon, Rev.
13:2. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:9 — “Him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power
and signs and lying wonders.”
2. “All the world” wonders after the first Beast, Rev. 13:2. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:11, 12 — “And
for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie; that
they all might be damned,” etc.
138
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
3. The first Beast is “worshipped,” Rev. 13:4. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:4 — “He as God sitteth in
the temple of God.”
4. The first Beast has a mouth “speaking great things,” Rev. 13:5. Cf. 2 Thess. 2:4 —
“Who[hellip]exalteth himself above all that is called God.” Note also that in Rev. 13:5 it is
said of the first Beast, he “has a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies.” Is not this
one of the chief characteristic marks of the Antichrist?
5. The first Beast makes war on the saints, Rev. 13:7. Cf 2 Thess. 2:4 — “Who opposeth[hellip]all

that is called God,” that is, he will seek to exterminate and obliterate
everything on earth which bears God’s name.
From these points of analogy it is evident that the first Beast of Rev. 13 and the Man of
Sin of 2 Thess. 2 are one and the same person.
In the fifth place, that the second Beast is not the Man of Sin appears from the fact that
the second Beast causeth the earth to worship the first Beast (Rev. 13:12), whereas the Man
of Sin exalteth himself (2 Thess. 2:4), and compare Dan. 11:36: “And he exalteth himself.”
As already intimated, there are several things which show plainly that the second Beast is
the third person in the Trinity of Evil, that is, the one who is the satanic parody of the Holy
Spirit. The point now before us supplies further confirmation. There is nothing in Rev. 13,
nor elsewhere, to show that this second Beast is worshipped, rather does he direct worship
away from himself, to the first Beast. Therefore, he cannot be the pseudo christ, for the Lord
Jesus did, again and again, receive worship (see particularly Matthew’s Gospel), and will be
worshipped on His return. But this second Beast, who directs worship away from himself,
accurately imitates the Holy Spirit in this respect, for nowhere in the New Testament is the
third Person of the Holy Trinity presented as a distinct Object of worship; instead, He is to
“glorify” Christ (John 16:14) by drawing out our hearts unto that blessed One who loved us
and gave Himself for us.
Again; it has been generally recognized by prophetic students that our Lord referred to
the Antichrist when He said, “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me not: if
another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). If the one here mentioned
as
coming
“in
his
own
name”
is
the
Antichrist,
then
it
is
certain
that
the
second
Beast
of
Rev.
13
cannot be the Antichrist, for he does not come “in his own name.” On the contrary,
the second Beast comes in the name of the first Beast as is clear from Rev. 13:12-15. Just as
the Holy Spirit — the third Person in the Holy Trinity speaks “not of Himself” (John 16:13),
but is here to glorify Christ, so the second Beast — the third person in the Evil Trinity seeks
to glorify the first Beast, the Antichrist.
If it should be objected that the second Beast is represented as working miracles (Rev.
13:13, 14) and, that as the Man of Sin is also said to come “after the working of Satan with
all power and signs and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9), therefore, the second Beast must be
the Antichrist, the answer is, This by no means follows. The power to work miracles is
139
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
common to each person in the Trinity of evil. Just as God the Father, God the Son, and God
the Holy Spirit, each perform miracles, so does the Dragon, the Beast, and the False Prophet
(see Rev. 16:13, 14 for proof). Three things are said in connection with the second Beast
which correspond closely with the work of the Holy Spirit. First, “he maketh fire come down
from heaven” (Rev. 13:13), cf Acts 2:1-4. Second, “he had power to give life unto the image
of the Beast” (Rev. 13:15), cf John 3:6 — “born of the Spirit.” Third, “he causeth all, both
small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in
their foreheads” (Rev. 13:16), cf Eph. 4:30 — “Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby
ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.”
Finally; the second Beast is clearly subordinate to the first Beast. But would the Jews
receive as their Messiah and King one who was himself the vassal of a Roman? Was not this
the very reason why the Jews of old rejected the Lord Jesus, i.e., because He was subject to
Caesar, and because He refused to deliver the Jews from the Romans!
In the sixth place, as we have seen, in Dan. 11:36 the Antichrist is termed “the King,”
and if a king he must posses a kingdom, and can there be any doubt as to the identity of this
kingdom? Will not Antichrist’s kingdom be the very one which Satan offered in vain to
Christ? namely, “all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them” (Matt. 4:8). That the
kingdom of the Antichrist will be much wider than Palestine appears from Dan. 11:40-42
— “And at the time of the end shall the king of the South push at him (the Antichrist): and
the king of the North (the Antichrist, as King of Babylon) shall come against him (the King
of the South) like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships: and
he (the Antichrist) shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. He (the
Antichrist) shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his (the Antichrist’s) hand,
even Edom and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon. He (the Antichrist) shall
stretch forth his hand upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.” From
this scripture it is also clear that the Antichrist will be at the head of a great army and
therefore must be a political ruler as well as a religious chief.
In the seventh place, it is generally agreed among those students of prophecy who belong
to the Futurist school, that the rider upon the four horses in Rev. 6 is the Antichrist. If this
be the case, then we have further proof that the Antichrist and the Head of the revived Roman
Empire is one and the same person. This may be seen by comparing three scriptures. In
Rev. 6:8, of the rider on “the pale horse,” we read, “His name that sat on him was Death and
Hell followed with him.” In Isa. 28:18, those who will be in Jerusalem during the Tribulation
period are addressed by Jehovah as follows: “And your covenant with Death shall be disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand.”
What
“covenant”
can
this
be,
except
the
one
mentioned
in
Dan.
9:27,
where
we
read
of
the
Roman
Prince
(the
Head
of
the
revived
Roman
Empire)
confirming
the
covenant
with
the
many
for
seven
years?
Now
reverse
the
order
of
these
three
passages,
and
what
do
we
learn?
In
Dan.
9:27
we learn that the Head of
140
The Antichrist in Revelation 13
the Roman Empire makes a covenant with the Jews. In Isa. 28:18 this covenant is said to
have been made with “Death and Hell.” While in Rev. 6:8 the rider on the pale horse (whom
it is generally admitted is the Antichrist) is named “Death and Hell.” Hence, from whatever
angle we approach the subject it is seen that the Antichrist is the Head of the fourth worldkingdom.
141
Types of the Antichrist
Types of the Antichrist
Types of the Antichrist
“In the volume of the book it is written of Me” (Heb. 10:7), said the Lord Jesus. Christ
is the key to the Scriptures — “Search the Scriptures[hellip]they are they which testify of
Me,” are His words; and the Scriptures to which He had reference were not the four Gospels,
for they were not then written, but the writings of Moses and the prophets. The Old Testament

Scriptures, then, are something more than a compilation of historical narratives,
something more than the record of a system of social and religious legislation, or a code of
ethics. The Old Testament Scriptures are, fundamentally, a stage on which is shown forth,
in vivid symbolry, stupendous events then future. The events recorded in the Old Testament
were actual occurrences, yet were they also typical prefigurations. Throughout the Old
Testament dispensations God caused to be shadowed forth things which must yet come to
pass. This is in full accord with a basic law in the economy of God. Nothing is brought to
maturity at once. As it is in the natural world, so it is in the spiritual: there is first the blade,
then the ear, and then the full corn in the ear. So there is first the shadow, and then the
substance; the type, and then the antitype.
“Whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning” (Rom. 15:4).
Israel’s tabernacle was “a figure for the time then present” (Heb. 9:8, 9), as well as the example
and “shadow of heavenly things” (Heb. 8:5). Concerning the history of Abraham, his wives
and his children, the apostle was inspired to write “which things are an allegory” (Gal. 4:24).
These and other passages which might be quoted witness plainly to the typical meaning of
portions of the Old Testament. But there are some brethren who will own the typical significance
of
these
things,
who
refuse
to
acknowledge
that
anything
else
in
the
Old
Testament
has
a
typical
meaning
save
those
which
are
expressly
interpreted
or
mentioned
in
the
New.
But
surely
this
is
a
mistake.
Ought
we
not
to
regard
those
Old
Testament
types
which
are
expounded
in
the
New
Testament
as
samples
of
others
which
are
not
explained?
Are
there
no
more
prophecies
in
the
Old
Testament
than
those
which
in
the
New
Testament
are
expressly
said
to
be
“fulfilled?”
Assuredly
there
are.
Then
why
not
admit
the
same
in
connection
with
the
types?
Nothing
is
said
in
the
New
Testament
that
the
history
of
Joseph
has
a
profound
and
wonderful
typical
significance,
yet
who
with
anointed
eyes
can
fail
to
see
in
the
experiences
of
Jacob’s
favorite
son
a
remarkable
foreshadowing
of
the
person
and
work
of
Christ!
There will probably be few who read this chapter that will dispute what we have said
above. No doubt the majority of our readers have already been instructed in much of the
typology of the Old Testament. Many of God’s servants have written at length upon the
Passover, the brazen serpent, the Tabernacle, etc., as well as upon the many ways in which
such men as Abel, Noah, Isaac, Moses, David, etc. prefigured the Saviour. But strange to
say, very little seems to have been written upon those who adumbrated the Antichrist. So
142
Types of the Antichrist
far as we are aware practically nothing has been given out concerning the many Bible characters
of
ill
fame,
who
foreshadowed
that
coming
one,
that
occupies
such
a
prominent
place
in
the
prophetic
scriptures.
A
wide
field
is
here
opened
for
study,
and
we
take
pleasure
in
now

submitting to the careful perusal of the reader the results of our own imperfect researches,
hoping
that
it
may
lead
others
to
make
a
more
complete
examination
of
the
subject
for
themselves.
It was well said by one of the Continental Puritans that “When we read the Scriptures,
we are to judge beforehand, that then only do we understand them, when we discover in
them a wisdom unsearchable and worthy of God” (Witsius).Such is the inexhaustible fulness
of the written Word of God that not only are its words significant of things, but even the
things, which are first signified by the words, also represent other things, which they were
appointed to prefigure long before they happened. Besides the plain and literal sense of
Scripture, there is also a mystical sense, hidden beneath the surface and which can only be
discovered as we, in dependence on the Holy Spirit, diligently compare scripture with
scripture. In pursuing the latter we need not only to proceed with due caution, but in “fear
and trembling,” lest we devise mysteries of of our own imagination, and thus pervert to one
use what belongs to another. The principle which will safeguard us is to thoroughly acquaint
ourselves with the antitypes. Let nothing be regarded as a type unless we are sure there is
an exact correspondence with the antitype. This will preserve us from erroneously supposing
that any person who is clearly a type of either Christ or the Antichrist is so in every detail
of his life. Thus Moses was plainly a type of Christ as our Mediator, and in many other respects
too,
but
in
his
failures
and
in
other
details
of
his
personal
history
he
was
not
a
type
of
Christ.
So,
too,
with
those
who
foreshadowed
the
Antichrist:
not
everything
recorded
of
them
prefigured
the
character
or
deeds
of
the
Man
of
Sin.
Should
it
still
be
inquired,
How
are

we to ascertain in which respects the actions of Old Testament characters were, and
were not, typical? the answer, as given above, is, By comparing the antitype. This will save
us from the wild allegorizing of Origen and others of the “Fathers.” We shall now look at
ten Bible characters, each of which strikingly typified the Antichrist.
1. Cain. It is indeed solemn to discover that the very first man born into this world
prefigured the Man of Sin. He did so in a least seven respects. First, we may observe that in
1 John 3:12 we are told “Cain was of that Wicked One,” i.e. the Devil. Of none other is this
particular expression used. The Antichrist will also, in a special sense, be “of that Wicked
one,” for the Devil is said to be his father (John 8:44). Second, Cain was a religious hypocrite.
This is seen in the fact that at first he posed as a worshipper of God, but the emptiness of
his pretensions were quickly evidenced; for, when the Lord refused his offering, Cain was
“very wroth” (Gen. 4:5). As such he clearly prefigured that one who will first claim to be the
Christ, only to stand forth later as His denier (1 John 2:22). Third, by his primogeniture
Cain occupied the position of ruler. Said the Lord to him, “Unto to thee shall be his desire,
143
Types of the Antichrist
and thou shalt rule over him,” that is, over Abel (Gen. 4:7). Such, too, will be the position
filled by the Antichrist — he shall be a Ruler over men. Fourth, in murdering his brother
Abel, Cain foreshadowed the wicked martyrdom of the Tribulation saints by the Son of
Perdition. Fifth, Cain was a liar. After the murder of Abel, when the Lord asked Cain, “Where
is Abel thy brother?,” he answered, “I know not” (Gen. 4:9). In like manner deceit and
falsehood will characterize him who is appropriately named “the Lie” (2 Thess. 2:11). Sixth,
God’s judgment descended upon Cain. So far as we know from the Scripture record, no
human eye witnessed the dastardly murder of Abel, and doubtless Cain deemed himself
secure from any penal consequences. But if so, he reckoned without God. The Lord announced
to
him,
“Thy
brother’s
blood
crieth
unto
Me
from
the
ground,”
and
then
He
declared,
“And
now
art
thou
cursed
from
the
earth”
(Gen.
4:10).
So,
too,
in
his
reckless
conceit
,
the
Antichrist
will
imagine
that
he
can
defy
God
and
slay
His
people
with
impugnity.
But
his

blasphemous delusions will be quickly dispelled. Seventh, Cain was made to exclaim,
“My punishment is greater than I can bear” (Gen. 4:13). Such indeed will be the awful portion
meted out to the Antichrist — he shall be “cast alive into the lake of fire burning with
brimstone” (Rev. 19:20).
2. Lamech. And Lamech said unto his wives: Adah and Zillah, hear my voice; “Ye wives
of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: For I have slain a man for wounding me, and a young
man for bruising me. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, Truly Lamech seventy and seven
fold” (Gen. 4:23, 24, R. V.). The record of this man’s life is exceedingly brief, but from the
little that is recorded about him we may discover at least seven parallelisms between him
and the Antichrist. First, the meaning of his name. Lamech signifies “powerful.” This was
an appropriate name for one who foreshadowed the Man of Sin who, as the Head of the
United States of the World, will be powerful governmentally. He will also be mighty in his
person, for we are told that the Dragon shall give power unto him (Rev. 13:4). Second, in
the fact that Lamech was a descendant of Cain (Gen. 4:17-19), not Seth, we see that he sprang
from the evil line. Third, he was the seventh from fallen Adam, as though to intimate that
the cycle of depravity was completed in him. So the Antichrist will be not only the culmination
of
satanic
craft
and
power,
but
as
well,
the
climax
of
human
wickedness

the
Man
of
Sin.
Fourth,
the
first
thing
predicted
of
Lamech
is
his
“lawlessness.”
“Lamech
took
unto
him
two
wives”
(Gen.
4:19).
As
such
he
violated
the
marriage
law
and
disobeyed
the
command
of
God
(Gen.
2:24).
Clearly,
then,
he
foreshadowed
the
“Lawless
One”
(2
Thess.
2:8,
R.V.).
Fifth,
like
Cain
before
him,
Lamech
was
a
murderer.
His
confession
is,
“I
have
slain
a

man for wounding me, and a young man for bruising me” (Gen. 4:23). In this, too, he
foreshadowed the Man of blood and of violence. Sixth, he was filled with pride. This comes
out in two details. First, he says to his wives, “Hear my voice; Ye wives of Lamech, hearken
unto my speech” (Gen. 4:23). Second, in his arrogant self-importance — “If Cain shall be
avenged sevenfold, truly LAMECH seventy and seven fold” (Gen. 4:24). This appears to
144
Types of the Antichrist
mean that Lamech had slain a man for wounding him, and mad with passion, he jeered
ironically at God’s dealings with Cain. Seventh, in the fact that the very next thing recorded
after the brief notice of Lamech is the birth of Seth (the one from whom, according to the
flesh, Christ descended) who set aside the line of Cain — for on his birth Eve exclaimed,
“God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel whom Cain slew” (Gen. 4:25) — thus
we have a beautiful foreshadowing of the millennial reign of the Lord Jesus following the
overthrow of the Antichrist.
3. Nimrod. This personal type of the Antichrist is deeply interesting and remarkable
full in its details. His exploits are recorded in Gen. 10 and 11, and it is most significant that
his person and history are there introduced at the point immediately preceding God’s call
of Abraham from among the Gentiles and His bringing him into the promised land. Thus
will history repeat itself. Just before God again gathers Abraham’s descendants from out of
the lands of the Gentiles (many, perhaps the majority of whom, will be found dwelling in
Chalden, in Assyria, the “north country” see Isa. 11:11; Jer. 3:18, etc.) there will arise one
who will fill out the picture here typically outlined by Nimrod.
Let us examine the details of this type. First, the meaning of his name is most suggestive.
Nimrod signifies “The Rebel.” A fit designation was this for a man that foreshadowed the
Lawless One, who shall oppose and exalt himself above all that is called God (2 Thess. 2:4),
and who shall “stand up against the Prince of princes” (Dan. 8:25). Second, we are told that
he was a son of Cush — “And Cush begat Nimrod” (Gen. 10:8), and Cush was a son of Ham,
who was curst by Noah. Nimrod, then, was not a descendant of Shem, from whom Christ
sprang, nor of Japheth; but he came from Ham. It is remarkable that these men who typified
the Antichrist came from the evil line. Third, we are told that Nimrod “began to be a mighty
one in the earth” (Gen. 10:8). Four times over is this term “mighty” connected with this one
who prefigured him “whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power and signs
and lying wonders” (2 Thess. 2:9). But observe that it is first said, “He began to be mighty,”
which seems to suggest the idea that he struggled for the pre-eminence and obtained it by
mere force of will. How this corresponds with the fact that the Man of Sin first appears as
“the little horn” and by force of conquest attains to the position of King of kings needs only
to be pointed out. It is also significant that the Hebrew word for “mighty” in Gen. 10:9 is
“gibbor” which is translated several times “Chief” and “Chieftain.” Fourth, it is also added,
“Nimrod the mighty hunter before the Lord” which means that he pushed his designs in
brazen defiance of his Maker. The words “mighty hunter before the Lord” are found twice
in Gen. 10:9. This repetition in so short a narrative is highly significant. If we compare the
expression with a similar one in Gen. 6:11, — “The earth also (in the days of Noah) was
corrupt before God” — the impression conveyed is that this “Rebel” pursued his impious
designs in open defiance of the Almighty. The contents of Gen. 11 abundantly confirm this
interpretation. In like manner, of the Antichrist it is written, “And the King shall do according
145
Types of the Antichrist
to his will, and he shall exalt himself and magnify himself above every god (ruler), and shall
speak marvelous things against the God of gods” (Dan. 11:36). Fifth, Nimrod was a “Man
of Blood.” In 1 Chron. 1:10 — “And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be mighty upon the
earth.” The Chaldea paraphrase of this verse says, “Cush begat Nimrod who began to prevail
in wickedness for he slew innocent blood and rebelled against Jehovah.” This, coupled with
the expression “a mighty Hunter before the Lord,” suggests that he relentlessly sought out
and slew God’s people. As such, he accurately portrayed the bloody and deceitful Man (Psa.
5:6), the violent Man (Psa. 140:1). Sixth, Nimrod was a King — “the beginning of his kingdom
was Babel” (Gen. 10:10. Thus he was King of Babylon, which is also one of the many titles
of the Antichrist (Isa. 14:4). In the verses which follow in Gen. 10 we read, “He went out
into Assyria and builded Ninevah, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah,” etc. (Gen. 10:11).
From these statements it is evident that Nimrod’s ambition was to establish a world empire.
Seventh, mark his inordinate desire for fame. His consuming desire was to make for himself
a name. Here again the antitype marvellously corresponds with the type, for the Man of Sin
is expressly denominated “King over all the children of pride” (Job 41:34).
What is recorded in Gen. 10 about Nimrod supplies the key to the first half of Gen. 11
which tells of the building of the Tower of Babel. Gen. 10:10 informs us that the beginning
of Nimrod’s kingdom was Babel. In the language of that day Babel meant “the gate of God,”
but afterwards, because of the judgment which the Lord there inflicted, it came to mean
“Confusion.” That at the time Nimrod founded Babel this word signified “the gate (the figure
of official position) of God,” intimates that he not only organized an imperial government
over which he presided as king, but that he also instituted a new and idolatrous system of
worship. If the type be perfect, and we are fully assured it is so, then, as the Lawless One will
yet do, Nimrod demanded and received Divine honors. In all probability, it was at this point
that idolatry was introduced.
Nimrod is not directly mentioned in Gen. 11, but from the statements made about him
in chap. 10 there cannot be any doubt that he was the “Chief” and “King” who organized
and headed the movement and rebellion there described: “And they said, Go to, let us build
us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we
be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth” (11:4). Here we behold a most blatant
defiance of God, a deliberate refusal to obey His commands given through Noah — “Be
fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth” (9:1). But they said, “Let us make us a name
lest we be scattered upon the face of the whole earth.” As we have seen, Nimrod’s ambition
was to establish a world-empire. To accomplish this two things, at least, were necessary.
First, a center, a great headquarters; and second, a motive for the inspiration and encouragement
of
his
followers.
The
former
was
furnished
in
the
city
of
Babylon:
the
latter
was
to
be
supplied
in
the
“let
us
make
us
a
name.”
It
was
inordinate
desire
for
fame.
The
idea
of
the
146
Types of the Antichrist
Tower (considered in the light of its setting) seems that of strength, a stronghold, rather
than eminence.
To sum up. In Nimrod and his schemes we behold Satan’s initial attempt to raise up an
universal ruler of men. In his inordinate desire for fame, in the mighty power that he wielded,
in his ruthless and brutal methods, in his blatant defiance of the Creator, in his founding
of the kingdom of Babel, in his assuming to himself Divine honors, in the fact that the Holy
Spirit has placed the record of these things just before the inspired account of God’s bringing
Abraham into Canaan — pointing forward to the re-gathering of Israel in Palestine, immediately
after
the
overthrows
of
the
Lawless
One

and
finally,
in
the
Divine
destruction
of
his
kingdom

described
in
the
words,
“Let
Us
go
down
and
there
confound
their
language”
(Gen.
11:7),
which
so
marvellously
pictures
the
descent
of
Christ
from
heaven
to
vanquish
His
impious
rival

we
cannot
fail
to
see
that
we
have
a
wonderfully
complete
typical
picture
of
the
person,
the
work,
and
the
destruction
of
the
Antichrist.
4. Chedorlaomer. The history of this man is recorded in Gen. 14 which is a chapter of
deep interest to the student of typology. The chapter opens with the words “And it came to
pass in the days of.” “This is an expression which occurs six times (in the Hebrew) and always
marks a time of trouble ending in blessing — cf Ruth 1:11; Isa. 7:1; Jer. 1:3; Ester 1:1; 2 Sam.
21:1” (Companion Bible). Such is plainly the case here. The first half of Gen. 14 depicts
Tribulation conditions, and this is followed by a scene foreshadowing millennial glory. The
time when Chedorlaomer lived is the first point in the type. His history is recorded just before
the first mention of Melchizedek, the priest-king, who came forth and blessed Abraham —
an unmistakable foreshadowment of Christ in millennial glory, blessing Israel. Second, the
name of this man is highly significant. Gesenius, in his lexicon, says of the word “a handful
of sheaves”[hellip]perhaps its true etymology should be sought in the ancient “Persian.”
The latter is doubtless correct, for “Elam,” of which Chedorbaomer was king (Gen. 14:1),
is the ancient name for Persia. Col. Rawlinson searched for his name on the tablets of ancient
Assyria, and there he found that his official title was, “Ravager of the west!” Thus was he a
true type of the coming one who shall wade through a sea of blood to his coveted position
as Emperor of the world. Third, it is indeed remarkable to find that just as Rev. 13:1 shows
us that the empire of which the Antichrist will be the Head (see our notes on this verse in
Chapter 11) includes within it the territory and perpetuates the characteristics of the earlier
empires (Babylon, Persia, Greece, and Rome), so dominions: “And it came to pass in the
days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and
Tidal king of nations.” Now “Shinar” is one of the names of Babylon (see Dan. 1:2); “Elam”
is the ancient name of Persia’ “Ellasar” is translated “Hellas” in the Sept., which is the ancient
name of Greece; while “Tidal king of the nations” evidently stands for Rome, the last of the
world empires. Fourth, but what is even more striking, is the fact that in Gen. 14:5 Chedorlamoer
is

seen at the head of the kings mentioned in v. 1. They act as his vassals, and
147
Types of the Antichrist
thus bow to the superiority of this one who was evidently a King of kings. Fifth, Chedorlaomer
was a warrior of renown. He was the Attila, the Napoleon of his day. He defeated in battle
the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah and brought them into subjection and servitude (see
14:2-4). Later, they rebelled, and gathering his forces together he went forth, vanquished,
and slew them (14:9, 10). Thus did he foreshadow the Destroyer of the Gentiles (Jer. 4:7).
Sixth, in Gen. 14:12 we read, “And they took Lot, Abraham’s brother’s son, who dwelt in
Sodom, and his goods, and departed.” This prefigured the persecution of Israel by Antichrist
and his subordinates in a coming day. Finally, we learn how that Abraham and his servants
pursued Chedorlaomer and his forces, and that “Chedorlaomer and the kings that were
with him” were slain “in the kings dale” (14:17), which strikingly adumbrated the future
overthrow of Antichrist and the kings who shall be with him, in the dale of Megiddo (see
Rev. 19:19).
5. Pharaoh. We have in mind the Pharaoh of the book of Exodus. His history and
character are described at much greater length than the other personal types of the Antichrist
which have been before us, and therefore more parallelisms are to be found here. We shall
aim to be suggestive rather than exhaustive. First, Pharaoh was king of Egypt which, in
Scripture, is the lasting symbol of the world. In like manner, the one whom he so strikingly
prefigured will be Head of the world-kingdom. Second, the Pharaoh of Exodus came from
Assyria (Isa. 52:4); so also will the Antichrist first rise in that land. Third, Ex. 1 presents him
to our view as the merciless persecutor of the Hebrews, embittering their lives by hard
bondage. Fourth, he is next seen as the one who sought to cut off Israel from being a nation,
giving orders that all the male children should be slain in infancy. Fifth, he was the blatant
defier of God. When Moses and Aaron appeared before him and said, “Thus saith the Lord
God of Israel, Let My people go, that they may hold a feast unto Me in the wilderness,” his
arrogant reply was, “Who is the Lord, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go?” (Ex. 5:1,
2). Sixth, God’s two witnesses performed miracles before Pharaoh (Ex. 7:10); so, too, will
God’s two witnesses in the Tribulation period work miracles before the Beast (Rev. 11:6, 7).
Seventh, Pharaoh had magical resources at his disposal (Ex. 7:11), as the Antichrist will have
at his (2 Thess. 2:9). Eighth, Pharaoh made fair promises to the Hebrews, only to break them
(Ex. 8:8, 15). In this, too, he foreshadowed the Antichrist in his perfidy and treachery toward
Israel. Ninth, he met with a drastic end at the hands of God (Psa. 136:15). Tenth, he was
overthrown at the time that Israel started out for the promised land: so Antichrist will be
cast into the Lake of Fire just before Israel enters into everlasting possession of their promised
inheritance. In all of these ten respects (and in others which the student may search out for
himself) Pharaoh was a striking and accurate type of the Antichrist.
6. Abimelech. First, Abimelech signifies “father of the king.” Gideon, deliverer of Israel,
was his father. But his mother was a concubine, and this name was given to him, no doubt,
for the purpose of hiding the shame of his birth. Looking from the type to the antitype —
148
Types of the Antichrist
“Father of the King” — all attention to the satanic origin of the Antichrist. Second, Abimelech
slew seventy of his own brethren (Judges 9:5), and was therefore a bloody persecutor of Israel.
Third, Judges 9:6, 22 tell us that he was “king over Israel.” Fourth, it is significant to note
that he occupied the throne at the time of Israel’s apostasy (see Judges 8:33, 34). Fifth, it is
also most suggestive that we are told he commenced his career at the stone (Judges 9:6), or
pillar, which Joshua erected in Ebal (facing Gerizim), the mount where all the curses of a
broken law were announced — Deut. 11:29; 27:4, 12, 13; Josh. 8:30. Sixth, he was a mighty
warrior, a violent man (see Judges 9:40-50, and cf Psa. 140:1 for the Antichrist as such).
Seventh, he was slain by the sword (Judges 9:54 and see Zech. 11:7; Rev. 13:3 for the antitype).
7. Saul. In at least ten respects Saul foreshadowed the Antichrist. Almost the first thing
told us about Saul is that he was “from his shoulders and upward higher than any of the
people” (1 Sam. 9:2, which is repeated in 10:23). As such he fitly prefigured the coming Superman,
who
in
intelligence,
governmental
power,
and
satanic
might,
will
so
tower
above
all
his
contemporaries
that
men
shall
exclaim,
“Who
is
like
unto
the
Beast?”
(Rev.
13:4).
Second,
Saul
was
king
of
Israel
(1
Sam.
10:24),
so
also
will
the
Antichrist
be.
Third,
Saul
was
a
priestking,
blatantly
performing
the
office
of
the
Levite
(see
1
Sam.
13:9,
and
cf
Ezek.
21:25,
26
R.
V.). Fourth, the time of his reign was immediately before that of David, as that of the Antichrist
will
immediately
precede
that
of
David’s
Son
and
Lord.
Fifth,
he
was
a
mighty
warrior
(see
1
Sam.
11:11;
13:1-4;
15:4;
7:8).
Sixth,
he
was
a
rebel
against
God
(1
Sam.
15:11).
Seventh,
he
hated
David
(1
Sam.
18:7,
8,
11;
26:2,
etc.).
Eighth,
he
slew
the
servants
of
God
(1
Sam.
22:17,
18).
Ninth,
he
had
intercourse
with
the
powers
of
evil
(1
Sam.
29).
Tenth,
he
died
by
the
sword
(1
Sam.
31:4).
8. Goliath. First, his name means “Soothsayer” which at once connects him with the
powers of evil. Second, he was a giant, and thus, like Saul, prefigured the Super-man. Third,
he was the enemy of Israel. Fourth, his consuming egotism was displayed in his blatant
challenge, “I defy the armies of Israel” (1 Sam. 17:10). Fifth, the mysterious number 666
(the number of the Antichrist) is connected with Goliath. Note the three sixes. (a) He was
six cubits high (1 Sam. 17:4). (b) Six pieces of armour are enumerated — helmet, coat of
mail, greaves, target, staff, and shield (1 Sam. 17:5-7). (c) His spear’s head weighed six
hundred shekels of iron (1 Sam. 17:7). Sixth, he was slain by the sword (see 1 Sam. 17:51).
Seventh, he was slain by David — type of Christ. In each of these respects he foreshadowed
the Antichrist.
9. Absalom. First, the meaning of his name is very significant. “Absalom” means “father
of peace.” A careful reading of his history reveals the fact that, again and again, he posed as
a man of peace, while war was in his heart. So the Antichrist will pose as the promised Prince
of peace, and for a time it will appear that he has actually ushered in the Millennium. But
ere long his violent and bloody character will be revealed. Second, Absalom was the son of
David, and therefore a Jew. Third, but Absalom was a son of David by Maacah, the daughter
149
Types of the Antichrist
of the Gentile king of Jeshur (2 Sam. 3:3). So, too, will the Antichrist be a veritable king
among men. Fifth, Absalom was a man of blood (2 Sam. 13, etc.). Sixth, Absalom sought to
obtain the kingdom by flatteries (2 Sam. 15:2-6); cf Dan. 11:21, 23. Seventh, he cloaked his
rebellion by a pretense of religion (read 2 Sam. 15:7, 8). Eighth, he was the immediate cause
of the faithful followers of David being driven from Jerusalem into the wilderness (2 Sam.
15:14-16). Ninth, he reared up a pillar unto himself (2 Sam. 18:18), which clearly foreshadowed

the image which the Antichrist will cause to be set up unto himself. Tenth, he met
with a violent end (2 Sam. 18:14).
There are quite a number of others who foreshadowed the Antichrist in one or more
of the outstanding features of his character and career. For instance, there is Balak who,
accompanied by Baalam the prophet sought to curse and destroy Israel — a striking foreshadowing
of

the Beast with his ally the False Prophet. There is Adoni-zedek, mentioned
in Joshua 10, and who headed a federation of ten kings; it is remarkable that his name signifies
“lord of righteousness” which is what the Antichrist will claim to be as he comes forth on
the white horse (Rev. 6). Then there is Adoni-kam, with whom is associated the mystical
number 666 — see Ezra 2:13; and how profoundly significant that his name signifies “the
Lord hath risen.” We believe that this mystic number in connection with the Antichrist will
apply to him only after his resurrection — and six the number of man! Sennacherib (2 Kings
18) prefigured the Antichrist in a number of ways: as the king of Assyria, the blatant defier
of God, smitten by the sword, etc. Haman, four times denominated “the Jews’ enemy” (Esther

3:10, etc.), and termed “the adversary” (Esther 7:6), was another typical character.
Nebuchadnezzar, king of kings, who demanded universal worship, who set up an image to
himself, and decreed that all should worship it under pain of death, etc., manifestly pointed
forward to the Man of Sin, and so we might continue. Almost every prominent feature of
the Antichrist’s person and career was foreshadowed by some Old Testament character.
The subject is intensely interesting, and we trust that many of our readers will be encouraged
to pursue it further for themselves. In closing this chapter we shall look at one New Testament
type of the Antichrist.
10. Herod. At the beginning of the New Testament there meets us a typical foreshadowing
of the Antichrist. We refer to what is recorded in Matt. 2. The description there furnished
of Herod obviously contains a prophetic adumbration of his great prototype. Notice, first,
that three times over he is denominated “the king” (vv. 1, 3, 9), as such he prefigured the
last great king, before the appearing of the King of kings. Second, observe his hypocrisy.
When the “wise men,” who had followed the star which heralded the Saviour’s birth, were
summoned into Herod’s presence, we are told that he said unto them, “Go and search diligently
for
the
young
child;
and
when
ye
have
found
Him,
bring
me
word
again,
that
I
may
come
and
worship
Him
also”
(v.
8).
That
nothing
could
have
been
further
from
his
mind
is
plain
from
his
subsequent
acts.
But,
nevertheless,
he
first
posed
as
a
devout
worshipper.
150
Types of the Antichrist
Such is the role that the Antichrist will first fill in Palestine. Third, next he threw off his religious
mask
and
displayed
his
wicked
heart:
“Then
Herod,
when
he
saw
that
he
was
mocked
of
the
wise
men,
was
exceeding
wroth,
and
sent
forth,
and
slew
all
the
children
that
were
in
Bethlehem,”
etc.
(v.
16).
Similarly
will
the
Antichrist
act
in
Jerusalem.
Three
and
one
half
years
before
his
end
comes
he
will
discard
his
religious
pretensions
and
stand
forth
in
his
true

character. Fourth, in this edict of slaying the young children in Bethlehem and the
coasts thereof, he was aiming, of course, at Christ Himself. Thus did he accurately foreshadow
that one who will yet fulfill the terms of Gen. 3:15, where we read of a double “enmity” —
between Satan and the woman (Israel), and between her Seed (Christ) and the Serpent’s
“seed” (the Antichrist). In the fifth place, we may also discover in Herod’s destruction of
the children, a forecast of the fiendish assaults which the Antichrist will make upon the
Jews, when he seeks to cut them off from being a nation. In the sixth place, we may note
how the consequence of Herod’s cruelty will reappear in the future — “In Ramah was there
a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her
children, and would not be comforted, because they are not” (Matt. 2:18). This is a quotation
from Jer. 31:15. But like most, if not all, prophecies, this will receive another and final fulfillment

at the close of the Tribulation period. Our authority for this is found in the words
which immediately follow in Jer. 31: “Thus saith the Lord, Refrain thy voice from weeping,
and thine eyes from tears: for thy work shall be rewarded, saith the Lord; and they shall
come again from the land of the Enemy. And there is hope in thine end, saith the Lord, that
thy children shall come again to their own border.” Thus it is clear that “bitter weeping and
lamentation” will again be heard in Ramah just before Christ returns and restores Israel.
Seventh, the accuracy of the typical picture supplied by Matt. 2 may be discovered in the
failure of Herod to destroy the Christ-child. Just as God foiled Herod, so will He yet bring
to nought the wicked designs of the Antichrist; and just as we read of Christ coming and
dwelling at Nazareth after the death of Herod, so Christ shall again dwell in that land after
the death of the false King. Surely, this remarkable typical picture of the Antichrist should
cause us to search more diligently for other esoteric allusions to him in the New Testament.
151
Babylon and the Antichrist
Babylon and the Antichrist
Babylon and the Antichrist
We arrive now at a branch of our subject upon which the Lord’s people are in evident
need of instruction: they have less light here than on most prophetic themes. And perhaps
we should not be surprised at this. The very name Babylon means confusion, and widely
prevails the confusion concerning it. Yet here and there God has raised up individuals who
have borne faithful testimony to the teaching of His Word concerning the past and future
of Babylon, and to their witness the writer acknowledges his indebtedness. In view of the
ignorance which generally obtains we shall proceed the more cautiously. We here propose
to examine carefully the principal scriptures in the Old Testament bearing upon our present
theme.
“Babylon was a mighty city of old; its beginnings were in Shinar in the days shortly after
the flood; it played an important part in the history of Israel and of Judea; it was the head
of the kingdoms of the earth in the days of Nebuchadnezzar; after its capture by the Medes
and Persians it fell from its high estate, but for some centuries after Christ it was still a city
of importance, and the head of a district. In the New Testament it is first mentioned by Peter
(1 Pet. 5:13), and here in the book that tells of the events that occur in the Day of the Lord
we read of it as a city again dominating the world, and that at a time when Israelites are
again prominent in the story of the earth. Here, too, Babylon reappears in its ancient dual
aspect, political and social, the first city of earth and also the leader of the worship and religion
of the world powers. The site of old Babylon is known at the present day; it covers a wide
extent of ground, and parts of it are inhabited, as for instance Hillah, where there are some
five or six thousand people. When the long-talked-of Euphrates Valley Railway becomes a
reality, Babylon will be one of the most important places on the line” (Col. VanSomeron —
“The Great Unfolding”). This quotation supplies a brief but fairly comprehensive outline
of our subject.
The earliest mention of Babel in scripture is in connection with the name of him who
first after the deluge attained to greatness in the earth — greatness apart from God. Nimrod
was the grandson of Ham, who called down upon him the curse of his father, Hoah. “The
sons of Ham were Cush[hellip]and Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the
earth. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord, and the beginning of his kingdom was Babel,
in the land of Shinar” (Gen. 10:7-10). Let the reader turn back to the previous chapter for
our comments on Nimrod as a type of the Antichrist. “Thus mightiness in the earth and
commencement of kingly rule are first mentioned in connection with one, the seat of whose
power was Babylon and the land of Shinar. Nimrod — Nebuchadnezzar — Antichrist, are,
as we shall see, the three great names connected with that region and with that city” (B.W.
Newton: “Babylon; Its Revival and Final Destruction” — 1859).
152
Babylon and the Antichrist
The first mention of anything in scripture always calls for the most particular attention,
inasmuch as the initial occurrence of any term or expression in the Word of God invariably
defines its meaning and forecasts its subsequent significance and scope. The passage just
quoted from Gen. 10 is inseparably connected with and is in fact the key to what is found
in Gen. 11. There we learn that the land of Shinar is mentioned as the place where men first
united in confederate action against God. God had commanded that men should spread
abroad — Gen. 9:1. But they, in blatant defiance, preferred to centralize. They determined
to make for themselves a name, saying, “Go to, Let us build us a city and a tower, whose top
may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the
face of the whole earth” (Gen. 11:4). And this, we are told, was “In the land of Shinar” (11:2).
But the Lord interfered, came down, confounded their speech, and scattered them — “And
they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did
there confound the language of all the earth,” etc. (Gen. 11:8, 9). Thus we see that at the
beginning, the land of Shinar and the city of Babylon were the scene of confederate evil, and
of judgment from the hand of God.
Shinar, then, was the land around Babel. Now, though the building of the city of Babylon
was checked during the days of Nimrod, yet his kingdom was not overthrown. In Gen. 14:1
we read of “Amraphal king of Shinar.” It would appear from several scriptures that “the
land of Chaldea” — the capital of which was the city of Babylon — is but another name for
“the land of Shinar.” In Dan. 5:30 Belshazzar is termed “the king of the Chaldeans,” while
in 7:1 he is called “the king of Babylon” — cf Isa. 47:1; Jer. 50:8; 51:54; Ezek. 12:13. In addition
to these passages, Dan. 1:2, 3 seems to positively establish this conclusion, for there we are
expressly told that the Babylon of Nebuchadnezzar’s day was situated in “the land of Shinar!”
This serves to confirm the fact that Chaldea or Babylonia was the most ancient of the early
empires. It was from “Ur” of Chaldea (Gen. 11:28) that Abram was called; and it was “the
Chaldeans” who plundered Job (Job 1:17); and in Josh. 7:21 we read of the “goodly Babylonish
garment” which tempted Achan, among the spoils of Jericho. In striking accord with this
is the statement found in Jer. 5:16, where the Holy Spirit terms the Babylonians as “ancient”
as well as a “mighty” nation. After the days of Joshua, Babylon was not directly referred to
again till the days of Esar-Haddan, of whom it is said, “And the king of Assyria brought
men from Babylon, and from Cutthah, and from Ava, and from Hamath, and from Sepharvaim,

and placed them in the cities of Samaria instead of the children of Israel: and they
possessed Samaria, and dwelt in the cities thereof” (2 Kings 17:24, and cf Ezra 4:2). Closely
connected with the land of Shinar is Assyria. For a time the supremacy alternated between
Assyria and Babylonia, until in the days of Nabapolasser, the father of Nebuchadnezzar,
Ninevah was conquered and Assyria became subject to Babylon.
But though Shinar and its capital are referred to in Gen. 10 and 11, and though there
are occasional allusions to them in the centuries that followed, it was not until Israel’s
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Babylon and the Antichrist
apostasy had been fully manifested that we find Babylon coming into the place of prominence
and dominion. “Until Jerusalem had been sufficiently tried, to see whether she would prove
herself worthy of being God’s city, Babylon was kept in abeyance. The founder of Babylon’s
greatness was that great king who was raised up to scourge Jerusalem, and who commenced
the ‘Times of the Gentiles’, by receiving from God that endowment of power which was
taken from Israel, and remains vested in the Gentiles, till Jerusalem shall be forgiven and
cease to be trodden down. It was Nebuchadnezzar who ‘walked in the palace of the kingdom
of Babylon. The king spoke and said, Is not this great Babylon which I have built for the
house of the kingdom by the might of my power and for the honor of my majesty?’ (Dan.
4). The greatness of Babylon dates only from Nebuchadnezzar” (B.W.N.).
The fifth chapter of Daniel tells how Belshazzar, the successor of Nebuchadnezzar, was
slain by Darius, who took over the kingdom. Neither the city nor the kingdom was then
destroyed, and so far from it being made desolate and without inhabitant, it remained for
long centuries a city without inhabitant, it remained for long centuries a city of note. Two
hundred years after its capture by Darius, Alexander the Great, after his conquest over the
Persians, selected Babylon as the intended capital of his vast dominion, and, in fact, died
there. In the first century of the Christian era Babylon still stood, for Peter refers to a church
there! (See 1 Pet. 5:13). Several of the church “Fathers” refer to Babylon, and at the beginning
of the sixth century A.D. the famous Babylonian Talmud was issued by the Academies of
Babylonia. Mr. Newton tells us that “Ivan Hankel in A.D. 917 speaks of Babylon as a small
village. Even in the tenth century, therefore, it had not wholly disappeared.” Slow and almost
undiscernible was its decline and decay. Even in this day there is still a small town, Hillah,
standing on the original site of ancient Babylon. What, then, of the future?
That there will yet be another Babylon, a Babylon eclipsing the power and glory of that
of Nebuchadnezzar’s day, has long been the firm conviction of the writer. Nor are we by
any means alone in this conviction. A long list of honored names might be given of those
who have arrived, independently, at the conclusion that the Scriptures plainly teach that
Babylon is going to be rebuilt. But there is no need to buttress our conviction by an appeal
to human authority. Better than the faith of the reader rest on the Word of God, than in the
wisdom of the best of men. Before we set forth some of the many scripture proofs on which
our conviction rests, let us ask, Would it not be passing strange if Babylon had no place in
the End-time? Scripture tells us that Jerusalem, which has been so long trodden down by
the Gentiles, is to be restored by human agency, and have a re-built temple (Matt. 24:15).
Egypt and Assyria have yet an honored future before them, as is clear from Isa. 19:23, 24.
Moab, Edom, and Seir are to figure in the coming day, as is intimated in Num. 24:17, 18.
Greece awaits her final judgment from God (Zech. 9:13). And so we might go on. Why,
then, should Babylon be exempted from the general renovation of the East?
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Babylon and the Antichrist
But we are not left to logical deductions, the Word of God expressly affirms that Babylon
will play a prominent part at the Time of the End. The empire over which the Antichrist
will reign is described in the identical symbols which were applied to the four world-kingdoms
of
Dan.
7.
In
Dan.
7:3
Daniel beheld “four great beasts” come up from the sea, and in
Dan. 7:17 we are told “these great beasts, which are four, are four kings (or kingdoms) which
shall arise out of the earth.” These four beasts or kingdoms were the Babylonian, the MedoPersian,
the
Grecian,
and
the
Roman.
Dan.
7:4
says “The first was like a lion.” 7:5 says “The
second was like a bear.” 7:6 says the third was “like a leopard.” 7:7 says the fourth was
“dreadful and terrible.” Now, in Rev. 13:1, 2, where we have a symbolical description of the
empire which the Antichrist shall head, we are told that John saw “a Beast rise up out of the
sea,” and then it is added, “the Beast[hellip]was like unto a leopard, and his feet were as the
feet of a bear, and his mouth as the mouth of a lion.” Of the fourth beast of Dan. 7 we read,
“It had ten horns” (7:7); so in Rev. 13:1 the Beast there has “ten horns.” Who, then, can
doubt that Rev. 13:1, 2 is given for the express purpose of teaching us that the four great
world-kingdoms of the past — not merely the fourth but all of the four — are to be revived
and restored at the Time of the End? But as this point is disputed by some, we tarry to advance
further proof.
It is to be noted that the Beast (kingdom) of Rev. 13:1 is said to have “seven heads.” This
has puzzled many of the commentators, but once it is seen that the Beast of Rev. 13:1, 2 is
a symbolic description, first of a composite kingdom, made up of and perpetuating the features
of
the
four
world-empires
of
old;
and
second,
a
symbolic
description
of
the
one
who
shall
head
it,
all
difficulty
disappears.
That
we
have
here
in
Rev.
13:1,
2
a composite kingdom
is clear from the “seven heads.” Now note that in Dan. 7 the first, second and fourth kingdoms
are not said to have more than one head, but the third has “four heads” (Dan. 7:6). Thus
the beasts of Dan. 7 have, three of them one head each, and the third four heads, or seven
in all; which tallies perfectly with Rev. 13:1. But even this does not exhaust the proofs that
the four kingdoms of Dan. 7 are to be restored, and play their final parts immediately before
the Millennium.
If the reader will turn to Dan. 2, which is parallel with Dan. 7 — the “image in its four
parts” (the head, the breast and arms, the belly and thighs, the legs and feet) corresponding
with the four beasts — it will be found that when we come to v. 45, which speaks of Christ
(under the figure of “the Stone cut out of the mount without hands”) returning to earth to
destroy the forces of evil, and then set up His kingdom, we discover that the Stone “brake
in pieces the iron (Rome), the brass (Greece), the clay (apostate Israel), the silver (MedoPersia),
and
the
gold
(Babylon).”
What
we
desire
the
reader
to
note
particularly
is
that
the
Stone
strikes
not
only
the
iron,
but
the
brass,
clay,
silver,
and
gold;
in
fact,
v.
35
tells us, expressly,
they
shall
be
“broken
to
pieces
together!”
If,
then,
they
are
destroyed
together,
they
must
all
be
on
the
scene
at
the
time
of
Christ’s
return
to
earth
to
inaugurate
His
millennial
155
Babylon and the Antichrist
reign, and if so, each of them must have been revived and restored!! As our present inquiry
concerns not the renovation of Persia, Greece and Rome, but only that of Babylon, we shall
confine ourselves to the scriptures which speak of the last mentioned.
1. Isa. 13 and 14 contain a remarkable bearing directly on the theme before us. It is
termed in the opening verse. “The burden of Babylon.” It tells of the terrible judgment which
God shall send on this city. It speaks of the total and final destruction of it. It declares that
“Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency, shall be as when
God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah.” It shall never be inhabited, neither shall it be dwelt
in from generation to generation (vv. 19, 20). Now the one point pertinent to our present
inquiry is, Whether Isa. 13 describes the doom which befell the Babylon of Belshazzar’s day,
or the judgment which shall overtake the Babylon of the coming day. Upon this point there
is, for those who desire to be subject to God’s Word, no room for uncertainty. The sixth
verse expressly declares that this “burden of Babylon” is to receive its fulfillment in “the Day
of the Lord.” This, we need hardly add, is the name for that day which follows the present
Day of Salvation (2 Cor. 6:2). If the reader will consult a concordance he will find that “the
Day of the Lord” never refers to a period now past, but always has reference to one which
is yet future! If any doubt remains as to whether or not Isa. 13 is speaking of a future day,
the contents of v. 10 should forever remove it. There we are told that “the stars of heaven
and the constellation thereof shall not give their light: the sun shall be darkened in his going
forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine.” All students of prophecy will see at
a glance that these cosmic phenomena are w hat are to be witnessed during the Tribulation
period — cf. Matt. 24:29. There is not a hint anywhere either in Scripture or (so far as we
are aware) in secular history, that such disturbances among the heavenly bodies occurred
at the captivity of Babylon by Darius. And it is at that time, in “the Day of the Lord” when
the sun is darkened and the moon shines not, that Babylon is overthrown (v. 19). This one
scripture is quite sufficient to establish the futurity of Babylon and its coming overthrow.
2. The 14th of Isaiah reads right on from 13, completing the “burden of Babylon” there
begun. It supplies further proof that there is to be another Babylon. The chapter opens with
a declaration of Israel’s coming restoration. It declares “the Lord will have mercy on Jacob,
and will yet choose Israel, and set them in their own land” (v. 1). It goes on to say, “It shall
come to pass in the day that the Lord shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and from thy fear,
and from the hard bondage wherein thou wast made to serve, That thou shalt take up this
taunting speech against the king of Babylon, and say, How hath the oppressor ceased! the
golden city ceased!” (vv. 3, 4). Should the quibble be raised that these verses are speaking
of the restoration of Israel to Palestine following the captivity of Nebuchadnezzar’s time, it
1 There is no room for a quibble about the meaning of “Babylon,” for v. 19 expressly terms it “The beauty of
the Chaldees’ excellency.”
1
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Babylon and the Antichrist
is easily silenced. The verses that follow those just quoted make it unmistakably clear that
this prophecy yet awaits its fulfillment. Thus we read in vv. 7, 8, “The whole earth is at rest,
and is quiet: they break forth into singing. Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars
of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art laid down, no feller is come up against us.” The whole
earth never has been “at rest” since the days of Cain (except it were during the brief period
when the Word tabernacled among men). But it will be during the Millennium! Notice, too,
that following the overthrow of “the golden city,” Israel exclaims, “Since thou art laid down,
(laid low) no feller (no cutter off) is come up against us!” This establishes, unequivocally,
the time of which this prophecy treats. Long after the days of Belshazzar, the Romans came
up against Israel and cut them off. But none shall do this again when the last king of Babylon
is destroyed!
Above, we have quoted to the end of the 8th verse of Isa. 14. In the 9th verse the
prophet suddenly turns from Babylon to its last king. Verses 9 to 20 contain a striking portrait
of the lofty arrogance and fearful doom of the Man of Sin. Then, in verse 21, the “burden”
returns again to the subjects of the Antichrist: “Prepare slaughter for his children for the
iniquity of their fathers; that they do not rise, nor possess the land, nor fill the face of the
world with cities. For I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts, and cut off from
Babylon the name, and remnant, and son, and nephew, saith the Lord. I will also make it a
possession for the bittern, and pools of water: and I will sweep it with the besom of destruction,
saith
the
Lord
of
hosts”
(vv.
21-23).
Finally,
the
prophet
concludes
with
a
parting
word
concerning
the
Antichrist:
“The
Lord
of
hosts
hath
sworn,
saying,
Surely
as
I
have
thought,
so
shall
it
come
to
pass;
and
as
I
have
purposed,
so
shall
it
stand:
That
I
will
break
the
Assyrian
in
my
land,
and
upon
my
mountains
tread
him
under
foot:
then
shall
his
yoke
depart
from
off
them,
and
his
burden
depart
from
off
their
shoulders.
This
is
the
purpose
that
is
purposed
upon
the
whole
earth:
and
this
is
the
hand
that
is
stretched
upon
all
the
nations.
For
the
Lord
of
hosts
hath
purposed,
and
who
shall
disannul
it?
And
His
hand
is
stretched
out,
and
who
shall
turn
it
back?”
(vv.
24-27).
Well
has
it
been
said,
“These
are
remarkable
and

significant words, and certainly we cannot say they have been fulfilled. Will any one
affirm that God’s purpose which He hath purposed upon the whole earth was accomplished
when Babylon was overthrown by the Medes and Persians? Did the hand that was stretched
out over all the nations, then fulfill its ultimate designs? Was the Assyrian then trodden
under foot in THE LAND, AND ON THE MOUNTAINS OF ISRAEL, and, that at a time
when the yoke of bondage is finally broken from off the neck of Israel? If this were so we
should no longer see Jerusalem trodden down now. ‘The times of the Gentiles’ would have
ended. Israel would be gathered, and Jerusalem be ‘a praise in the earth’. The concluding
words of this prophecy, therefore, might alone convince us that it yet remains to be fulfilled”
(B.W.N.).
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Babylon and the Antichrist
3. We appeal next to the 50th chapter of Jeremiah. The opening verses contain a
prophecy which certainly has not received its complete fulfillment in the past. It declares,
“The words that the Lord spake against Babylon and against the land of the Chaldeans by
Jeremiah the prophet. Declare ye among the nations, and publish, and set up a standard;
publish, and conceal not: say, Babylon is taken, Bel is confounded, Merodach is broken in
pieces; her idols are confounded, her images are broken in pieces. For out of the north there
cometh up a nation against her, which shall make her land desolate, and none shall dwell
therein: they shall remove, they shall depart, both man and beast. In those days, and in that
time, saith the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and the children of Judah together,
going and weeping: they shall go, and seek the Lord their God. They shall ask the way to
Zion with their faces thitherward, saying, Come, and let us join ourselves to the Lord in a
perpetual covenant which shall not be forgotten” (vv. 1-5). Mark carefully three things in
these verses. First, it is announced that the land of Babylon shall be made so desolate that
neither man nor beast shall dwell therein. Second, the time for this is defined as being when
Israel and Judah together (and since the days of Rehoboam they have never been united)
shall “seek the Lord.” Third, it is when Israel and Judah shall join themselves to the Lord in
“a perpetual covenant!” Still more explicit is the time-mark in v. 20: “In those days, and in
that time, saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel shall be sought for, and there shall be none;
and the sins of Judah, and they shall not be found.”
4. The whole of Jer. 51 should be carefully studied in this connection. Much in it we
reserve for consideration in the two chapters which will follow this. Here we simply call attention
to
vv.
47-49:

“Therefore, behold, the days come, that I will do judgment upon the
graven images of Babylon: and her whole land shall be confounded, and all her slain shall
fall in the midst of her. Then the heaven and the earth, and all that is therein, shall sing for
Babylon: for the Spoiler shall come upon her from the north, saith the Lord. As Babylon
hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon shall fall the slain of all the earth.” Surely
little comment is needed here. When did the slain “of all the earth” (i.e. of all nations) fall
in the midst of Babylon? And when did heaven and earth and all that is therein rejoice at
her overthrow? “When Babylon passed into the hands of the Medes there was little occasion
for such joy. It made little difference to the earth whether Babylon was reigned over by
Chaldeans, or by Persians, or Greeks, or Romans. There was little cause for thanksgiving in
such transfer of authority from one proud hand to another. But if there be a fall of Babylon
that is to be immediately succeeded by the kingdom of Him, of whom it is said, ‘All nations
shall call Him blessed’[hellip]then there is indeed sufficient reason why heaven and earth,
and all that is therein should sing” (B.W.N.).
5. “Be in pain, and labour to bring forth, O daughter of Zion, like a woman in travail:
for now shalt thou go forth out of the city, and thou shalt dwell in the field, and thou shalt
go even to Babylon; there shalt thou be delivered; there the Lord shall redeem thee from the
158
Babylon and the Antichrist
hand of thine enemies” (Micah 4:10). In the light of such scriptures as Micah 5:3, Matt. 24:8
(“sorrows” literally means “birth-pangs”), etc., there can be no room for doubt as to the
time to which this prophecy refers. It is at the close of the Great Tribulation. And at that
time a remnant of Israel will be found in Babylon and they shalt be delivered by the Lord.
6. Both the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah as will as the Apocalypse speak of the
immediateness of the blow which is to destroy Babylon. “Come down, and sit in the dust,
O virgin daughter of Babylon, sit on the ground: there is no throne, O daughter of the
Chaldeans: for thou shalt no more be called tender and delicate[hellip]therefore hear now
this, thou that art given to pleasures, that dwellest carelessly, that sayest in thine heart I am,
and none else besides me; I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children:
But these two things shall come to thee in a moment, in one day, the loss of children, and
widowhood: they shall come upon thee in thy perfection for the multitude of thy sorceries,
and for the great abundance of thine enchantments” (Isa. 47:1, 8, 9). “Babylon is suddenly
fallen and destroyed:; howl for her” (Jer. 51:8). “Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that
mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come” (Rev. 18:10). There has been nothing in
the past history of Babylon which in any wise corresponds with these prophecies.
7. Isaiah, Jeremiah, and the Revelation each declare that Babylon shall be burned with
fire. “And Babylon, the glory of kingdoms, the beauty of the Chaldees’ excellency shall be
as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorah” (Isa. 13:19). “The mighty men of Babylon
have forborne to fight, they have remained in their holes: their might hath failed; they become
as women: they have burned her dwelling places; her bars are broken[hellip]Thus saith the
Lord or hosts; the broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her high gates shall
be burned with fire” (Jer. 51:30, 58). “And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning,
saying, What city is like unto this great city!” (Rev. 18:18). We know of nothing in either
Scripture or secular history which shows that Babylon was burned in the past.
“But it will be said, perhaps, How can this be? Has not Babylon already been smitten?
Has it not already been swept with the besom of destruction? Our answer is — Not at the
time and with the concomitant circumstances specified in the passage just quoted. It is true
indeed that the Euphratean countries have been smitten — sorely smitten under the hand
of God. God is wont in His goodness to give premonitory blows. He is accustomed to warn
before He finally destroys. Egypt, Jerusalem, and many other places, have all experienced
premonitory desolations, and so has Babylon. Its present ruin (which came on it slowly,
and if I may so speak, gently), is a memorial of what God’s righteous vengeance can do, and
a warning of what it will more terribly do, if human pride in contempt of all His admonitions,
shall again attempt to rear its goodly palaces when He has written desolation. But if it be
the habit of God thus graciously to warn, it is equally the habit of man to say, ‘The bricks
are fallen down, but we will build with hewn stone; the sycamores are cut down, but we will
change them into cedars.’ Unbidden, the hand of man revived what God had smitten (that
159
Babylon and the Antichrist
is what happened in Chicago and San Francisco! A.W.P.). Without therefore undervaluing
the lesson given by past visitations of God’s judgments — without hiding, but rather seeking
to proclaim the reality and extent of the ruin, His holy hand has wrought, we have also to
testify, that the hand of man uncommissioned from above will, sooner or later, reconstruct
the fabric of its greatness — its last evil greatness, on the very plains which teem with the
memorials of a ruin entailed by former and yet unrepented of transgressions. Egypt, Damascus,

Palestine, and in a measure, Jerusalem, are already being revived. And if these and
neighboring countries which have been visited by inflictions similar to those which have
fallen on Babylon, are yet to revive and flourish with an evil prosperity at the time of the
end, why should Babylon be made an exception?” (B.W.N.).
That the Antichrist will be intimately connected with the land of Chaldae is clear from
a number of scriptures, notably, those which speak of him as “the Assyrian” and “the king
of Babylon.” But as this is a disputed point we are obliged to pause and make proof of it.
Let us turn, then, first to Isa. 10 and 11 which form one continuous prophecy. We can not
now attempt even an outline of this long and interesting prediction, but must merely single
out one or two statements from it which bear on the point now before us.
In the fifth verse of Isa. 10, the Lord addresses the Antichrist as follows: “O Assyrian,
the rod of mine anger, and the staff in their hand is mine indignation.” This intimates, as
pointed out in a previous chapter, that the Son of Perdition is but a tool in the hands of the
Almighty, His instrument for threshing Israel. His consuming egotism and haughtiness
come out plainly in the verses that follow (7-11). But when God has accomplished His
purpose by him, He “will punish the fruit of the stout heart of the king of Assyria, and the
glory of his high looks” (v. 12). How this serves to identify him with the “little horn” of Dan.
7:20, the Man of Sin of 2 Thess. 2:4! — cf further his proud boastings recorded in Isa. 10:13,
14. In v. 23 is another statement which helps us to fix with certainty the period of which the
prophet is speaking, and the central actors there in view: “For a consummation, and that
determined, shall the Lord, the Lord of hosts, make in the midst of all the earth” (R.V.). The
words “consummation” and “that determined” occur again in Dan. 9:27 — “He (Antichrist)
shall make it (the temple) desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall
be poured upon the Desolator.” The “King of Assyria” and “the Desolator” are thus shown
to be the same. In Isa. 10, vv. 24 and 25 we read, “Therefore thus saith the Lord God of hosts,
O My people that dwellest in Zion, be not afraid of the Assyrian: he shall smite thee with a
rod, and shall lift up his staff against thee, after the manner of Egypt. For et a very little
while, and the indignation shall cease, and Mine anger in their destruction.” Clearly this is
parallel with Dan. 11:36: “And the King shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt
himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against
the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished.” In the 11th chapter
of Isaiah there is a statement even clearer, a proof conclusive and decisive: “And He shall
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Babylon and the Antichrist
smite the earth with the rod of His mouth and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the
wicked” (11:4). These very words are applied to the Man of Sin in 2 Thess. 2:8.
In Isa. 14 we have a scripture which very clearly connects the Antichrist with Babylon.
The opening verses (which really form a parenthesis) tell of the coming restoration of Israel
to Jehovah’s favor, and then in v.4 they are bidden to take up “a taunting speech (marginal
rendering) against the King of Babylon.” The taunting speech begins thus: “How hath the
Oppressor ceased! the golden city ceased! the Lord hath broken the staff of the Wicked”
(vv. 4, 5). As to who is in view here there is surely no room for doubt. He is Israel’s Oppressor
in the End-time; he is the Wicked One. In the verses which follow there are many marks by
which he may be positively identified. In v. 6 this “King of Babylon” is said to be “He who
smote the people (i.e. Israel) in wrath with a continual stroke.” In v. 12 he is called “Lucifer
(Day-star), Son of the morning,” a title which marks him out as none other than the Son of
Perdition. Whatever backward reference to the fall of Satan there may be in this verse and
the ones that follow, it is clear that they describe the blasphemous arrogance of the Antichrist.
In v. 13 we read, “For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my
throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the
sides of the north.” Then, in vv.15 and 16 we are told, “Yet thou shalt be brought down to
hell, to the sides of the Pit. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider
thee, saying, Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms?”
Clearly it is the Man of Sin that is here in view.
In Isa. 30 we have another scripture which links Antichrist with Babylonia. Beginning
at v.27 we read: “Behold, the name of the Lord cometh from afar, burning with His anger,
and the burning thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring
fire: And his breath, as an over-flowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift
the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people,
causing them to err. Ye shall have a song, as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and
gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the Lord, to
the mighty One of Israel.” Clearly it is the very end of the Tribulation period which is here
in view. The reference is to the return of the Lord to earth in great power and glory, when
He shall overthrow those who are gathered together against Him, and put an end to the
awful career of the Antichrist. Continuing, we find this passage in Isa. 30 closes as follows:
“For through the voice of the Lord shall the Assyrian be beaten down, which, smote with a
rod. And in every place where the grounded staff shall pass, which the Lord shall lay upon
him, it shall be with tabrets and harps: and in battles of shaking will he fight with it. For
Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the King it is prepared; He hath made it deep and large:
the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone,
doth kindle it” — cf “the breath of the Lord” here with Isa. 11:4. For further references to
Antichrist and Assyria see Isa. 7:17-20; 8:7, etc.
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Babylon and the Antichrist
The next two chapters will be devoted to a consideration of Babylon in the New Testament,
when
Rev.
17
and 18 will come before us. May the Lord in His grace give us the wisdom
we so sorely need, and preserve the writer and reader from all error.
162
Antichrist and Babylon
Antichrist and Babylon
Antichrist and Babylon
In the last chapter we confined ourself to the Old Testament, in this and the one that
follows we shall treat mainly of Babylon in Rev. 17 and 18, though, of necessity, we shall
examine these in the light of Old Testament passages. In the previous chapter, we briefly
reviewed the Old Testament evidence which proves there is to be a re-built Babylon, over
which the Antichrist shall reign during the Time of the End. Now as both the Old and New
Testaments have one and the same Divine Author, it cannot be that the latter should conflict
with the former. “If the Old and New Testaments treat of the circumstances which are immediately
to

precede the Advent of the Lord in glory, the substantive facts of that period
must be alike referred to in both. If the Old Testament declares that Babylon and ‘the land
of Shinar’ is to be the focus of influential wickedness at the time of the end, it it impossible
that the Revelation, when professedly treating of the same period, should be silent respecting
such wickedness, or respecting the place of its concentration. If the Old Testament speaks
of an individual of surpassing power who will connect himself with this wickedness, and be
the king of Babylon, and glorify himself as God, it is not to be supposed that the Revelation
should treat of the same period and be silent respecting such an event. If, therefore, in the
Old Testament, the sphere be fixed — the locality named — the individual defined — it is
impossible that the Revelation, when detailing the events of the same period, should alter
the localities, or change the individuals. There cannot be two sovereign individuals, nor two
sovereign cities in the same sphere at the same time. If the mention of the ‘Land of Shinar’,
and of ‘Assyria’, and of ‘the king of Babylon’, be intended in the Old Testament to render
our thoughts fixed and definite, why should similar terms, applied in the Revelation to a
period avowedly the same, be less definite?” (B.W.Newton).
Of Rev. 17 and 18 it has been well said, “There is, perhaps, no section of the Apocalypse
more fraught with difficulty than the predictions concerning Babylon. Enigmatical and inconsistent
with
each
other
as,
at
first
sight,
they
seem
to
be,
we
need
to
give
careful
attention
to
every
particular,
and
much
patient
investigation
of
other
scriptures,
if
we
would
penetrate
their
meaning
and
possess
ourselves
of
their
secret”
(Mr.
G.H.
Pember,
M.A.).
In
prosecuting
our
present
study
we
cannot
do
better
than
borrow
again
from
the
language
of
Mr.
Pember,
“Nor
is
the
present
necessarily
brief
and
imperfect
essay
written
in
any
spirit
of
dogmatic
certainty
that
it
solves
the
mystery;
but
only
as
the
conclusion,
so
far
as
light
has
been
already
vouchsafed,
to
one
who,
having
received
mercy
of
the
Lord,
has
been
led
to
much
consideration
of
this
and
kindred
subjects.”
An exposition of the Revelation or any part thereof should be the last place for dogmatism.

Both at the beginning and close of the book the Holy Spirit expressly states that the
Apocalypse is a “prophecy” (1:3; 22:19), and prophecy is, admittedly, the most difficult
branch of Scripture study. It is true that during the last century God has been pleased to
163
Antichrist and Babylon
give His people not a little light upon the predictive portions of His Word, nor is the Apocalypse
to
be
excepted.
Yet,
the
more
any
one
reads
the
literature
on
the
subject,
the
more
should
he
become
convinced
that
dogmatism
here
is
altogether
unseemly.
During
the
last
fifteen
years
the
writer
has
made
it
a
point
to
read
the
Revelation
through
carefully
at
least
three
times
a
year,
and
during
this
period
he
has
also
gone
through
over
thirty
commentaries
on
the
last
book
of
the
Bible.
A
perusal
of
the
varied
and
conflicting
interpretations
advanced
have

taught him two things. First, the wisdom of being cautious in adopting any of the
prevailing views; second, the need of patient and direct waiting on God for further light. To
these may be added a third, namely, the possibility, yea, the probability, that many of the
prophecies of the Revelation are to receive a double, and in some cases, a treble, fulfillment.
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable.” This applies equally to
the Prophets as to the Epistles, and it was just as true five hundred years ago as it is today.
That being so, the right understanding of the final fulfillment of the prophecies in the Revelation

cannot be the only value that book possesses. There must also be that in it which
had a pertinent and timely message for the people of God of this dispensation in each generation.
There
must
be
that
in
which
strengthened
the
faith
of
those
saints
who
read
it
during
the
“Dark
Ages,”
and
that
which
enabled
them
to
detect
and
keep
clear
from
the
which
opposed
to
God
and
His
Christ.
In
other
words,
its
prophecies
must
have
received
a
gradual
and
partial
fulfillment
all
through
the
centuries
of
the
Christian
era,
though
their
final
fulfillment

be yet future. Such is the case with Rev. 17 and 18. Ever since John received the
Revelation there has always existed a system which, in its moral features, has corresponded
to the Babylon of the 17th chapter. There exists such a system today; there will exist such a
system after the Church is raptured to heaven. And there will also come into existence another
and
final
system
which
will
exhaust
the
scope
of
this
prophecy.
The position which the Apocalypse occupies in the Sacred Canon is surely indicative
of the character of its contents. The fact that it is placed at the close, at once suggests that it
treats of that which concerns the end of things. Moreover, it is taken for granted that the
student of this sixty-sixth book of the Bible is already acquainted with the previous sixtyfive

books. Scripture is self-interpreting, and we may rest assured that whatever appears
vague or difficult in the last book of Scripture is due to our ignorance of the meaning of the
books preceding, and particularly of the Prophets. In the Apocalypse the various streams
of prediction, which may be traced through the Old Testament Scriptures, are seen emptying
themselves in the sea of historical accomplishment. Or, to change the figure, here we are
given to behold the last act of the great Dispensational Drama, the earlier acts of which were
depleted in the writings of the seers of Israel. And yet, as previously intimated, these final
scenes have already had a preliminary rehearsal during the course of the Christian centuries.
It will thus be seen that we are far from sharing the views of those who limit the
prophecies of the Revelation to a single fulfillment. We believe there is much of truth in
164
Antichrist and Babylon
both the Historical and Futurist interpretations. We are in entire accord with the following
words from the pen of our esteemed brother, Mr. F.C. Jennings: “How many of the controversies
that
have
ruled,
alas,
amongst
the
Lord’s
people,
have
been
due
to
a
narrow
way
of
limiting
the
thoughts
of
God,
and
seeking
to
confine
or
bend
them
by
our
own
apprehension
of
them.
How
often
two,
or
more,
apparently
opposing
systems
of
interpretation
may
really
both
be
correct;
the
breadth,
the
length,
and
height,
and
depth,
of
the
mind
of
God,
including
and
going
beyond
both
of
them.”
Let
us
now
come
more
directly
to
our
present
theme.
The first time that Babylon is mentioned in the Apocalypse is in 14:8: “And there followed
another angel, saying, Babylon is fallen, is fallen, that great city, because she made all nations
drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.” Now what is there here to discountenance
the natural conclusion that “Babylon” means Babylon? Two or three generations ago, students
of prophecy received incalculable help from the simple discovery that when the Holy Spirit
spoke of Judea and Jerusalem in the Old Testament Scriptures He meant Judea and Jerusalem,
and not England and London; and that when He mentioned Zion He did not refer to the
Church. But strange to say, few, if any of these brethren, have applied the same rule to the
Apocalypse. Here they are guilty of doing the very thing for which they condemned their
forebears in connection with the Old Testament — they have “spiritualised.” They have
concluded, or rather, they have accepted the conclusions of the Reformers, that Babylon
meant Papal Rome, ultimately being refined to signify apostate Christendom. But what is
there in Rev. 14:8 which gives any hint that “Babylon” there refers to the Papal system? No;
we believe that this scripture means what it says, and that we need not the annals of secular
history to help us to understand it. What then? If to regard “Jerusalem” as meaning Jerusalem
be a test of intelligence in Old Testament prophecy, shall we be counted a heretic if we understand
“Babylon”
to
mean
Babylon,
and not Rome or apostate Christendom?
The next reference to Babylon is in Rev. 16:18, 19: “And there were voices, and thunders,
and lightenings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon
the earth, so mighty and earthquake, and so great. And the great city was divided into three
parts, and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God,
to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of His wrath.” The remarks just made
above apply with equal force to this passage too. Surely it is a literal city which is in view,
and which is divided into three parts by a literal earthquake. If it does not mean this then
the simple reader might as well turn from the Apocalypse in dismay. More than a hint of
the literalness of this great city Babylon is found in the context, were we read of the river
Euphrates (v. 12). This is sufficient for the writer: whether or not it is for the reader, we
must leave with him.
We come now to Rev. 17, and as soon as we read its contents we are at once struck with
the noticeable difference there is between it and the other passages which have just been
before us. Here the language is no longer to be understood literally, but symbolically; here
165
Antichrist and Babylon
the terms are not plain and simple, but occult and mysterious. But God, in His grace, has
provided help right to hand. He tells us that here is “mystery” (v. 5). And what is more, He
explains most (if not all) of the symbols for us — see vv. 9, 12, 15, 18. With these helps furnished
it
ought
not
to
be
difficult
to
grasp
the
general
outline.
The central figures in Rev. 17 are “the great whore,” the “scarlet-colored Beast,” and the
“ten horns.” The Beast is evidently the first Beast of Rev. 13. The “ten horns” are stated to
be “ten kings” (v. 12). Who, then, is figured by “the great Whore?” There are a number of
statements made concerning “the great Whore” — “the woman” — “the mother of harlots”
— which are of great help toward supplying an answer to this question. First, it is said that
she “sitteth upon many waters” (v. 1), and in v. 15 these are said to signify “peoples, and
multitudes, and nations, and tongues.” Second, it is said, “The kings of the earth have
committed fornication” with her (v. 2). Third, she is supported by “a scarlet-colored Beast”
(v. 3), and from what is said of this Beast in v. 8 it is clear that he is the Antichrist, here
viewed at the head of the last world-empire. Fourth, the woman “was arrayed in purple and
scarlet color and decked with gold and precious stones” (v. 4). Fifth, “Upon her forehead
was a name written — Mystery: Babylon the great,” etc. (v. 5). Sixth, the woman was
“drunken with the blood of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs” (v. 6). Seventh, in
the last verse it is said, “And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth
over the kings of the earth.” These seven points give an analysed summary of what is here
told us about this “woman.”
Now the interpretation which has been most widely accepted is, that the “Whore” of
Rev. 17 pictures the Roman Catholic system. Appeal is made to the fact that though she
poses as a virgin, yet has she been guilty of the most awful spiritual fornication. Unlike the
blessed One who, in His condescension and humiliation, had “not where to lay His head,”
Romanism has coveted silver and gold, and has displayed herself in meretricious luxury.
She has had illicit intercourse with the blood of saints. Other parallelisms between the woman
of Rev. 17 and the Roman Catholic system may be pointed out. What, then, shall we say to
these things?
The points of correspondence between Rev. 17 and the history of Romanism are too
many and too marked to be set down as mere co-incidences. Undoubtedly the Papacy has
supplied a fulfillment of the symbolic prophecy found in Rev. 17. And therein has lain its
practical value for God’s people all through the dark ages. It presented to them a warning
too plain to be disregarded. It was the means of keeping the garments of the Waldenses (and
many others) unspotted by her filth. It confirmed the faith of Luther and his contemporaries,
that they were acting according to the revealed will of God, when they separated themselves
from that which was so manifestly opposed to His truth. But, nevertheless, there are other
features in this prophecy which do not apply to Romanism, and which compel us to look
elsewhere for the complete and final fulfillment. We single out but two of these.
166
In Rev. 17:5 Babylon is termed “the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.”
Is this an accurate description of Romanism? Were there no “harlot” systems before her?
Is the Papacy the mother of the “abominations of the earth?” Let scripture be allowed to interpret
scripture.
In
1
Kings
11:5-7
we read of “Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and
after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites[hellip]then did Solomon build an high
place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that was before Jerusalem, and for
Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon!” The Papacy had not come into existence

when John wrote the Revelation, so that she cannot be held responsible for all the
“abominations” which preceded her. Again; in Rev. 17:2 we read of “the great Whore” that
“the kings of the earth have committed fornication” with her. Is that applicable in its fulness
to Rome? Have the kings of Asia and the kings of Africa committed fornication with the
Papacy? It is true that the Italian pontiffs have ruled over a wide territory, yet it is also true
that there are many lands which have remained untouched by their religious influence.
It is evident from these two points alone that we have to go back to something which
long antedates the rise of the Papacy, and to something which has exerted a far wider influence
than
has
any
of
the
popes.
What,
then,
is
this
something?
and
where
shall
we
look
for
it?

The answer is not hard to find: the word “Babylon” supplies us with the needed key.
Babylon takes us back not merely to the days of Nebuchadnezzar, but to the time of Nimrod.
It was in the days of the son of Cush that “Babylon” began. And from the Plain of Shinar
has flown that dark stream whose tributaries have reached to every part of the earth. It was
then, and there, that idolatry began. In his work on “The Two Babylons”
Dr. Hislop has
proven conclusively that all the idolatrous systems of the nations had their origin in what
was founded by that mighty Rebel, the beginning of whose kingdom was Babel (Gen. 10:10).
But into this we cannot now enter at length. We refer the reader back to our comments on
Nimrod in chapter 13. Babylon was founded in rebellion against God. The very name
Nimrod gave to his city, proves him to have been an idolator — the first mentioned in
Scripture — for Bab-El signified “the gate of God;” thus he, like his anti-type, determined
to exalt himself above all that is called God (2 Thess. 2:4). This, then, was the source and
origin of all idolatry. Pagan Rome, afterwards Papal Rome, was only one of the polluted
streams from this corrupt source — one of the filthy “daughters” of this unclean Mother of
Harlots. But to return to Rev. 17.
In v. 5 we read, “And upon her forehead was a name written — mystery: Babylon the
great, the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” We believe that the English
translators have misled many by printing (on their own authority) the word “mystery” in
large capital letters, thus making it appear that this was a part of “the woman’s name.” This
we are assured is a mistake. That the “mystery” is connected with the “Woman” herself and
1 A book of intense interest for the antiquarian, but dull and wearisome for the average reader.
Antichrist and Babylon
1
167
Antichrist and Babylon
not with her “name” is clear from v. 7, where the angel says unto John, “I will tell thee the
mystery of the Woman, and of the Beast which carrieth her.”
The word “mystery” is used in the New Testament in two ways. First, as a secret, unfathomable
by
man
but
explained
by
God:
see
Matt.
13:11;
Rom.
16:25,
26;
Eph.
3:3,
6
etc.
Second, the word “mystery” signifies a sign or symbol. Such is its meaning in Eph. 5:32,
where we are told that a man who is joined to his wife so that the two become “one flesh”
is a “great mystery, (that is, a great sign or symbol) of Christ and the Church.” So, again, in
Rev. 1:20 we read of “the mystery (sign or symbol) of the seven stars,” etc.
As we have seen, the term “mystery” has two significations in its New Testament usage,
and we believe it has a double meaning in Rev. 17:5, where it is connected with the “Woman.”
It signifies both a symbol and a secret, that is, something not previously revealed. It should
also be noted that, in keeping with this, the name given to the Woman is a dual one —
“Babylon the great,” and “the Mother of harlots and abominations of the earth.” Who, then,
is symbolized by the Woman with this dual name? V. 18 tells us, “And the Woman which
thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.” Now to get the
force of this it is essential that we should bear in mind that, in the Apocalypse, the words
“is” and “are” almost always (in the symbolical sections) signify “represent.” Thus, in 1:20
“the seven stars are the seven churches” means “the seven stars represent the seven churches;”
and “the seven candlesticks are the seven churches,” signifies, “the seven candlesticks represent
the
seven
churches.”
So
in
17:9
“the seven heads are (represent) seven mountains;”
17:12 “the ten horns are (represent) ten kings;” 17:15 “the waters[hellip]are (represent)
peoples,” etc. So in 17:18 “the woman which thou sawest is that great city” must mean, “the
woman represents that great city.” What, then, is signified by the “great city?”
In keeping with what we have just said above, namely, that the term “mystery” in Rev.
17:5 has a two-fold significance, and that the woman has a dual name, so we believe “that
Great City” has a double force and application. First, it signifies a literal city, which shall
yet be built in the Land of Shinar, on the banks of the Euphrates. Proof of this was furnished
in our last chapter so that we need not pause here to submit the evidence. Six times (significant
number!)
is
“Babylon”
referred
to
in
the
Apocalypse,
and
nowhere
is
there
a
hint
that
the
name
is
not
to
be
understood
literally.
In
the
second
place,
the
“great
city”
(unnamed)
signifies
an
idolatrous
system
— “mother of harlots” a system of idolatry which originated
in the Babylon of Nimrod’s day, and a system which is to culminate and terminate in another
Babylon in a day soon to come. This we think is clear and on the surface. What, then, is the
secret here disclosed, which had hitherto been so closely guarded?
In seeking the answer to our last question it is important to note that there is another
“Woman” in the Revelation, between whom and this one in chapter 17 there are some
striking comparisons and some vivid contrasts. Let us note a few of them. First, in Rev. 12:1
we read of “a Woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her
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Antichrist and Babylon
head a crown of twelve stars,” which symbolically signifies that she occupies a position of
authority and rule (cf Gen. 37:9); so also the Woman of chapter 17 is pictured as “ruling
over the kings of the earth” (v. 18). Second, this Woman of Rev. 12 is a mother, for she gives
birth to the Man-child who shall rule all nations (v. 5); so the Woman of chapter 17 is “the
Mother of harlots.” Third, in 12:3 we read of a great red Dragon “having seven heads and
ten horns,” and he persecutes the Woman (v. 14); but in striking contrast, the Woman of
chapter 17 is seen supported by a scarlet-colored Beast “having seven heads and ten horns”
(v. 3). Fourth, in Rev. 19:7 the Woman of chapter 12 is termed the Lamb’s Wife (v. 7);
whereas the Woman of chapter 17 is the Devil’s Whore. Fifth, the Wife of Rev. 19 is “arrayed
in fine linen, clean and white” (v. 8); but the Whore of chapter 19 is arrayed in purple and
scarlet, and has in her hand a golden cup “full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication”
(v.
4).
Sixth,
the
Lamb’s
Wife
is
also
inseparably
connected
with
a
great
city,
even
the
holy
Jerusalem
(21:10);
so
the
Whore
of
Rev.
17
is connected with a great city, even Babylon.
Seventh, the chaste Woman shall dwell with the Lamb forever; the Whore shall suffer endless
torment in the Lake of Fire.
Once we learn who is symbolized by the chaste Woman, we are in the position to
identify the corrupt Woman, who is compared and contrasted with her. As to whom is signified
by
the
former,
there
is
surely
little
room
for
doubt

it
is
the
faithful
portion
of
Israel.
She
is
the
one
who
gave
birth
to
the
Man-child

i.e.
Judah,
in
contrast
from
the
unfaithful
ten
tribes,

who because of idolatry were, at the time of the Incarnation, is captivity. So in
Rev. 19 and 21 there are a number of things which show clearly (to any unprejudiced mind)
that the Bride, the Lamb’s Wife, is redeemed Israel, and not the Church. For example, in
Rev. 19:6, 7, when praise bursts forth because the marriage of the Lamb is come, a great
multitude cry, “Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. Let us be glad and rejoice,
and give honor to Him for the marriage of the Lamb is come.” “Alleluia” (which occurs
nowhere in the New Testament but in this chapter) is a peculiarly Hebrew expression,
meaning “Praise the Lord.” In the second place, the word for “marriage” (gamos) or “wedding-feast”
is
the
same
as
is
used
in
Matt.
22:2,
3,
8,
11,
12,
where,
surely,
it
is
Israel
that
is
in
view.
In
the
third
place,
note
that
we
are
told
“His
wife
hath
made
herself
ready”
(v.
7).
Contrast
this
with
Eph.
5:26,
where
we
learn
that
Christ
will
make
the
Church
ready

see
Matt.
23:39
for Israel making herself ready. In the fourth place, in 19:8 we read, “And to her
was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white, for the fine linen is
the righteousness of saints.” The Church will have been arrayed years before the time contemplated
here.
In
the
fifth
place,
note
it
is
said
that
“the
marriage
of
the
Lamb
is
come”
(v.
7),

just as He is on the point of leaving heaven for earth (v. 11; but the Church will have
been with Him in the Father’s house for at least seven years (probably forty years, or more)
when that hour strikes. In the sixth place, in Rev. 21:9, 10 the Lamb’s Wife is inseparably
connected with that great city, the holy Jerusalem, and in the description which follows we
169
are told that on the twelve gates of the city were written “the names of the twelve tribes of
the children of Israel” (v. 12)! Surely that is conclusive evidence that it is not the Church
which is in view. In the seventh place, in Rev. 21:14 we are told that in the twelve foundations
of the City’s wall were “the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb” (cf Matt. 19:28!). Is
it thinkable that the name of the apostle Paul would have been omitted if the Church were
there symbolically portrayed?
2
Antichrist and Babylon
If, then, the Chaste Woman of Rev. 12, 19, 21, symbolizes faithful Israel, must not the
Corrupt Woman (who is compared and contrasted with the former) represent faithless Israel?
But if so, why connect her so intimately with Babylon, the great city? It will help us here to
remember that the Chaste Woman of the Apocalypse is also indissolubly united to a city.
In Rev. 21:9 we read that one of the seven angels said to John, “Come hither, I will show
thee the bride, the Lamb’s Wife.” And immediately following we read, “And he carried me
away in the spirit to a great and high mountain, and showed me that great city, the holy
Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God.” Thus, though separate, the two are intimately
connected. The Bride will dwell in the holy Jerusalem. So here in Rev. 17, though distinct,
the Whore is intimately related to the City, Babylon. One of the many proofs related to the
Harlot of Rev. 17 is apostate Israel is found in Isa. 1, where we read, “How is the faithful city
become an harlot!” (v. 21). In the verses which follow it will be seen that the Lord of hosts
is addressing Israel, and describing conditions which will prevail in the End-time. After indicting
Israel
for
her
sins,
the
Lord
declares,
“I
will
ease
Me
of
Mine
adversaries,
and
avenge
Me
of
Mine
enemies.”
Clearly,
this
has
reference
to
the
Tribulation
period.
Then
the
Lord
continues,
“And
I
will
turn,
Mine
hand
upon
thee,
and
purely
purge
away
thy
dross,”
etc.,
and
then
He
adds,
“Afterwards
thou
shalt
be
called,
The
city
of
righteousness,
the
faithful
city.”
How
clear
it
is
then
that
God
calls
Israel
“an
harlot”
for
her
unfaithfulness.
For
further
proofs
see
Jer.
2:20;
3:6,
8;
Ezek.
16:15;
20:30;
43:8,
9;
Hosea
2:5,
etc.
We would next call attention to some of the scriptures which prove that there will be
Israelites dwelling in Babylon and the land of Assyria at the End-time. In Jer. 50:4-7 we read,
“In those days, and in that time, saith the Lord, the children of Israel shall come, they and
the children of Judah together, going and weeping: they shall go, and seek the Lord their
God. They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces thitherward, saying, Come, and let us
join ourselves to the Lord in a perpetual covenant that shall not be forgotten,” etc. Clearly
these verses treat of the closing days of the time of “Jacob’s trouble.” Immediately following
we read, “Remove out of the midst of Babylon, and go forth out of the land of the Chaldeans”
2 He that hath the Bride (John 3:29), spoken by John the Baptist — the “friend of the Bridegroom” —
demonstrates that “the Bride” was in view during our Lord’s ministry unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
The believing Remnant who “received” Him, form the nucleus and were representative of redeemed Israel,
millennial Israel, the Bride of the Lamb.
170
Antichrist and Babylon
(v. 8). Then, in the next verse, a reason is given, showing the urgency of this call for the
faithful Jews in Babylon to come out: “For lo, I will raise and cause to come up against
Babylon an assembly of great nations from the north country: and they shall set themselves
in array against her; from thence she shall be taken” (v. 9). Again, in Jer. 51:44, the Lord
says, “And I will punish Bel in Babylon, and I will bring forth out of his mouth that which
he hath swallowed up: and the nations shall not flow together any more unto him: yea, the
wall of Babylon shall fall.” And then follows the Call for the faithful Jews to separate themselves
from
the
mass
of
their
apostate
brethren
in
Babylon

“My
people,
go
ye
out
of
the
midst
of
her,
and
deliver
ye
every
man
his
soul
from
the
fierce
anger
of
the
Lord.”
Isa.
11:11;
27:13;
Micah
4:10,
all
show
that
Israel
will
be
intimately
connected
with
Babylon
in
the
Endtime.
It was of incalculable help to students of the past when they discovered that Israel is the
key which unlocks prophecy, and that the Nations are referred to only as they affect the
fortunes of Jacob’s descendants. There were other mighty peoples of old besides the Egyptians
and the Chaldeans, but the holy Spirit has passed them by, because their history had no
bearing on that of the chosen Nation. The same reason explains why the empires of Babylon,
Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, do occupy such a prominent notice in the book of Daniel
— they were the enemies into whose hands God delivered His wayward people. These
principles have received wide recognition by prophetic students, and therefore it is the more
strange that so few have applied them in their study of the final prophetic book. Israel is the
key to the Revelation, and the Nations are only mentioned therein as they immediately affect
Israel’s fortunes. The ultimate design of the Apocalypse is not to take notice of such men
as Nero and Charlemagne and Napoleon, nor such systems as Mohammedanism and the
Papacy. Nor would so much be said about Babylon unless this “great city” was yet to be the
home of apostate Israel. After these preliminary considerations, which though length were
necessary, we are now prepared to examine a few of the details supplied by Rev. 17 and 18.
Nor can we now do more than offer a bare outline, and even that will require a further
chapter on Rev. 18.
“And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me,
saying unto me, Come hither; I will show thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth
upon many waters: with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the
inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication” (Rev. 17:1,
2). The “great whore,” in the final accomplishment of this prophecy, describes apostate Israel
in the End-time — i.e. Daniel’s seventieth week. The figure of an unfaithful woman to represent
apostate
Israel
is
a
common
one
in
the
Scriptures:
see
Jer.
2:20;
3:6;
Ezek.
16:15;
20:30;
43:8,
9;
Hosea
2:5,
etc.
She
is
here
termed
“the
great
whore”
for
two
reasons:
first,
because
(as
we
shall
show
later)
she
will,
at
the
end,
worship
Mammon
as
she
never
has
in
the
past;
second,

because of her idolatrous alliance with the Beast. The apostle is here shown her
171
Antichrist and Babylon
“judgment.” This is in contrast from what we have in Rev. 12, where we learn that the chaste
“Woman” will be preserved. That apostate Israel will yet sit “upon many waters” (“peoples,”
etc., v. 15), and that the kings of the earth will commit fornication with her, we reserve for
consideration in the next chapter.
“So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a
scarlet colored Beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And
the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet color, and decked with gold and precious
stones, and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of
her fornication” (vv. 3 and 4 ). The Woman seated on the Beast does not signify that she
will rule over him, but intimates that he will support her. The ultimate reference here is to
the Devil’s imitation of the Millennium, when the Jews (even now rapidly coming into
prominence) shall no longer be the tail of the Nations, but the head. How the Devil will
bring this about will appear when we examine Rev. 18. As the result of the Beast’s support
(v. 3), apostate Israel will be lifted to heights of worldly power and glory (v. 4).
“And upon her forehead was a name written, mystery: BABYLON THE GREAT, THE
MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH” (v. 5). In a re-built
Babylon will culminate the various systems of idolatry which had their source in the first
Babylon of Nimrod’s day. It is in this city that the most influential Jews will congregate at
the Time of the End. From there, Jewish financiers will control the governments of earth.
That apostate Israel, in Babylon, should be clothed in “purple and scarlet” (emblems of
royalty and earthly glory) before the Kingdom of Messiah is set up, was indeed a “mystery”
(secret) disclosed by none of the Prophets, but now made known in the Revelation.
“And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the
martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with a great wonder” (v. 6, R.V.) The final
reference is, again, to apostate Israel in the End-time. The most relentless enemies of the
godly Jews will be their own apostate brethren — cf our notes on Luke 18 in chapter 9. The
second half of v. 6, correctly rendered in the R.V., “And when I saw her I wondered with a
great wonder,” ought to show us that it is not Romanism which is here in view. Why should
John, who was himself then suffering from the hatred of Rom (Pagan) wonder at Rome
(Papal) being clothed with governmental power and glory, and drunken with the blood of
saints? But that the kings of the earth (her worst enemies for three thousand years) should
commit fornication with Israel, and that the apostate portion of the Nation should be
drunken with the blood of their own brethren according to the flesh, was well calculated to
fill him with amazement.
“And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery
of the woman, and of the Beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns”
(v. 7). It should be noted that in the interpretation which follows, far more is said about “the
Beast” than about “the Woman.” We believe the chief reason for this is because the 18th
172
Antichrist and Babylon
verse tells us the Woman represents “that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the
earth,” and the City receives fuller notice in the chapter that follows — Rev. 18.
“And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on
which the woman sitteth. And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the
other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. And the Beast
that was, and is not, even he is the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition” (vv.
9-11). Here is the mind which hath wisdom (v. 9): “This repetition of 13:18 identifies and
connects these two chapters. The word rendered ‘mind’ in 17:9 and ‘understanding’ in 13:18
is the same. This ‘wisdom’ is, to understand that, though a ‘Beast’ is seen in the vision, it is
not a wild beast that is meant, but one great final super-human personality; namely, a man
energized by satanic power” (Dr. E.W. Bullinger).
The 9th verse should end with the word “wisdom”: what follows belongs to v. 10. The
R.V., which in this verse follows a number of reliable translations, renders thus: “The seven
heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth, and they are seven kings.” This at
once disposes of the popular interpretation which regards these seven mountains s referring
to the seven hills on which the city of Rome was built. The Holy Spirit expressly tells us that
the seven mountains are (represent) seven kings. Of these seven kings it is said, “five are
fallen, and one is (i.e. the sixth existed when John wrote the Apocalypse), and the other (the
seventh) is yet to come: he must continue a short space.” And then in v. 11 we read, “And
the Beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven, and he goeth
into perdition.” Upon those verses we cannot do better than give extracts from Mr. Newton’s
“Thoughts on the Apocalypse.”
173
Antichrist and Babylon
“This passage is evidently intended to direct our thoughts to the various
forms of executive government or kingship which have existed, or shall exist
in the prophetic earth, until the hour when the sovereignty of the world shall
become the sovereignty of the Lord and of His Christ. We might expect to
find such a reference in a chapter which professedly treats of him who is to
close the history of human government by the introduction of a new and
marvellous form of power — a form new as to its mode of administration
and development, yet not unconnected with the past, for it will be constructed
upon principles drawn from the experience of preceding ages, and will have
the foundations of its greatness laid by the primeval efforts of mankind. He
will be the eighth; but he is of (ek) the seven.
The native energy and intrepidity of him who is said to have been a
mighty hunter before the Lord — an energy essential to men who were setting
in a forlorn and unsubdued earth, surrounded by beasts of the forest and
countless other difficulties and dangers, very naturally gave the first form to
kingship, and hence its parentage may be said to spring. ‘The beginning of
his kingdom was Babel’. The supremacy of Nimrod was not derived from
any previously existing system. He neither inherited his power from others,
nor did he, like Nebuchadnezzar afterwards, receive it as a gift from God.
He earned it for himself, by the force of his own individual character — but
it was without God. Great progress was made in the kingdom which he
founded in the land of Shinar, in civilization and refinement; for we early
read of the godly Babylonish garment, and of the s kill and learning of the
Chaldees; but their domination was repressed and kept, as it were, in abeyance
by the hand of God, until the trial of Israel, His people, had been fully made,
that it might be seen whether they would prove themselves worthy of supremacy
in
the
earth.
The form of government in Israel was a theocracy; as was seen in the
reigns of David and Solomon, who were types (imperfect types indeed) of
Him that is to come. The monarch was independent of and uncontrolled by
those whom he governed, but he was dependent upon God, who dwelt in
the temple, ever near to be consulted, and whose law was given as the final
standard of appeal. He stood between God and the people, not to be their
functionary and slave — not to be the expression of their judgments, and
the reflection of their will; but as set over them by principles which he himself
had received from above. But the possession of power like this, held in
companionship with God, required a holiness that was not found in man in
the flesh, and therefore it was soon forfeited. Divine sanction, however, has
174
Antichrist and Babylon
many times since been coveted, and the name of ‘the Lord’s anointed’ assumed.
The
last

great king of the Gentiles, indeed, will do more than this,
for he will take the place of Divinity itself, and sit upon the mount of the
congregation on the sides of the north, saying he is like the Most High. But
all this is unauthorized assumption.
The third form is developed when the Gentile dynasty was formally
constituted by God in the person of Nebuchadnezzar. He, like the monarchs
of Israel, had absolute sovereignty granted to him — but God was not with
him in it. He and his successors received it as delegated power to be exercised
according to their own pleasure, though in final responsibility to God. It is
not necessary here to pursue the painful history of the Gentiles. It is sufficient
to say, as regards the history of power, that the Gentile monarchs from the
beginning, not knowing God so as to lean upon Him, and too weak to stand
alone; exposed to the jealousy and hatred of those whom they governed —
a jealousy not unfrequently earned by their own evil, found it necessary to
lean upon something inferior to themselves: and thus the character of power
has been deteriorated from age to age, until at last the monarchy of these
latter days has consented not only to own the people as the basis and source
of its power, but has also submitted to be directed in the exercise of that
power by given rules prescribed by its subjects.
The native monarchy of Nimrod, the theocracy of Israel, the despotic
authority of Nebuchadnezzar, the aristocratic monarchy of Persia, and the
military monarchy of Alexander and his successors, had all passed away
when John beheld this vision. All these methods had been tried — none had
been found to answer even the purposes of man; and now another had arisen,
the half military, half popular monarchy of the Caesars, — the iron empire
of Rome. ‘Five have fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and
when he cometh he must continue a little space’.
175
That other (though it cannot yet be said to have come so as to fulfill this
verse)
3
Antichrist and Babylon
(we are rather inclined to believe that the ‘seventh’ is commercialism,
that is, the moneyed-interests in control — A.W.P.) and, with one brief ex-
ception, the last form that is to be exhibited before the end shall come, and
it is under this form that the system of Babylon is matured. It is obvious that
a monarchy, guided not by the people numerically, but by certain classes of
the people, and those classes determined by the possession of property, must
be the form adapted for the accumulation of wealth, and the growth of
commercial power; for it gives (which pure democracy has ever failed to do),
the best security fro property without unduly fettering the liberty of individual
enterprise.”
For lack of space we are obliged to pass over the intervening verses now, and in closing
this chapter we offer a brief word on v. 18. “And the woman which thou sawest is that great
city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.” This verse tells us that the Whore represents
a City. This city is named in 14:8; 16:19; 17:5; 18:2; 10, 21; and it is surely significant that it
is thus named in the Apocalypse six times — the number of man; whereas the new Jerusalem
is referred to three times (3:12; 21:2; 10) the Divine number. Babylon, must therefore be
understood literally, otherwise we should have the anomaly of a figure representing a figure.
But from the very fact that we are here told the Woman represents the City, we learn that
she is not literal, but figurative. In the next chapter we shall further review Rev. 17 and offer
some comments on Rev. 18.
3 It will not have come in the sense of this verse, until it pervades the Roman world. When all the ten kingdoms
have been constitutionalized, it may be said to have come.
176
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
In our last chapter we sought to show that in Rev. 17 “the great Whore,” and “Babylon
the great,” though intimately connected, are yet distinct; the former being the representative
of the latter. While allowing, yea insisting upon it, that many features of the symbolic
prophecy contained in Rev. 17 have had a striking fulfillment already, still that in which all
its varied terms are to find their complete realization is yet future. We also reminded our
readers that Israel supplies the solution to most of the problems of prophecy, and this is
becoming more and more evident as the last prophetic book in the Bible is receiving wider
and closer study. Fifty years ago the majority of the commentators “spiritualised” the first
half of Rev. 7 and made the twelve tribes of Israel, there mentioned, to refer to the Church.
But this has long since been discredited. So, the popular interpretation of Rev. 12 which had
the “woman” there a figure of the Church has also been abandoned by many. An increasing
number of Bible students are recognizing the fact that “the Lamb’s Wife,” “the Bride” of
Rev. 19 and 21 also contemplates Israel rather than the Church. That the Church is the Bride
(a statement nowhere affirmed in Scripture) has been sedulously proclaimed by the Papacy
for over a thousand years, and the tradition has been echoed throughout Protestantism.
But, as we have said, there is a steadily increasing number who seriously question this, yea,
who are bold to repudiate it, and declare in its stead that the new Israel, saved Israel, will be
“the Bride.” As this truth becomes more clearly discerned, we believe it will also be apparent
that the great Whore is not the apostate church but apostate Israel.
The future of Israel is a wide subject, for numerous are the scriptures which treat of it.
It is, moreover, a subject of profound interest, the more so because what is now prophetic
is so soon to become historic. The Zionist movement of the last twenty-five years is something
more than the impracticable ideal of a few visionaries; it is steadily preparing the way for
the re-establishment of the Jews in Palestine. It is true that the Zionists have been frowned
upon by many in Jewry, and that, for a very good reason. God’s time is not yet fully ripe,
and He has permitted the mercenary spirit of many of Jacob’s descendants to hold it, temporarily,
in
check.
The
millions
of
Jews
now
comfortably
settled
and
prospering
in
this
land,
and

in the capitals of the leading European countries, are satisfied with their present lot.
The love of money outweighs sentimental considerations. Zionism has made no appeal to
their avarice. To leave the markets and marts of New York, London, Paris, and Berlin in
order to become farmers in Palestine is not sufficiently alluring. Mammon is now the god
of the vast majority of the descendants of those who, of old, worshipped the golden calf.
At present, it is (with few exceptions) only those who are oppressed in greater Russia,
Hungary, etc. who are really anxious to be settled in Palestine. But soon there will be a
change of attitude. Even now there are faint indications of it. As Palestine becomes more
thickly populated, as the prospects of security from Turkish and Arabian depredations grow
177
brighter, as the country is developed and the possibilities of commercial aggrandizement
loom on the horizon, the better class of Jews will be quick to see and seize the golden opportunity.
Few
American
Jews
are
anxious
to
emigrate
to
Palestine
when
there
is
nothing
more
than

a spade and a hoe at the end of the journey. But as hospitals, colleges, universities,
banking houses are opened, and all the commercial adjuncts of civilization find a place in
the land of David, then rapidly increasing numbers of David’s descendants will turn their
faces thitherward. High finance is the magnet which will draw the covetous Hebrews.
Once Palestine becomes a thorough Jewish State it is not difficult to forecast the logical
corollary. We quote from the excellent exposition on Zechariah by Mr. David Baron — his
comments on the fifth chapter.
1
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
1 Mr. Baron is probably the ablest and most widely known and esteemed Hebrew Christian alive today.
178
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
“Without any spirit of dogmatism, and without entering at this place
into the question of the identity and significance of the Babylon in the Revelation

— whether mystical or actual — we would express our conviction
that there are scriptures which cannot, according to our judgment, be satisfactorily

explained except on the supposition of a revival and yet future
judgment of literal Babylon, which for a time will be the center and embodiment
of
all
the
elements
of
our
godless
civilization,
and
which
especially
will
become
the
chief
entrepot
of
commerce
in
the
world.
To this conviction we are led chiefly by the fact that there are prophecies
in the Old Testament concerning the literal Babylon which have never in the
past been exhaustively fulfilled, and that Scripture usually connects the final
overthrow of Babylon with the yet future restoration and blessing of Israel.
And it is very striking to the close observer of the signs of the times how
things at the present day are rapidly developing on the very lines which are
forecast in the prophetic scriptures. ‘The fears and hopes of the world —
political, commercial, and religious, writes one in a monthly journal which
lies before me, are at the present day being increasingly centered upon the
home of the human race — Mesopotamia[hellip]As the country from which
the father of the Jewish nation emigrated to the land of promise, it is also
occupying the thoughts and aspirations of the Jews.’
Whatever may be the outcome of the negotiations which have been carried
on
recently
with
the
Turkish
Government
by
the
Jewish
Territorialists
for

the establishment of a Jewish automonous State in this very region, in
which many Zionists and other Jews were ready to join, there is so much
truth in the words of another writer that when once a considerable number
of such a commercial people as the Jews are re-established in Palestine, ‘the
Euphrates would be to them as necessary as the Thames to London or the
Rhine to Germany. It would be Israel’s great channel of communication with
the Indian seas, not to speak of the commerce which would flow towards the
Tigris and the Euphrates from the central and northern districts of Asia! It
would be strange, therefore, if no city should arise on its banks of which it
might be said that her merchants were the great men of the earth’”
Zech. 5 is most intimately connected with Rev. 18, and a grasp of the former is of such
importance in studying the latter that we must here give it a brief consideration. But first
let us outline in the fewest possible words the contents of the first four chapters of Zechariah.
After a brief introduction we learn, first, that God’s eye is ever upon Israel (1:7-17). Second,
that His eye is also upon her enemies and desolators (1:18-21). Third, assurance is given of
her future blessing (2) and of her cleansing (3). Fourth, we learn of the blessings which shall
179
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
follow her restoration (4). Fifth, we are taken back to behold the punishment of apostate
Israel: the “flying roll” symbolizes the destruction of wicked Jews (5:1-4). Then follows the
vision of “the Ephah” in 5:5-11 — let the reader please turn to it.
We cannot do more than now call attention to the prominent features in this vision.
First, the prophet sees as “ephah” (or bath) which was the largest measure for dry goods
among the Jews. It would, therefore, be the natural symbol for Commerce. Next, we note
that twice over it is said that the ephah “goeth forth” (vv. 5, 6). As the whole of the preceding
visions concern Jerusalem and her people, this can only mean that the center of Jewish
commerce is to be transferred from Palestine elsewhere. Next, we are told that there was a
“woman” concealed in the midst of the ephah (v. 7). We say “concealed,” for in vv. 5 and 6
the “woman” is not seen — the leaden cover (cf v.8) had to be lifted before she could be
beholden. The writer is satisfied that this hidden woman in the ephah is “the Woman” which
is fully revealed in Revelation 17 and 18. Next, we are told that “wickedness” (lawlessness)
was cast into the ephah, before its cover was closed again. Then, in what follows, we are
shown this ephah, with the “woman” and “wickedness” shut up therein, being rapidly conveyed
from
Palestine
to
“the
land
of
Shinar”
(v.
11).
The
purpose
for
this
is
stated
to
be,
“to
build
a
house,”
i.e.
a
settled
habitation.
Finally,
we
are
assured,
“it
shall
be
established,
and
set
there
(in
the
land
of
Shinar)
upon
her
own
base.”
This
vision
or
prophecy
contains
the
germ
which
is
afterwards
expanded
and
developed
in
such
detail
in
Rev.
17
and 18, where
it is shown that “the house” which is established for this system of commerce is “Babylon
the great.” Let it be remembered that this vision is found in the midst of a series of prophecies
which have to do with, first the faithful, and then the faithless in Israel, and we have another
clear and independent proof that the Corrupt Woman of the Apocalypse is none other than
apostate Israel!
In his helpful and illuminative work on the Babylon of the future, the late Mr. Newton
devoted a separate chapter to Zech. 5. His remarks are so excellent that we cannot forbear
from making an extract:
180
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
“If human energy is to be permitted again to make the Euphrtean regions
the scene of its operation — if prosperity is to be allowed for a brief moment
to re-visit the Land of Babylon, it might be expected that the Scriptures would
somewhere allude, and that definitely, to such an event. And we find it to be
so. The Scripture does speak of an event yet unaccomplished, of which the
scene is to be the Land of Babylon. The passage to which I refer is at the close
of the fifth chapter of Zechariah.
That the event predicted in this remarkable passage remains still unaccomplished,

is sufficiently evident from the fact of Zechariah’s having
prophesied after Babylon had received that blow under which it has gradually
waned. Zechariah lived after Babylon had passed into the hands of the Persians,
and
since
that
time,
it
is
admitted
by
all,
that
declination

not
establishment

has
marked
its
history.
From
that
hour
to
the
present
moment
there
has
been
no
preparation
of
an
house,
no
establishment
of
anything

much
less
of
an
Ephah
in
the
Land
of
Shinar.
But
an
Ephah
is
to
be
established
there,
and
a
house
to
be
built
for
it
there,
and
there
it
is
to
be
set
firmly
upon
its
base.
An Ephah is the emblem of commerce. It is the symbol of the merchants.
In the passage before us the Ephah is described as ‘going forth’, that is, its
sovereign influence is to pervade the nations, and to imprint on them a
character derived from itself, as the formative power of their institutions. In
other words, commerce is for a season to reign. It will determine the arrangements,
and
fix
the
manners
of
Israel,
and
of
the
prophetic
earth.
The
appearance
of
every
nation
that
falls
under
its
control
is
to
be
mercantile.
He
said,
moreover,
this
is
their
appearance
(or
aspect)
throughout
all
the
earth.”
The theme is of deep interest, and we are tempted to enter at length into details. But
that is scarcely necessary. Every one who has a general knowledge of the past, and who is
at all in touch with political conditions in the world today, knows full well the radical change
which the last two or three centuries have witnessed. For a thousand years the Church (the
professing church) controlled the governments of Europe. Following the Reformation, the
aristocracy (the nobility) held the reins. During the first half of last century democratic
principles obtained more widely. But in the last two or three generations the governmental
machines of this country and of the leading European lands have been run by the Capitalists.
Of late, Labor has sought to check this, but thus far with little success. In the light of Zech.
5 and Rev. 18 present-day conditions are profoundly significant. It is commerce which is
more and more dominating the policies and destinies of what is known as the civilized
world. “If we turn our eyes abroad upon the world, we shall find that the one great object
before the nations of the earth today is this image of commerce, drawing them with all the
181
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
seductive influence a siren woman might exercise upon the heart of men. The one great aim
on the part of each is to win the favor of this mighty mistress. The world powers are engaged
in a Titanic struggle for commercial supremacy. To this end mills are build, factories founded,
forests felled, lands sown, harvests reaped, and ships launched. Because of this struggle for
mastery of the world’s market the nations reach out and extend their borders” (Dr. Haldeman).

The recent war was caused by commercial jealousies. The root trouble behind the
“reparation” question, the “Strait’s” problem the cancellation or demanding repayment of
United States loans to Europe, each go back to commercial considerations.
Sixty years ago it was asked, “Is not commerce the sovereign influence of the day? If we
were asked to inscribe on the banners of the leading nations of the earth, an emblem characteristically

expressive of their condition, could we fix on any device more appropriate
than an ephah?” With how much greater pertinency may this be said today! And how this
is preparing the way for and will shortly head up in what is portrayed in Rev. 18, it is not
difficult to see. There we read, “Thy merchants were the great men of the earth” (v. 23). This
was not true four hundred years ago: for then the ecclesiastics were “the great men of the
earth.” Now was it true one hundred years ago, for then the nobility were “the great men of
the earth.” But today. Ah! Ask the man on the street to name half a dozen of the great men
now alive, and whom would he select? And who are behind and yet one with the “merchants?”
Is it not the financiers? And who are the leading ones among them? Who are the ones that
are more and more controlling the great banking systems of the world? And, as every wellinformed

person knows, the answer is, Jews. How profoundly significant, then, that the
head on the image in Nebuchadnezzar’s dream (which symbolized the Babylon Empire)
should be of gold, and that the final Babylon should be denominated “the golden city” (Isa.
14:4). And how all of this serves, again, to confirm our interpretation of Rev. 17, namely,
that “the great Whore” with “the golden cup in her hand” (17:4) is apostate Israel, whose
final home shall be that “great city,” soon to be built on the banks of the Euphrates. Not yet
is it fully evident that the wealth of the world is rapidly filling Hebrew coffers — only a
glimpse of the “woman” in “the midst of the Ephah” was obtained before it became established
in
the
Land
of
Shinar.
But
it
cannot
be
long
before
this
will
become
apparent.
At
the
End-time
it
will
fully
appear
that
“the
woman[hellip]is
(represents)
that
great
city”
(17:18).
This
explains
the
words
of
Rev.
17:5,
where
we
learn
that
the
words
“Babylon
the
great”
are
written
upon
“her
forehead”

it
will
be
obvious
then
to
all!
Apostate
Israel,
then
controlling
the
wealth
of
the
world,
will
personify
Babylon.
And what part will the Antichrist play in connection with this? What will be his relation
to Babylon and apostate Israel? The Word of God is not silent on these questions, and to it
we now turn for the Divine answer. As to Antichrist’s relation to Babylon, Scripture is very
explicit. He will be “the King of Babylon” (Isa. 14:4); the “King of Assyria” (Isa. 10:12). As
to his relation to apostate Israel, that is a more intricate matter and will require more detailed
182
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
consideration. We shall therefore devote a separate chapter (the next one) to this interesting
branch of our subject. Here we shall deal briefly with what Rev. 17 and 18 say thereon.
Rev. 17 presents the relation of apostate Israel to the Antichrist in three aspects. First,
she is supported by him. This is brought before us in 17:3, where we are shown the corrupt
Woman seated upon the scarlet-colored Beast. This, we believe, is parallel with Dan. 9:27,
which tells us that “the Prince that shall come” will make a Covenant with Israel. This covenant,
league,
or
treaty,
will
insure
her
protection.
It
is
significant
that
Dan.
9:27
tells us the
covenant is made by the one who is then at the head of the revived Roman Empire, which
corresponds with the fact that Rev. 17:3 depicts him as a “scarlet colored Beast[hellip]having
seven heads and ten horns.” It is the Antichrist no longer in his “little horn” character, but
as one that has now attained earthly glory and dominion. As such, he will, for a time, uphold
the Jews and protect their interests.
Second, Rev. 17 depicts apostate Israel as intriguing with “the kings of the earth.” In v.
2 we read that the kings of the earth shall commit fornication with her. Note how this, as
an item of importance, is repeated in 18:3. This, we believe, is what serves to explain 17:16
which, in the corrected rendering of the R.V. reads, “And the ten horns which thou sawest
and the Beast, these shall hate the Harlot, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall
eat her flesh, and shall burn her utterly with fire.” What it is which causes the Beast to turn
against the Harlot and hate and destroy her is her unfaithfulness to Him. Not content with
enjoying the protection the Beast gives to her, apostate Israel will aspire to a position of
rivalry with the one over the ten horns. That she succeeds in this we learn from the last verse
of the chapter — “And the woman which thou sawest is (represents) that great city, which
reigneth over the kings of the earth.” As to how apostate Israel will yet reign over the kings
of the earth we hope to show in the next chapter.
Third, Rev. 17 makes it known that apostate Israel will ultimately be hated by “the Beast
and his ten horns”(v. 16). The 12th verse tells us that the ten horns are “ten kings.” This has
presented a real difficulty to many. In 17:16 it says that the ten horns (kings) and the Beast
hate the Whore, and make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh (that is, appropriate
to themselves her substance, her riches), and burn her with fire; whereas in 18:9 we read,
“The kings of the earth who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall
bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning.” Yet the
solution of this difficulty is very simple. The difficulty is created by confusing “the kings of
the earth” with the “ten horns,” whose kingdoms are within the limits of the old Roman
Empire (see Dan. 7:7). The “kings of the earth” is a much wider expression, and includes
such kingdoms as North and South America, China and Japan, Germany and Russia, etc.,
all in fact, outside the bounds of the old Roman Empire. It is the intriguing of apostate Israel
with “the kings of the earth” which brings down upon her the hatred of the Beast and his
“ten kings.”
183
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
In closing this chapter we wish to call attention to some of the many and striking verbal
correspondences between Rev. 17 and 18 and the Old Testament Prophets: —
1. In Rev. 17:1 we are told the great Whore “sitteth upon many waters.”
In Jer. 51:13 Babylon (see previous verse) is addressed as follows: “O thou that dwellest
upon many waters.”
2. In Rev. 17:2 it is said that, “The inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with
the wine of her fornication.”
In Jer. 51:7 we read, “Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord’s hand, that made all
the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine.”
3. In Rev. 17:4 the great Whore has “a golden cup in her hand.”
In Jer. 51:7 Babylon is termed “a golden cup in the Lord’s hand.”
4. In Rev. 17:15 we are told, “The waters which thou sawest, where the Whore sitteth,
are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.”
In Jer. 51:13 we read, “O thou that dwellest upon many waters, abundant in treasures.”
5. Rev. 17:16 tells us that Babylon shall be burned with fire — cf 18:8.
So in Jer. 51:58 we read, “The broad walls of Babylon shall be utterly broken, and her
high gates shall be burned with fire.”
6. In Rev. 17:18 we are told that the woman who represents the great city “reigneth over
the kings of the earth.”
In Isa. 47:5 Babylon is denominated “the lady of kingdoms.”
7. Rev. 18:2 tells us that after her fall, Babylon becomes “the habitation of demons, and
the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.”
Isa. 13:21 says, “But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be
full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and satyrs shall dance there.”
8. Rev. 18:4 records God’s call to the faithful Jews — “Come out of her My people.”
In Jer. 51:45 God also says, “My people, go ye out of the midst of her.”
9. In Rev. 18:5 it is said, “Her sins have reached unto heaven.”
In Jer. 51:9 it reads, “For her judgment reacheth unto heaven.”
10. In Rev. 18:6 we read, “Reward her as she rewarded you.”
In Jer. 50:15 it says, “Take vengeance upon her; as she hath done, do unto her.”
11. In Rev. 18:7 we find Babylon saying in her heart, “I sit a queen, and am no widow,
and shall see no sorrow.”
In Isa. 47:8 we also read that Babylon says in her heart, “I am, and none else beside me;
I shall not sit as a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children.”
12. In Rev. 18:8 we read, “Therefore shall her plagues come in one day.”
Isa. 47:9 declares, “But these two things shall come to thee in a moment, in one day.”
184
Antichrist and Babylon. (Rev. 18)
13. In Rev. 18:21 we read, “And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone,
and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown
down, and be found no more at all.”
So in Jer. 51:63, 64 we are told, “And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading
this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of the Euphrates: And
thou shalt say, Thus shall Babylon sink, and shall not rise from the evil that I bring upon
her.”
14. In Rev. 18:23 we read, “And the light of the candle shall shine no more at all in thee,
and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee.”
In Isa. 24:8, 10 it is said of Babylon, “The mirth of tabrets ceaseth, the noise of them that
rejoice endeth, the joy of the heart ceaseth[hellip]the City of Confusion is broken down:
every house is shut up, that no man may come in[hellip]all joy is darkened, the mirth of the
land is gone.”
15. In Rev. 18:24 we read, “And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints,
and of all that were slain upon the earth.”
In Jer. 51:49 we read, “As Babylon hath caused the slain of Israel to fall, so Babylon shall
fall the slain of all the earth.”
These parallelisms are so plain they need no comments from us. If the reader still insists
that the Babylon of Rev. 17 and 18 is the ultimate development of the Papacy as it envelopes
apostate Christendom, it is useless to discuss the subject any farther. But we believe that the
great majority of our readers — who have no traditions to uphold — will be satisfied that
the Babylon of the Apocalypse is the Babylon of Old Testament prophecy, namely, a literal,
re-built city in “the land of Nimrod” (Micah 5:6), a city which shall be the production of
covetousness (“which is idolatry” — Col. 3:5), and a city which shall yet be the home of
apostate Israel.
185
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel and the Antichrist
It is a ground for thanksgiving that during the last three or four generations the people
of God have given considerable attention to the prophecies of Scripture which treat of the
future of Israel. The old method of “spiritualizing” these predictions, and making them apply
to the Church of the present dispensation, has been discarded by the great majority of premillennarians.
With
a
steadily
increasing
number
of
Bible
students
it
is
now
a
settled
question
that

Israel, as a nation, shall be saved (Rom. 11:26), and that the promises of God to the
fathers will be literally fulfilled under the Messianic reign of the Lord Jesus (Rom. 9:4). Jerusalem,
which
for
so
many
centuries
has
been
a
by-word
in
the
earth,
will
then
be
known
as
“the
city
of
the
great
King”
(Matt.
5:35).
His
throne
shall
be
established
there,
and
it
shall
be
the
gathering
point
for
all
nations
(Zech.
8:23;
14:16-21).
Then
shall
the
despised
descendants
of
Jacob
be
“the
head”
of
the
nations,
and
no
longer
the
tail

(Deut. 28:13); then shall
the people of Jehovah’s ancient choice be the center of His earthly government; then shall
the Fig Tree, so long barren, “blossom and bud, and fill the face of the world with fruit” (Isa.
27:6). All of this is common knowledge among those who are in any-wise acquainted with
dispensational truth.
But the same Word of Prophecy which announces the glorious future awaiting the
children of Israel, also contains another chapter in the history of this peculiar people; a
chapter yet unfulfilled, setting forth a period in their history darker and sadder than any of
their past experiences. Both the Old and New Testaments plainly tell of a season of suffering
for the Jews which will be far more acute than even their afflictions of old. Dan. 12:1 says,
“And there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that
same time.” And in Matt. 24:21, 22 we read, “For there shall be a great tribulation, such as
was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those
days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved.”
The reasons or causes of this future suffering of Israel are as follows. First, God has not
fully visited upon Israel’s children the sins of their fathers. “When Solomon and her kings
had by transgression lost their blessings, and the glory of the reign of Solomon had faded
away, the supremacy, which was taken from them, was given to certain Gentile nations,
who were successively to arise and bear rule in the earth, during the whole period of Israel’s
rejection. The first of these was the Chaldean Empire under Nebuchadnezzar. The period
termed by our Lord the ‘Times of the Gentiles’, commences with the capture of Jerusalem
by Nebuchadnezzar. It is a period coincident from its beginning to its close, with the
treading down of Jerusalem. ‘Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles till the Times
of the Gentiles be fulfilled’. Nebuchadnezzar therefore, and the Gentile empires which have
succeeded him, have only received their pre-eminence in consequence of Jerusalem’s sin;
and the reason why they were endowed with that pre-eminence was, that they might chasten
186
Jerusalem; and when they shall have fulfilled that purpose, they shall themselves be set aside
and be made, because of their own evil, ‘like the chaff of the summer threshing-floors’. In
this we have another evidence that the earthly dispensations of God revolve around the Jews
as their center” (B.W.Newton).
A further reason or cause of the future sufferings of Israel lies in the rejection of their
Messiah. First and foremost Christ was “a Minister of the Circumcision, for the truth of
God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers” (Rom. 15:8). He was sent “but unto
the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matt. 15:24). And in marvelous grace He tabernacled
among them. But He was not wanted. “He came unto His own, and His own received Him
not” (John 1:11). Not only did they receive Him not, they “despised and rejected Him;” they
“hated Him without a cause.” So intense was their enmity against Him that with one voice
they cried, “Away with Him, crucify Him.” And not until His holy blood had been shed,
and He had died the death of the accursed, was their awful malice against Him appeased.
And for this they have yet to answer to God. Vengeance is His, and He will repay. Not yet
has the murder of God’s Son been fully avenged.
1
Israel and the Antichrist
It could not be during this “Day of Salvation.”
But
the
Day
of
Salvation
will
soon
be
over,
and
it
shall
be
followed
by
“the
great
Day
of His Wrath” (Rev. 6:17; Joel 2:11). Then will God visit the earth with His sore judgments,
and though the Nations shall by no means escape the righteous retribution due them for
their part in the crucifixion of Christ, yet, the ones who will be punished the most severely
will be they who took the lead in that crime of crimes.
The form which God’s judgment will take upon the Jews is to be in full accord with the
unchanging law of recompense — what they have sown, that shall they also reap. This was
expressly affirmed by our Lord Jesus: “I am come in My Father’s name, and ye receive Me
not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive” (John 5:43). Because they
rejected God’s Christ, Israel shall receive the Antichrist. The same thing is stated in 2 Thess.
2:7 — “For this cause (i.e. because they received not the love of the Truth, that they might
be saved) God shall send them strong delusion that they should believe the Lie.” The immediate

reference here, we believe, is to the Jews, though the principle enumerated will also
have its wider application to apostate Christendom. The chief reason why God suffers the
Man of Sin to come on the scene and run his awful course, is in order to inflict punishment
upon guilty Israel. This is clearly taught in Isa. 10:5, where of the Antichrist God says, “O
Assyrian, the rod (the instrument of chastisement) of Mine anger, and the staff in their hand
is Mine indignation. I will send him against an hypocritical nation, against the people of
My wrath will I give him a charge, to take the spoil, and to take the prey, and to tread them
1 What they suffered in A.D. 70 was, first, for the sins of their fathers, see Luke 11:50; and second, for the
murder of Christ, see Matt. 22:7.
187
Israel and the Antichrist
down like the mire of the street,” and cf our brief comments on Jer. 6:26, 27 and 15:8 in
chapter 9.
It must be borne in mind that the Jews are to return to Palestine and there re-assume a
national standing whilst yet unconverted. There are a number of passages which establish
this beyond question. For example, in Ezek. 22:19-22 we are told, “Therefore thus saith the
Lord God; because ye are all become dross, behold, therefore I will gather you into the midst
of Jerusalem, as they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the midst of
the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it; so will I gather you in Mine anger and in My
fury, and I will leave you there, and melt you. Yea, I will gather you, and blow upon you in
the fire of My wrath, and ye shall be melted in the midst thereof.” The first six verses of Isa.
18 describe how the Lord will gather the Jews to Jerusalem, there to be the prey of “fowls
and beasts.” The closing chapters of Zechariah lead to the inevitable conclusion that the
Jews return to their land in unbelief, for if their national conversion takes place in Jerusalem
(Zech. 12:10), they must have returned to it unconverted.
When the Antichrist is manifested, great companies of the Jews will already be in
Palestine, and in a flourishing condition. What, then, will be his relations with them? It is
by no means easy to furnish a detailed answer to this question, and at best we can reply but
tentatively. Doubtless, there are many particulars respecting this and all other related subjects,
which will not be cleared up until the prophecies concerning them have been fulfilled. We,
today, occupy much the same position with regard to the predictions concerning the Antichrist,
as
the
old
Testament
saints
did
to
the
many
passages
which
foretold
the
coming
of
the
Christ.
Their
difficulty
was
to
arrange
those
passages
in
the
order
they
were
to
be
fulfilled,
and

to distinguish between those which spoke of Him in humiliation and those which
foretold His coming glory. A similar perplexity confronts us. To ascertain the sequence of
the prophecies relating to the Antichrist is a real problem. Even when we confine ourselves
to those passages which speak of him in his connections with Israel, we have to distinguish
between those which concern only the godly remnant, and those which relate to the great
apostate mass of the Nation; and, too, we have to separate between those prophecies which
concern the time when Antichrist is posing as the true Christ, and those which portray him
in the final stage of his career, after he has thrown off his mask of religious pretension.
It would appear that the first thing revealed in prophecy concerning the Antichrist’s
dealings with Israel is the entering into a “covenant” with them. This is mentioned in Dan.
9:27: “And he shall confirm the covenant (make a firm covenant, R.V.) with many for one
week” i.e. seven years. The many here can be none other than the mass of the Jewish people,
for they are the principal subjects of the prophecy. The one who makes this covenant is the
“Prince that shall come” of the previous verse, the Head of the restored Roman Empire.
Thus the relations between this Prince, the Antichrist, and the mass of the Jews shall, at the
first, be relations of apparent friendship and public alliance. That this covenant is not forced
188
Israel and the Antichrist
upon Israel, but rather is entered into voluntarily by them, as seeking Antichrist’s patronage,
is clear from Isa. 28:18, where we find God, in indignation, addressing them as follows —
“And your covenant with death shall be disannulled, and your agreement with Hell shall
not stand; when the overflowing scourge shall pass through, then ye shall be trodden down
by it.” And this, we believe, supplies the key to Dan. 2:43.
Nebuchadnezzar’s vision of the great image and the interpretation given to Daniel,
outlines the governmental history of the earth as it relates to Palestine, further details being
supplied in the other visions found in the book of Daniel. “The earthly dispensations of God
revolve around Jerusalem as their center. The method which it hath pleased God to adopt
in giving the prophetic history of these nations, is in strict accord with this principle. As
soon as they arose into supremacy and supplanted Jerusalem, prophets were commissioned,
especially Daniel, to delineate their course. We might perhaps, have expected that their
history would have been given minutely and consecutively from its beginning to its close.
But instead of this, it is only given in its connection with Jerusalem; and as soon as Jerusalem
was finally crushed by the Romans and ceased to retain a national position, all detailed history
of the Gentile Empires is suspended. many a personage most important in the world’s history
has since arisen. Charlemagne has lived, and Napoleon — many a monarch, and many a
conqueror — battles have been fought, kingdoms raised and kingdoms subverted — yet
Scripture passes silently over these things, however great in the annals of the Gentiles. Because
Jerusalem has nationally ceased to be, 1800 years ago, the detail of Gentile history was suspended-
it
is
suspended
still,
nor
will
it
be
resumed
until
Jerusalem
re-assumes
a
national
position.

Then the history of the Gentiles is again minutely given, and the glory and
dominion of their last great King described. He is found to be especially connected with
Jerusalem and the Land[hellip]The subject of the book of Daniel as a whole, is the indignation
of God directed through the instrumentality of the Gentile Empires upon Jerusalem” (B.W.
Newton “Aids to Prophetic Enquiry,” first Series).
The method which the Holy Spirit has followed in the book of Daniel is to give us, a
general outline of Gentile dominion over Jerusalem, and this is found in the vision of the
Image in chapter 2; and second, to fill in this outline, which is given in the last six chapters
of that book. It is with the former we are now more particularly concerned. Much of the
prophetic vision of Dan. 2 has already become history. The golden head (Babylon), the silver
breast and arms (Medo-Persia), the brazen belly and thighs (Greece), the iron legs (Rome),
have already appeared before men. But the feet of the Image, “part of iron and part of clay,”
have to do with a time yet future. The break between the legs and feet corresponds with the
break between the sixty-ninth and seventieth “weeks” of Dan. 9:24-27. The present dispensation

comes in as a parenthesis during the time that Israel is outside the Land, dispersed
among the Gentiles.
189
Israel and the Antichrist
What, then, is represented by the “iron and the clay” toes of the feet of the Image? If we
bear in mind that this portion of the Image exactly corresponds to the seventieth week, we
have an important key to the interpretation. Dan. 9:26, 27 treats of the seventieth week —
the “one week” yet remaining. These verses speak of the Prince (of the restored Roman
Empire) making a seven years’ Covenant with the Jews. Thus the prophecy concerning the
seventieth week presents to us two prominent subjects — the Romans, at whose head is the
Antichrist, and apostate Israel, with whom the Covenant is made. Returning now to Dan.
2 we find that when interpreting the king’s dream about the Image, the prophet declares
that the “iron” is the symbol for the “fourth kingdom” (v. 40), which was Rome, who succeeded
Babylon,
Persia,

and Greece; the “feet” with their ten toes forecasting this Empire
in its final form. Thus, we have Divine authority for saying that the “iron” in the feet of the
Image represent the peoples who shall yet occupy the territory controlled by the old Roman
Empire. In a word, the “iron” symbolizes the Gentiles — specifically those found in the
lands which shall be ruled over by the “ten kings.”
Who, then, is symbolized by “the clay?” Here we are obliged to part company with the
commentators, who unanimously take the clay to be the figure of democracy. So far as we
are aware none of them has offered a single proof text in support of their interpretation,
and as the Word is the only authority, to it we must look. Assured that Scripture is its own
interpretor, we turn to the concordance to find out what the “clay” signifies elsewhere, when
used symbolically. In Isa. 64, which records the Cry of the Remnant at the End-time, we
find them saying, “But now, O Lord, Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our
Potter; and we are all the work of Thy hand.” Again, in Jer. 18 the same figure is employed.
There the prophet is commanded to go down to the potter’s house, where he beheld him
manufacturing a vessel. The vessel was marred in the hands of the potter, so he “made it
again another vessel.” Clearly, this is a picture of Israel in the past and in the future. The
interpretation is expressly fixed in v. 6: “O house of Israel, cannot I do with you as this potter?
saith the Lord. Behold, as the clay is in the potter’s hand, so are ye in Mine hand, O house
of Israel.” How clear it is then that “clay” is God’s symbol for Israel.
2
In its final form, then, the revived Roman Empire — the kingdom of Antichrist — will
be partly Gentilish and partly Jewish. And is not this what we must expect? Will not that be
the character of the kingdom of that One which the Antichrist will counterfeit? Such scrip-
2 That the Hebrew word for “clay” in these passages is a different one from that employed in Dan. 2 is exactly
what a reflecting mind would naturally expect. Isa. 64 and Jer. 18 treat of the Israel that shall be restored,
whereas Dan. 2 speaks of the apostate portion of Israel, irrevocablly given up to judgment. In striking accord
with this, we may add, that the word used in Isa. 64 and Jer. 18 refers to clay in its native and mouldable stage;
but the word in Dan. 2 signifies “burnt clay” which denotes its final condition: here, as always, “burning” tells
of Divine judgment!
190
Israel and the Antichrist
tures as Psa. 2:6-8; Isa. 11:10; 42:6; Rev. 11:15, etc., make plain the dual character of the
kingdom over which our Lord will reign during the Millennium. That the Antichrist will
be intimately related to both Jews and the Gentiles we have proven again and again in the
previous chapters — Rev. 9:11 is quite sufficient to establish the point. Therefore, we should
not be surprised to find that that part of the Image which specifically depicts the kingdom
over which the Man of Sin shall reign, should be composed of both “iron” and “clay.” It
would be passing strange were it otherwise. It is indeed striking to note that the “clay” is
mentioned in Dan. 2 just nine times — the number of judgment!
In Dan. 2:43 we read, “And whereas thou sawest iron mixed with miry clay, they shall
mingle themselves with the seed of men: but they shall not cleave one to another even as
iron is not mixed with clay” — a verse that has sorely puzzled the expositors. We believe
that the reference is to the coming intimacy between Jews and Gentiles. The apostate Jews
(members of the Corrupt Woman) shall “mingle themselves with the seed of men” — the
Gentiles. This is amplified in Rev. 17, where we read of the great Whore, “with whom the
kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been
made drunk with the wine of her fornication.” “But they shall not cleave one to another”
(Dan. 2:43) is explained in Rev. 17:16 — “And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the
Beast, these shall hate the Whore, and shall make her desolate and naked,” etc.! There is a
remarkable verse in Hab. 2 which confirms our remarks above, and connects the Antichrist
himself with the “clay.” The passage begins with the third verse, which, from its quotation
in Heb. 10:37, 38 we know, treats of the period immediately preceding our Lord’s return.
In vv. 4 and 5 we have a description of the Antichrist, and then in v. 6 we read, “Shall not
all these take up a parable against him, and a taunting proverb against him, and say, Woe
to him that increaseth that which is not his! how long? and to him that ladeth himself with
thick clay.” The reference is clearly to this “proud Man’s” fellowship with apostate Israel.
We are satisfied that Hab. 2:6-8 is parallel with Isa. 14:9-12. Isa. 14 gives us a glimpse of the
Antichrist being scoffed at in Hell, by the “chief ones of the earth” because he, too, was unable
to escape their awful fate. So in Hab. 2, after stating that he “gathereth unto him all nations”
(v. 5) the prophet goes on to say “Shall not all these take up a taunting proverb against him.”
The taunt is, that though he had leagued himself with the mass of Israel (laden himself with
thick clay), yet it will be “the remnant” of this same people that shall “spoil” him (v. 8).
Another scripture which shows that in the End-time apostate Israel will no longer be
divided from and hated by the Gentiles is found in Isa. 2, where we are told, “They strike
hands with the children of strangers” (v. 6 R.V.). As the context here is of such deep interest,
and as the whole chapter supplies us with a most vivid picture of the Jews in Palestine just
before the Millennium, we shall stop to give it a brief consideration. The first five verses
present to us a millennial scene, and then, as is so frequently the case in the prophecies of
Isaiah, we are taken back to be shown something of the conditions which shall precede the
191
Israel and the Antichrist
establishing of the Lord’s house in the top of the mountains. This is clear from the twelfth
verse, which defines this period, preceding the Millennium as “the Day of the Lord.” The
section, then, which describes the conditions which are to obtain in Palestine immediately
before the Day of the Lord dawns, begins with v. 6. We there quote from v. 5 to the end of
v. 10:—
“For thou hast forsaken thy people the house of Jacob, because they be filled with customs
from the east, and are soothsayers like the Palestines, and they strike hands with the children
of strangers. Their land also is full of silver and gold, neither is there any end to their treasures;
their
land
also
is

full of horses, neither is there any end of their chariots. Their land
also is full of idols; they worship the work of their own hands, that which their own fingers
have made. And the mean man is bowed down, and the great man is brought low: therefore
forgive them not. Enter into the rock, and hide thee in the dust, from before the terror of
the Lord, and from the glory of His majesty.” This most interesting passage shows us that
apostate Israel will be on terms of intimacy with the Gentiles; that she will be the mistress
of vast wealth; that she will be given up to idolatry. Their moral condition is described in
vv. 11 to 17 — note the repeated references to “lofty looks,” “haughtiness of men,” “high
and lifted up,” etc.
If Zech. 5 be read after Isa. 2:6-9 we have the connecting link between it and Rev. 17.
Isa. 2 shows us the Jews as the owners of fabulous wealth, as being in guilty fellowship with
“strangers,” and as universally given to idolatry. Zech. 5 reveals the emigration of apostate
Israel )the woman in the midst of the Ephah) and the transference of her wealth to the land
of Shinar. Rev. 17 and 18 give the ultimate outcome of this. Here we see apostate Israel in
all her corrupt glory. She is pictured, first, as sitting upon many waters (v. 1), which signified
“peoples, and multitudes, and nations and tongues” (v. 15). These will support her by contributing

to her revenues. The huge bond issues made by the nations to obtain loans, are
rapidly finding their way into Jewish hands; and doubtless it is the steadily accumulating
interest from these which will soon make them the wealthiest nation of the world. That
which has half bankrupted Europe will soon be used to array the Woman in purple and
scarlet color and gold and precious stones and pearls (v. 4).
Second, the Woman is seen sitting upon the Beast (v. 3), which means that the Antichrist
will use his great governmental power to insure her protection. How this harmonizes with
Dan. 9:27, where we read of him making a seven-year Covenant with them, needs not to be
pointed out. Then will poor blinded Israel believe that the Millennium has come. No longer
the people of the weary foot and homeless stranger, but mistress of the greatest city in the
world. No longer poor and needy, but possessor of the wealth of the earth. No longer the
“tail” of the nations, but reigning over them as their financial Creditor and Dictator. No
longer despised by the great and mighty, but sought after by the kings of the earth. Nothing
withheld that the flesh can desire. The false Prince of Peace their benefactor. Yes, blinded
192
Israel and the Antichrist
Israel will verily conclude that at long last the millennial era has arrived, and such will be
the Devil’s imitation of that blessed time which shall be ushered in by the return of God’s
Son to this earth.
But not for long shall this satanic spell be enjoyed. Rudely shall it be broken. For, third,
Rev. 17 shows us the ten horns and the Beast turning against the Whore, stripping her of
her wealth, and despoiling her of her glory (v. 6). This, too, corresponds with Old testament
prophecy, for there we read of the Antichrist breaking his Covenant with Israel! As we are
told in Psa. 55:20, “He hath put forth his hands against such as be at peace with him: he has
broken his covenant,” cf Isa. 33:8. And this very breaking of the Covenant is but the fulfillment
of
the
Divine
counsels.
Thousands
of
years
ago,
Jehovah
addressed
Himself
through
Isaiah
to
apostate
Israel,
saying,
“And
your
Covenant
with
Death
shall
be
disannulled,
and
your
agreement
with
Hell
shall
not
stand;
when
the
overflowing
scourge
shall
pass
through,
then
ye
shall
be
trodden
down
by
it.”
Concerning Antichrist’s relations with the godly Jewish Remnant, that has already been
discussed in previous chapters, as also his final attack upon Jerusalem and his defeat and
overthrow in the Valley of Armageddon. Apostate Israel, the Beast, and all his Gentile followers
shall
be
destroyed.
The
faithful
remnant
of
Israel,
and
those
Gentiles
who
befriend
them
in
the
hour
of
their
need,
shall
have
their
part
in
the
millennial
kingdom
of
David’s
Son
and
Lord
(Matt.
25).
Thus
has
God
been
pleased
to
unveil
the
future
and
make
known
to
us
the
things
which
“must
shortly
come
to
pass.”
May
it
be
ours
to
reverently
search
the
more
sure
Word
of
Prophecy
with
increasing
interest,
and
may
an
ever-deepening
gratitude
fill
our
hearts
and
be
expressed
by
our
lips,
because
all
who
are
now
saved
by
grace
through
faith
shall
be
with
our
blessed
Lord
in
the
Father’s
House,
when
the
Great
Tribulation
with
all
its
attendant
horrors
shall
come
upon
the
world.
193
The Antichrist
The Antichrist
The Antichrist
194
Conclusion
Conclusion
In bringing to a close this book on the Antichrist, we are conscious that “there remaineth
yet very much land to be possessed” (John 13:1). We have sought to present as comprehensive
an outline of the subject as our present light and somewhat limited space would permit. But
little more than an outline has been given. Abundant scope is still left for the interested
reader and student to work out and fill in the details for himself. This, we trust, is what many
will do. The subject, though solemn, is one full of interest.
No doubt the subject is new, and hence, mysterious to some of our readers. These we
would ask to turn back to the first chapter, and re-read the whole book. That God will yet
permit the Devil to bring forth his satanic Masterpiece, who shall defy God and persecute
His people, should scarcely be surprising. In each succeeding age there has been a Cain for
every Abel; a Jannes and Jambres for every Moses and every John the Baptist. It has been
so during this dispension: the sowing of the Wheat, was followed by the sowing of the Tares.
It will be so in the Tribulation period: not only will there be a faithful remnant of Israel, but
there shall be an unfaithful company of that people, too. And just before the Christ of God
returns to this earth to set up His kingdom, God will suffer His arch-enemy to bring forth
the false christ, who will establish his kingdom.
And God’s hour for this is not far distant. It was when “the iniquity of the Amorites”
was come to the “full” (Gen. 15:16) that God gave orders for their extermination (Deut. 7:1,
2). And Israel’s transgressions (Dan. 8:23) and the transgressions of Christendom (2 Thess.
2:11, 12), will only have come to “the full” when those who rejected the Christ of God, shall
have received the christ of Satan. Then, shall God say to His avenging angel, “Thrust in thy
sickle, and reap: for the time has come for thee to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe”
(Rev. 14:15). It is this which makes the subject so solemn.
What God has been pleased to make known concerning the Antichrist is not revealed
in order to gratify carnal curiosity, but is of great moment for our daily lives. In the first
place, a proper apprehension of these things should cause us to seriously search our hearts,
and to examine carefully the foundation upon which our hopes are built, to discover
whether or not they rest on the solid Rock Christ Jesus, or whether they stand upon nothing
more stable than the shifting sands of human feelings, human resolutions, human efforts
after self-improvement. Incalculably serious is the issue at stake, and we cannot afford to
be uncertain about it. A mere “hope I am saved” is not sufficient. Nothing short of the full
assurance of faith ought to suffice.
Unspeakable solemn is what we read of in 2 Thess. 2:8-12: “And then shall that Wicked
be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of His mouth, and shall destroy
with the brightness of His coming: even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan,
with all power and signs and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness
Conclusion
195
in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth, that they might be saved.
And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie:
That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.”
There are three points in the above verses by which the writer and the reader may test
himself. First, have I “believed the Truth?” “Thy Word is the Truth.” Have I set to my seal
that God is true? Have I applied the Word of God to myself, and taken it to my own heart?
Have I personally received the Saviour that it reveals?
Second, do I have “pleasure in unrighteousness?” There is a vast difference between
doing an act of unrighteousness, and having “pleasure” therein. Scripture speaks of Moses
“choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasure of sin
for a season” (Heb. 11:25). And again, it speaks of some who “knowing the judgment of
God that they who commit such things are worthy of death, not only do the same, but have
pleasure in them that do them” (Rom. 1:32). So it is here in the passage before us. They who
“believe not the Truth,” have “pleasure in unrighteousness.” And here is one of the vital
differences between an unbeliever and a genuine believer. The latter may be overtaken by
a fault, his communion with Christ may be broken, he may sin grievously, but if he does,
he will have no “pleasure” therein! Instead, he will hate the very unrighteousness into which
he has fallen, and mourn bitterly for having done that which was so dishonoring to his Saviour.
Third, have I “received the love of the Truth?” Do I read God’s Word daily, not simply
as a duty, but as a delight; not merely to satisfy conscience, but because it rejoices my heart;
not simply to gratify an idle curiosity, that I may acquire some knowledge of its contents,
but because I desire above everything else to become better acquainted with its Author. Can
I say with the Psalmist, “I will delight myself in Thy statutes[hellip]Thy commandments
are my delights” (Psa. 119:16,143). The wicked love the darkness; but God’s people love the
light!
Here, then, are three tests by which we earnestly entreat every reader to honestly examine
himself, and see whether he be in the faith. Awful beyond words is the only alternative, for
Scripture declares of those who have “believed not the Truth,” who have “pleasure in unrighteousness,”
and
who
have
“received
not
the
love
of
the
Truth,”
that
“for
this
cause
God
shall

send them strong delusion, that they should believe the Lie: that they all might be
damned.”
Again; if we diligently search the Scriptures to discover what they teach concerning the
Antichrist — his personality, his career, his ways, etc. — the more we are informed about
him the better shall we be prepared to detect the many antichrists who are in the world
today, now preparing the way for the appearing and career of the Man of Sin. There is no
reason why we should be ignorant of Satan’s devices. There is no valid excuse if we are de-
Conclusion
196
ceived by his “false apostles,” who transform themselves into the apostles of Christ (2 Cor.
11:13). Christians ought not to be misled by the many false prophets who are gone out into
the world (1 John 4:1). Nor will they be, if they study diligently those things which God has
recorded for our enlightenment and to safeguard us against the subtle deceptions of the
great Enemy.
Again; as we give diligent heed to the prophetic Word, as we take its solemn warnings
to heart, the effect must be that we shall separate ourselves from everything which is antiChristian.

“Be not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath
righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness? And
what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?
And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living
God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and
they shall be My people. Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith
the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you” (2 Cor. 6:14-17).
This call is not directed toward Christians separating themselves from their fellowChristians.
How
could
it
be?
Scripture
does
not
contradict
itself.
God’s
Word
explicitly
says,
“Not
forsaking
the
assembling
of
ourselves
together,
as
the
manner
of
some
is;
but
exhorting
one
another:
and
so
much
the
more,
as
ye
see
the
day
approaching”
(Heb.
10:25).
But
the
same
Word
which
tells
us
not
to
forsake
the
assembling
of
ourselves
together,
commands
us
to
have
“no
fellowship
with the unfruitful works of darkness” (Eph. 5:11). God forbid that
His people should be found helping forward the plans of the Prince of Darkness.
Finally, as we read prayerfully the teaching of Scripture concerning this Coming One,
who shall embark upon the most awful course that has ever been run on their earth; as we
learn of how he will ascend the Throne of the World, and be the director and dictator of
human affairs; as we discover how he will employ the mighty power, with which Satan invests
him, to openly defy God and everything which bears His name; and, as we are made aware
of the unspeakably dreadful judgments which God will pour upon the world at that time,
and the fearful doom which shall overtake the Antichrist and all his followers; our heart will
be stirred within us, and we shall not hesitate to lift up our voices in warning. The world is
in complete ignorance of what awaits it. The nations know not what is in store for them.
Even Israel discern not the dark night which lies before them. But as God instructs us concerning
what
He
is

about to do, it is positively criminal to remain silent. The voices of all
whom God has been pleased to enlighten ought to be raised in solemn and united testimony
to the things which God has declared “must shortly come to pass.”
Conclusion
197
Indexes
Indexes
Indexes
198
Index of Scripture References
Index of Scripture References
Index of Scripture References
Genesis
1:2   2:24   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   3:15   4:5   4:7   4:9   4:10   4:13   4:17-19   4:19   4:23  
4:23   4:23   4:24   4:24   4:25   5:24   6:11   9:1   9:1   10   10   10   10   10   10   10:7-10   10:8  
10:8   10:9   10:9   10:10   10:10   10:10   10:11   11   11   11   11   11   11   11:2   11:4   11:4  
11:7   11:8   11:9   11:28   14   14   14:1   14:1   14:1   14:2-4   14:5   14:9   14:10   14:12   14:17  
15:16   27:35   37:9   49:17   49:18
Exodus
1   5:1   5:2   7:10   7:11   8:8   8:15   15:11   25:20
Numbers
24:17   24:17   24:18   24:18   24:22   33
Deuteronomy
7:1   7:2   7:26   11:29   27:4   27:12   27:13   28:13   28:50   28:50   32   32:28   32:31   32:32  
32:35   32:35
Joshua
7:21   8:30   10
Judges
6   8:33   8:34   9:5   9:6   9:6   9:22   9:40-50   9:54   12:6   14   14:12
Ruth
1:11
1 Samuel
7:8   9:2   10:23   10:24   11:11   13:1-4   13:9   15:4   15:11   17:4   17:5-7   17:7   17:10   17:51  
18:7   18:8   18:11   22:17   22:18   26:2   29   31:4
2 Samuel
3:3   13   15:2-6   15:7   15:8   15:14-16   18:14   18:18   21:1
1 Kings
10:1   10:1   11:5-7   11:5-7
2 Kings
2:4   10:14   17:24   18
1 Chronicles
1:10   22:12
2 Chronicles
2:12
Ezra
2:13   4:2
Esther
1:1   3:10   7:6
199
Index of Scripture References
Job
1:17   26:13   41   41   41   41:1   41:2   41:3   41:4   41:10   41:14   41:24   41:25   41:26   41:28  
41:33   41:34   41:34
Psalms
2   2   2   2   2:1-3   2:2   2:3   2:4   2:5   2:6   2:6-8   5   5   5:2   5:2   5:5   5:6   5:6   5:6   5:6   5:7  
5:10   7   7   7:1   7:2   7:4-6   8   8   8:2   9   9:4   9:5   9:15   9:16   9:17   10   10   10:1   10:1  
10:2   10:2   10:2   10:2   10:2-11   10:3   10:3   10:4   10:4   10:4   10:4   10:5   10:6   10:6   10:7  
10:8   10:8   10:8   10:9   10:9   10:9   10:9   10:10   10:10   10:11   10:12   10:12-15   10:14  
10:15   10:16-18   10:17   10:18   10:18   14:1   17   17:12   17:13   18:10   18:10   36   36:2   36:3  
36:4   37   37:12   37:13   37:35   39:1   39:8   43   44   50   50:3   50:5   50:7-14   50:16   50:16-22  
50:17   50:18-20   50:21   50:22   52   52   52:1   52:1   52:1   52:1-4   52:1-7   52:2   52:3   52:4  
52:5   52:7   52:7   52:7   52:7   52:7   55   55   55   55:3   55:11-13   55:20   55:20   55:20   55:21  
55:21   55:21   55:21   55:23   69:4   71   71:4   72   72:2-4   74   74   74:1-11   74:8-10   74:8-10  
74:10   78:49   83   83   83:1-4   83:1-4   83:3-8   83:4   83:5   83:6-8   83:8   110:6   110:6   110:6  
119   136:15   140   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:1   140:4   140:4   140:8   140:10  
140:11   140:11
Proverbs
1:6
Ecclesiastes
1:9
Isaiah
1   1:21   2   2   2:5   2:6   2:6   2:6-9   2:10   2:11   2:17   4:2   4:2   5   7:1   7:17-20   8:7   9:6  
9:6   9:6   9:7   10   10   10   10   10   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:5   10:6   10:7-11   10:12   10:12  
10:12   10:12   10:12   10:12   10:13   10:14   10:20   10:20   10:23   10:24   10:24   10:25   10:25  
10:26   10:28-32   10:32   11   11   11:4   11:4   11:4   11:4   11:10   11:11   11:11   11:14   11:14  
13   13   13   13   13   13:10   13:19   13:19   13:19   13:19   13:20   13:21   14   14   14   14   14  
14   14   14   14   14   14:1   14:3   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:4   14:5   14:6  
14:7   14:8   14:9   14:9-12   14:11-20   14:12   14:12   14:12   14:12   14:13   14:13   14:14   14:14  
14:15   14:16   14:16   14:16   14:17   14:18   14:18   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:19   14:20  
14:20   14:20   14:21   14:21-23   14:24-27   14:25   16   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:4   16:5  
18   18   19:23   19:24   22:21   22:22   22:23   22:23   22:25   22:25   22:25   24:8   24:10   25:5  
26   26:20   26:21   27:1   27:1   27:1   27:1   27:6   27:13   28   28:14   28:15   28:18   28:18  
28:18   28:18   28:18   28:18   30   30   30:27   30:31-33   30:33   30:33   33   33:2   33:8   33:8  
37   37:6   37:7   37:7   38   42:6   47:1   47:1   47:5   47:8   47:8   47:9   47:9   52:4   53   53:3  
53:7   53:7   53:7   54:4-7   57:3   57:9   57:9   59:19   60:2   60:2   63:3   63:9   64   64   64   66  
66:3   66:15
Jeremiah
200
Index of Scripture References
1:3   2:20   2:20   3:6   3:6   3:8   3:18   4:5-7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:7   4:13   4:29   5:16  
6:24   6:26   6:26   6:26   6:27   6:27   14:1   14:2   15   15:8   15:8   15:21   18   18   18   18:6  
25:15   25:29   25:33   25:38   30:7   30:7   30:14   30:23   31   31   31   31:15   50:1-5   50:4-7  
50:8   50:8   50:8   50:9   50:15   50:20   51   51   51   51:6   51:7   51:7   51:8   51:9   51:13   51:13  
51:24-26   51:27-30   51:30   51:31   51:32   51:33   51:44   51:45   51:45   51:45   51:47-49  
51:49   51:49   51:54   51:58   51:58   51:63   51:64
Lamentations
4:11   4:12   5:10
Ezekiel
10:5   12:13   16:15   16:15   20:30   20:30   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25   21:25-27  
21:25-27   21:25-27   21:26   21:26   21:26   21:26   22:19-22   28   28   28   28:2   28:2   28:2-10  
28:2-10   28:3   28:3   28:4   28:4   28:4   28:4   28:5   28:7   28:8   28:10   28:12   28:12-19  
28:12-19   28:17   36   38:2   43:8   43:8   43:9   43:9
Daniel
1:2   1:2   1:3   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2:35   2:40   2:40   2:43   2:43   2:43   2:44   2:45   2:45  
4   4:23   5:30   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7   7:1   7:3   7:3   7:4   7:4   7:5  
7:5   7:6   7:6   7:6   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:7   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8   7:8  
7:8-11   7:11   7:13   7:14   7:17   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20   7:20-27   7:21   7:21   7:21  
7:21-23   7:21-26   7:23   7:23   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:24   7:25   7:25   7:25   7:25   8   8   8  
8   8   8   8   8   8   8   8:8   8:8   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9   8:9-12   8:9-12   8:10   8:11   8:11   8:11  
8:14   8:19   8:19   8:21   8:22   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23   8:23-25   8:23-25   8:23-25  
8:23-25   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:24   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25   8:25  
9   9:11-14   9:24   9:24   9:24   9:24   9:24-27   9:25   9:25   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26   9:26  
9:26   9:26   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27  
9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27   9:27  
9:27   11   11   11   11   11   11   11   11:2   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21   11:21  
11:21   11:21   11:21-24   11:21-45   11:22   11:22   11:22   11:23   11:23   11:23   11:23   11:23  
11:23-31   11:25   11:26   11:27   11:28   11:31   11:32   11:32-45   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36  
11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:36   11:37   11:37  
11:37   11:38   11:38   11:38   11:39   11:40   11:40   11:40-42   11:41   11:41   11:42   11:43  
11:43   11:44   11:44   11:44   11:45   11:45   11:45   12:1   12:1   12:7   12:11   12:11
Hosea
2:5   2:5   8:10   10:15   12:7   12:7
Joel
2   2   2:1-11   2:2   2:8   2:11   2:11   2:20   2:20   3:9-14
Amos
3:11   3:11   3:11   3:14   8   8:4-6   8:7-13
Micah
201
Index of Scripture References
4:10   4:10   4:10   4:11   5:3   5:5   5:6   5:6   5:6
Nahum
1:11   1:12   1:15   1:15
Habakkuk
2   2   2:4   2:4   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:5   2:6   2:6-8   2:8
Zechariah
1:7-17   1:18-21   2   2:8   3   3:8   4   5   5   5   5   5   5   5:1-4   5:5   5:5   5:5-11   5:6   5:6   5:7  
5:8   5:11   6:12   6:13   6:13   6:13   8:23   9:13   11:7   11:16   11:16   11:17   11:17   11:17  
11:17   11:17   11:17   11:17   11:17   12:10   13:2   13:2   13:3   13:4   13:5   13:5   13:6   13:8  
14   14:2   14:3   14:7   14:12   14:13   14:16-21
Malachi
3:1   3:1
Matthew
2   2   2   2:1   2:1   2:3   2:8   2:9   2:16   2:18   4:6   4:8   5:35   7:28   9:28   10:23   12   12:4  
12:14   12:22   12:23   12:24   12:34   12:41-43   12:43   12:43   12:43   12:43-45   12:43-45  
12:44   13:11   13:24   13:24   13:25   13:38   13:54   15:24   16:16   19:28   21   21:19   22:2  
22:3   22:7   22:8   22:11   22:12   23:37   23:38   23:39   23:39   24   24   24   24:3   24:4   24:5  
24:8   24:8   24:11   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:15   24:16   24:16   24:16-21  
24:21   24:22   24:22   24:23-26   24:24   24:25   24:26   24:26   24:28   24:29   24:31   24:31   25  
25:31   25:41   25:41   25:41   26:24   26:71
Mark
1:24   13:19   13:20   16:12
Luke
4:14   4:16   8:31   11:50   12:35   12:36   14:31   18   18   18   18   18:3   18:4   18:5   18:6   18:26  
19:41-44   21   21   21:25   24:51
John
1:11   1:11   1:34   2:14   2:16   3:6   3:13   3:29   4:23   5:16   5:17   5:18   5:30   5:32   5:33   5:36  
5:39   5:40   5:41   5:42   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43   5:43  
5:43   5:43   5:43   5:44   6:38   6:70   6:70   8:40   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44   8:44  
8:44   10:3   10:11   11:51   13:1   14:6   14:6   14:10   15   15:26   16:13   16:14   17:4   17:5  
17:12   17:12   17:12   18:9
Acts
1:23   1:25   1:25   2:1-4   2:3   2:22   4   4:24-26   4:28   7:18   27:22
Romans
1:3   1:16   1:32   2:9   3:23   7:23   9:4   9:17   11:26   15:4   15:8   16:25   16:26
1 Corinthians
2:10   10:20
2 Corinthians
202
Index of Scripture References
2:11   5:1   6:2   6:14-17   11:13   11:13   11:14   11:14
Galatians
1:6   1:7   4:4   4:4   4:24
Ephesians
2:2   3:3   3:6   4:30   5:11   5:26   5:32
Philippians
2:8   2:10   2:13
Colossians
2:3   3:5
1 Thessalonians
4:16   5:3   5:3   5:3
2 Thessalonians
2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2   2:1   2:1-12   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3  
2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:3   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4  
2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:6   2:6   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:7   2:8   2:8   2:8  
2:8   2:8   2:8   2:8   2:8-12   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:9   2:11   2:11   2:11   2:11  
2:11   2:11   2:11   2:11   2:12   2:12   2:12   2:12   2:13
1 Timothy
2:5   3:16   3:16   4:1
Hebrews
7:1   7:2   7:26   8:5   8:8   8:8   9:8   9:9   10:7   10:9   10:25   10:37   10:38   11:25
James
5:9
1 Peter
5:6   5:13   5:13
2 Peter
2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4   2:4
1 John
2:18   2:18   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:22   2:28   3:12   4:1   4:3   4:3   4:3
Revelation
1:3   1:3   1:20   1:20   2:9   2:13   2:24   3:7   3:10   3:12   4:8   5:5   5:6   5:6   6   6   6   6   6   6  
6   6   6   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:2   6:4   6:4   6:4   6:4   6:5   6:8   6:8   6:8   6:8   6:10   6:17   6:17  
7   7:3   7:3   8:3   8:10   9   9   9   9   9   9:1   9:1   9:2   9:2   9:3   9:7   9:7   9:8   9:11   9:11   9:11  
9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:11   9:19   10:1   10:1   11:6   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7  
11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:7   11:15   12   12   12   12   12   12   12:1   12:3   12:3   12:3   12:5  
12:6   12:6   12:6   12:7   12:9   12:9   12:14   12:14   12:14   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13  
13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13   13:1   13:1   13:1  
13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:1   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2  
203
Index of Scripture References
13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:2   13:3   13:3   13:3  
13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3   13:3-8   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4  
13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:4   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5  
13:5   13:5   13:5   13:5   13:6   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:7   13:8   13:8   13:8  
13:11   13:11   13:11   13:11   13:11-14   13:11-15   13:11-16   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12  
13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12   13:12-15   13:13   13:13   13:13   13:13   13:14   13:14  
13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:14   13:15   13:15   13:15  
13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:15   13:16   13:16   13:16   13:16  
13:16   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:17   13:18   13:18   13:18   14:1   14:1  
14:8   14:8   14:8   14:9   14:9-11   14:10   14:15   14:18   14:19   14:19   14:20   15:2   16   16:2  
16:2   16:10   16:12   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:13   16:14   16:14   16:14   16:14   16:14  
16:14   16:18   16:19   16:19   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17  
17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17   17  
17   17   17   17:1   17:1   17:1   17:1   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:2   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3  
17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:3   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:4   17:5   17:5   17:5  
17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:5   17:6   17:6   17:6   17:6   17:7   17:7   17:8   17:8  
17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:8   17:9   17:9   17:9   17:9   17:9-11   17:10   17:11   17:11  
17:11   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:12   17:13   17:13   17:13   17:14   17:15   17:15  
17:15   17:15   17:15   17:15   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16   17:16  
17:17   17:17   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   17:18   18   18   18   18   18   18  
18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18   18:2   18:2   18:2   18:3   18:4  
18:4   18:5   18:6   18:7   18:8   18:8   18:9   18:10   18:10   18:18   18:21   18:21   18:23   18:23  
18:24   19   19   19   19   19   19:6   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:7   19:8   19:8   19:11   19:11  
19:11   19:11   19:12   19:14   19:15   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:19   19:20  
19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:20   19:21  
19:21   19:21   20   20:1-3   20:1-3   20:3   20:3   20:4   20:10   20:10   20:10   20:10   20:10  
20:10   21   21   21   21:2   21:9   21:9   21:10   21:10   21:10   21:12   21:14   21:27   22:16   22:16  
22:19
204

Iklan

Bible Dictionary O

Smith’s Bible Dictionary – O

Oak, Oath, Obadiah, Obal, Obed, Obededom, Obil, Oblation, Oboth, Ocran, Oded, Odollam, Offerings, Officer, Og, Oil, Oil Tree, Ointment, Old Testament, Olive, Olives, Mount Of, Olivet, Olympas, Omar, Omega, Or Omega, Omer, Omri, On, Onam, Onan, Onesimus, Onesiphorus, Onias, Onion, Ono, Onycha, Onyx, Ophel, Ophir, Ophni, Ophrah, Orator, Orchard, Oreb, Oreb, The Rock, Oren, Organ, Orion, Ornaments, Personal, Ornan, Orpah, Oshea, Osprey, Ossifrage, Ostrich, Othni, Othniel, Oven, Owl, Ox, Ozem, Ozias, Ozni

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Oak – (Heb. Strong). There is much difficulty in determining the exact meanings of the several varieties of the term mentioned above. Sometimes, evidently, the terebinth or elm is intended and at others the oak. There are a number of varieties of oak in Palestine. (Dr. Robinson contends that the oak is generally intended, and that it is a very common tree in the East. Oaks grow to a large size, reach an old age and are every way worthy the venerable associations connected with the tree. ED.) Two oaks, Quercus pseudo-coccifera and Q. Aegilops, are well worthy of the name of mighty trees; though it is equally true that over a greater part of the country the oaks of Palestine are at present merely bushes.
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Oath – The principle on which an oath is held to be binding is incidentally laid down in (Hebrews 6:16) viz. As an ultimate appeal to divine authority to ratify an assertion. On the same principle, that oath has always been held most binding which appealed to the highest authority, as regards both individuals and communities. As a consequence of this principle, appeals to God’s name on the one hand, and to heathen deities on the other, are treated in scripture as tests of allegiance. (Exodus 23:13; 34:6; 29:12) etc. So also the sovereign’s name is sometimes used as a form of obligation. (Genesis 42:15; 2 Samuel 11:11; 14:19) Other forms of oath, serious or frivolous, are mentioned, some of which are condemned by our Lord. (Matthew 6:33; 23:16-22) and see (James 5:12) (There is, however, a world-wide difference between a solemn appeal to God and profane swearing.) The forms of adjuration mentioned in Scripture are:
• Lifting up the hand. Witnesses laid their hands on the head of the accused. (Genesis 14:22; Leviticus 24:14; 17:7; Isaiah 3:7)
• Putting the hand under the thigh of the person to whom the Promise was made. (Genesis 24:2; 47:29)
• Oaths were sometimes taken before the altar, or, as some understand the passage, if the persons were not in Jerusalem, in a position looking toward the temple. (1 Kings 8:31; 2 Chronicles 6:22)
• Dividing a victim and passing between or distributing the pieces. (Genesis 15:10,17; Jeremiah 34:18) As the sanctity of oaths was carefully inculcated by the law, so the crime of perjury was strongly condemned; and to a false witness the same punishment was assigned which was due for the crime to which he testified. (Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 19:12)
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Obadiah – (servant of the Lord),
• A man whose sons are enumerated in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:21) (B. C. 470.)
• A descendant of Issachar and a chief man of his tribe. (1 Chronicles 7:3) (B. C. 1014.)
• One of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul. (1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:44) (B. C. 720.)
• A Levite, son of Shemaiah, and descended from Jeduthun. (1 Chronicles 9:16; Nehemiah 12:25)
• The second of the lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:9) (B. C. 1054.)
• One of the Princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:7) (B. C. 909.)
• The son of Jehiel, of the sons of Joab, who came up in the second caravan with Ezra. (Ezra 8:9)
• A priest, or family of priests, who settled the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:5)
• The fourth of the twelve minor prophets. We know nothing of him except what we can gather from the short book which bears his name. The question of his date must depend upon the interpretation of the 11th verse of his prophecy. He there speaks of the conquest of Jerusalem and the captivity of Jacob as having occurred, He probably refers to the captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 688. It must have been uttered at some time in the five years which intervened between B. C. 588 and 583. The book of Obadiah is a sustained denunciation of the Edomites, melting into a vision of the future glories of Zion when the arm of the Lord should have wrought her deliverance and have repaid double upon her enemies.
• An officer of high rank in the court of Ahab. (1 Kings 18:3) He was a devout worshipper of Jehovah, and at the peril of his life concealed over a hundred prophets during the persecution by Jezebel; (1 Kings 18:3-16) (B. C. 904.)
• The father of Ishmaiah who was chief of the tribe of Zebulun in David’s reign. (1 Chronicles 27:19) (B. C. Before 1014.)
• A Merarite Levite in the reign of Josiah, and one of the overseers of the workmen in the restoration of the temple. (2 Chronicles 34:12) (B. C. 623.)
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Obal – (stripped bare), son of Joktan, and, like the rest of family, apparently the founder of an Arab tribe. (Genesis 10:28) In (1 Chronicles 1:22) the name is written Ebal.
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Obed – (serving).
• Son of Boaz and Ruth the Moabitess and father of Jesse. (Ruth 4:17) (B. C. 1360.) The circumstances of his birth which make up all that we know about him are given with much beauty in the book of Ruth. The name of Obed occurs only (Ruth 4:17) and in the four genealogies, (Ruth 4:21,22; 1 Chronicles 2:12; Matthew 1:5; Luke 3:32)
• A descendant of Jarha, the Egyptian slave of Sheshan, in the line of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:37,38) (B. C. After 1014.)
• One of David’s mighty men. (1 Chronicles 11:47) (B. C. 1046.)
• One of the gate-keepers of the temple; son of Shemaiah the first-born of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:7) (B. C. 1017.)
• Father of Azariah, one of the captains of hundreds who joined with Jehoiada in the revolution by which Athaliah fell. (2 Chronicles 23:1) (B. C. Before 876.)
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Obededom – (servant of Edom).
• A Levite, described as a Gittite, (2 Samuel 6:10,11) that is, probably, a native of the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon in Manasseh, which was assigned to the Kohathites. (Joshua 21:25) (B. C. 1045.) After the death of Uzzah, the ark, which was being conducted from the house of Abinadab in Gibeah to the city of David, was carried aside into the house of Obed edom, where it continued three months. It was brought thence by David. (2 Samuel 6:12; 1 Chronicles 15:25)
• “Obed-edom the son of Jeduthun” (1 Chronicles 16:38) a Merarite Levite, appears to be a different person from the last mentioned. He was a Levite of the second degree and a gate-keeper for the ark, (1 Chronicles 15:18,24) appointed to sound “with harps on the Sheminith to excel. ” (1 Chronicles 15:21; 16:5) (B. C. 1043.)
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Obil – (chief of the camels), a keeper of the herds of camels in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:30) (B. C. 1050.)
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Oblation – [Sacrifice]
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Oboth – (bottles), one of the encampments of the Israelites, east of Moab. (Numbers 21:10; 33:43) Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom. ED).
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Ocran – (troubled), an Asherite, father of Pagiel. (Numbers 1:13; 2:27; 7:72,77; 10:26) (B. C. Before 1658.)
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Oded – (restoring).
• The father of Azariah the prophet, in the reign of Asa. (2 Chronicles 15:1) (B. C. Before 953.)
• A prophet of Jehovah in Samaria, at the time of Pekah’s invasion of Judah. (2 Chronicles 28:9) (B. C. 739.)
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Odollam – [Adullam]
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Offerings – [Sacrifice]
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Officer – It is obvious that most, if not all, of the Hebrew words rendered “officer” are either of an indefinite character or are synonymous terms for functionaries known under other and more specific names, as “scribe,” “eunuch” etc. The two words so rendered in the New Testament denote:
• An inferior officer of a court of justice, a messenger or bailiff, like the Roman viator or lictor. (Matthew 5:25; Acts 5:22)
• Officers whose duty it was to register and collect fines imposed by courts of justice. (Luke 12:58)
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Og – (giant, literally long-necked), an Amoritish king of Bashan, whose rule extended over sixty cities. (Joshua 13:12) He was one of the last representatives of the giant race of Rephaim, and was, with his children and his people, defeated and exterminated by the Israelites at Edrei immediately after the conquest of Sihon. (Numbers 32:33; 3:1-13) Also (1:4; 4:47; 31:4; Joshua 2:10; 9:10; 13:12,30) The belief in Og’s enormous stature is corroborated by an allusion to his iron bedstead preserved in “Rabbath of the children of Ammon. ” (3:11) (B. C. 1461.)
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Oil – Of the numerous substances, animal and vegetable, which were known to the ancients as yielding oil, the olive berry is the one of which most frequent mention is made in the Scriptures.
• Gathering,–The olive berry was either gathered by hand or shaken off carefully with a light reed or stick.
• Pressing. In order to make oil the fruit, was either bruised in a mortar crushed in a press loaded with wood or stones, ground in a mill, or trodden with the feet. The “beaten” oil of (Exodus 27:20; 29:40; Leviticus 24:2; Numbers 28:6) was probably made by bruising in a mortar, It was used:
• As food. Dried wheat, boiled with either butter or oil, but generally the former, is a common dish for all classes in Syria. (Exodus 29:2)
• Cosmetic. Oil was used by the Jews for anointing the body, e. G. After the bath, and giving to the skin and hair a smooth and comely appearance, e. G. Before an entertainment.
• Funereal. The bodies of the dead were anointed with oil. (2 Samuel 14:2)
• Medicinal. Isaiah alludes to the use of oil in medical treatment. (Isaiah 1:6) see also Mark 6:13; Jame 6:14
• For light. The oil for “the light” was expressly ordered to be olive oil, beaten. (Matthew 25:3)
• Ritual. Oil was poured on or mixed with the flour or meal used in offerings. (Leviticus 8:12) Kings, priests and prophets were anointed with oil or ointment.
• In offerings. As so important a necessary of life, the Jew was required to include oil among his firstfruit offerings. (Exodus 22:29; 23:16; Numbers 18:12) Tithes of oil were also required. (12:17) [Olive]

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Oil Tree – (Heb. Ets shemen). The Hebrew words occur in (Nehemiah 8:15) (Authorized Version “pine branches”), (1 Kings 6:23) (“olive tree”) and in (Isaiah 41:19) (“oil tree”). From the passage in Nehemiah, where the ets shemen is mentioned as distinct from the olive tree, if may perhaps be identified with the zackum tree of the Arabs, the Balanites aegyptiaca, a well-known and abundant shrub or small tree in the plain of Jordan. The zackum oil is held in high repute by the Arabs for its medicinal properties. [Olive]
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Ointment – (An oily or unctuous substance, usually compounded of oil with various spices and resins and aromatics, and preserved in small alabaster boxes or cruses, in which the delicious aroma was best preserved. Some of the ointments have been known to retain their: fragrance for several hundred years. They were a much-coveted luxury, and often very expensive. ED.)
• Cosmetic. The Greek and Roman practice of anointing the head and clothes on festive occasions prevailed also among the Egyptians, and appears to have had place among the Jews. (Ruth 3:2)
• Funereal. Ointments as well as oil were used to anoint dead bodies and the clothes in which they were wrapped. (Matthew 26:12)
• Medicinal. Ointment formed an important feature in ancient medical treatment. (Isaiah 1:6; Jeremiah 8:22; John 9:6; Revelation 3:18) etc.
• Ritual. Besides the oil used in many ceremonial observances, a special ointment was appointed to be used in consecration. (Exodus 30:23,33; 29:7; 37:29; 40:9,15) A person whose business it was to compound ointments in general was called an “apothecary. ” (Nehemiah 3:8) The work was sometimes carried on by woman “confectionaries. ” (1 Samuel 8:13)
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Old Testament –
I. TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT.
A. History of the text. -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the canon. As regards the form in which the sacred writings were little doubt that the text was ordinarily were preserved, there can be written on skins, rolled up into volumes, like the modern synagogue rolls. (Psalms 40:7; Jeremiah 36:14; Ezekiel 2:9; Zechariah 5:1) The original character in which the text was expressed is that still preserved to us, with the exception of four letters, on the Maccabaean coins, and having a strong affinity to the Samaritan character. At what date this was exchanged for the present Aramaic or square character is still as undetermined as it is at what the use of the Aramaic language Palestine superseded that of the Hebrew. The old Jewish tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. [Writing] Of any logical division, in the written text, of the rose of the Old Testament into Pesukim or verses, we find in the Tulmud no mention; and even in the existing synagogue rolls such division is generally ignored. In the poetical books, the Pesukim mentioned in the Talmud correspond to the poetical lines, not to our modern verses. Of the documents which directly bear upon the history of the Hebrew text, the earliest two are the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch and the Greek translation of the LXX. [Samaritan Pentateuch Pentateuch, The; Septuagint] In the (translations of Aquila and the other Greek interpreters, the fragments of whose works remain to us in the Hexapla, we have evidence of the existence of a text differing but little from our own; so also (in the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan. A few centuries later we have, in the Hexapla, additional evidence to the same effect in Origin’s transcriptions of the Hebrew text. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. The care of the Talmudic doctors for the text is shown by the pains with which they counted no the number of verses in the different books and computed which were the middle verses, words and letters in the Pentateuch and in the Psalms. The scrupulousness with which the Talmudists noted what they deemed the truer readings, and yet abstained from introducing them into the text, indicates at once both the diligence with which they scrutinized the text and also the care with which even while knowledging its occasional imperfections, they guarded it. Critical procedure is also evinced in a mention of their rejection of manuscripts which were found not to agree with others in their readings; and the rules given with refer once to the transcription and adoption of manuscripts attest the care bestowed upon them. It is evident from the notices of the Talmud that a number of oral traditions had been gradually accumulating respecting both the integrity of particular passages of the text itself and also the manner in which if was to be read. This vast heterogeneous mass of traditions and criticisms, compiled and embodied in writing, forms what is known as the Masorah, i. E. Tradition. From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish MSS. Was settled.
B. Manuscripts. The Old Testament MSS. Known to us fall into two main classes: synagogue rolls and MSS. For private use of the latter, some are written in the square, others in the rabbinic or cursive, character. The synagogue rolls contain separate from each other, the Pentateuch, the Haphtaroth or appointed sections of the prophets, and the so-called Megilloth, viz. Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. Private MSS. In the square character are in the book form, either on parchment or on paper, and of various sizes, from folio to 12mo. Some contain the Hebrew text alone; others add the Targum, or an Arabic or other translation, either interspersed with the text or in a separate column, occasionally in the margin. The upper and lower margins are generally occupied by the Masorah, sometimes by rabbinical commentaries, etc. The date of a MS. Is ordinarily given in the subscription but as the subscriptions are often concealed in the Masorah or elsewhere, it is occasionally difficult to find them: occasionally also it is difficult to decipher them. No satisfactory criteria have been yet established by which the ages of MSS. Are to be determined. Few existing MSS. Are supposed to be older than the twelfth century. Kennicott and Bruns assigned one of their collation (No. 590) to the tenth century; Deuteronomy Rossi dates if A. D. 1018; on the other hand. One of his own (No. 634) he adjudges to the eighth century. Since the days of Kennicott and Deuteronomy Rossi modern research has discovered various MSS. Beyond the limits of Europe. Of many of these there seems no reason to suppose that they will add much to our knowledge of the Hebrew text. It is different with the MSS. Examined by Pinner at Odessa. One of these MSS. (A, No. 1), a Pentateuch roll, unpointed, brought from Derbend in Daghestan, appears by the subscription to have been written previous to A. D. 580 and if so is the oldest known biblical Hebrew MS. In existence. The forms of the letters are remarkable. Another MS. (B, No. 3) containing the prophets, on parchment, in small folio, although only dating, according to the inscription, from A. D. 916 and furnished with a Masorah, is a yet greater treasure. Its vowels and accents are wholly different from those now in use, both in form and in position, being all above the letters: they have accordingly been the theme of much discussion among Hebrew scholars.
C. Printed text. The history of the printed text of the Hebrew Bible commences with the early Jewish editions of the separate books. First appeared the Psalter, in 1477, probably at Bologna, in 4to, with Kimchi’s commentary interspersed among the verses. Only the first four psalms had the vowel-points, and these but clumsily expressed. At Bologna, there subsequently appeared in 1482, the Pentateuch, in folio, pointed, with the Targum and the commentary of Rashi; and the five Megilloth (Ruth–Esther), in folio with the commentaries of Rashi and Aben Ezra. From Soncino, near Cremona, issued in 1486 the Prophetae priores (Joshua–Kings), folio, unpointed with Kimchi’s commentary. The honor of printing the first entire Hebrew Bible belongs to the above-mentioned town of Soncino. The edition is in folio, pointed and accentuated. Nine copies only of it are now known, of which one belongs to Exeter College, Oxford. This was followed, in 1494, by the 4to or 8vo edition printed by Gersom at Brescia, remarkable as being the edition from which Luther’s German translation was made. After the Brescian, the next primary edition was that contained in the Complutensian Polyglot, published at Complutum (Alcala) in Spain, at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes, dated 1514-17 but not issued till 1522. To this succeeded an edition which has had more influence than any on the text of later times the Second Rabbinical Bible, printed by Bomberg al Venice, 4 vols. Fol. , 1525-6. The editor was the learned Tunisian Jew R. Jacob hen Chaim. The great feature of his work lay in the correction of the text by the precepts of the Masorah, in which he was profoundly skilled, and on which, as well as on the text itself, his labors were employed. The Hebrew Bible which became the standard to subsequent generations was: that of Joseph Athiais, a learned rabbi and printer at Amsterdam. His text Was based on a comparison of the previous editions with two MSS. ; one bearing date 1299, the other a Spanish MS. Boasting an antiquity of 900 years. It appeared at Amsterdam 2 vols. 8 vo, 1661.
D. Principles of criticism. The method of procedure required in the criticism of the Old Testament is widely different from that practiced in the criticism of the New Testament. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of MSS. To that of a good critical judgment and sagacity is greatly diminished. It is indeed to the direct testimony of the MSS. That, in endeavoring to establish the true text, we must first have recourse. The comparative purity of the Hebrew text is probably different in different parts of the Old Testament. In the revision of Dr. Davidson, who has generally restricted himself to the admission of corrections warranted by MS. , Masoretic or Talmudic authority, those in the book of Genesis do not exceed eleven; those in the Psalms are proportionately three times as numerous; those in the historical books and the Prophets are proportionately more numerous than those in the Psalms.
II. QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. The New Testament quotations from the Old form one of the outward bonds of connection between the two parts of the Bible. They are manifold in kind. In the quotations of all kinds from the Old Testament in the New. We find a continual variation from the letter of the older Scriptures. To this variation three causes may be specified as having contributed: First, all the New Testament writers quoted from the Septuagint; correcting it indeed more or less by the Hebrew, especially when it was needful for their purpose occasionally deserting it altogether; still abiding by it to so large an extent as to show that it was the primary source whence their quotations were drawn. Secondly, the New Testament writers must have frequently quoted from memory. Thirdly, combined with this there was an alteration of conscious or unconscious design. Sometimes the object of this was to obtain increased force. Sometimes an Old Testament passage is abridged, and in the abridgment so adjusted, by a little alteration, as to present an aspect of completeness, and yet omit what is foreign to the immediate purpose. (Acts 1:20; 1 Corinthians 1:31) At other times a passage is enlarged by the incorporation of a passage from another source: thus in (Luke 4:18,19) although the contents are professedly those, read by our Lord from (Isaiah 61:1). . . We have the words “to set at liberty them that are bruised,” introduced from (Isaiah 58:6) (Sept.); similarly in (Romans 11:8; 29:4) is combined with (Isaiah 29:10) In some cases still greater liberty of alteration assumed. In someplaces,again, the a words of the original are taken up, but employed with a new meaning. Almost more remarkable than any alteration in the quotation itself is the circumstance that in (Matthew 27:9) Jeremiah should be named as the author of a prophecy really delivered by Zechariah; the being that the prophecy is based upon that in (Jeremiah 18:1; Jeremiah 19:1). . . And that without a reference to this original source the most essential features of the fulfillment of Zechariah’s prophecy would be misunderstood.
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Olive – The olive was among the most abundant and characteristic vegetation of Judea. The olive tree grows freely almost everywhere on the shores of the Mediterranean, but it was peculiarly abundant in Palestine. See (6:11; 8:8; 28:40) Oliveyards are a matter of course in descriptions of the country like vines and cornfields. (Judges 15:5; 1 Samuel 8:14) The kings had very extensive ones. (1 Chronicles 27:28) Even now the is very abundant in the country. Almost every village has its olive grove. Certain districts may be specified where at various times this tree been very luxuriant. The cultivation of the olive tree had the closest connection with the domestic life of the Israelites (2 Chronicles 2:10) their trade, (Ezekiel 27:17; Hosea 12:1) and even their Public ceremonies and religious worship. In Solomon’s temple the cherubim were “of olive tree,” (1 Kings 6:23) as also the doors, vs. (1 Kings 6:31,32) and posts. Ver. (1 Kings 6:33) For the various uses of olive oil see Oil. The wind was dreaded by the cultivator of the olive for the least ruffling of a breeze is apt to cause the flowers to fall. (Job 15:33) It is needless to add that the locust was a formidable enemy of the olive. It happened not unfrequently that hopes were disappointed, and that “the labor of the olive failed. ” (Habakkuk 3:17) As to the growth of the tree, it thrives best in warm and sunny situations. It is of moderate height, with knotty gnarled trunk and a smooth ash-colored bark. It grows slowly, but lives to an immense age. Its look is singularly indicative of tenacious vigor, and this is the force of what is said in Scripture of its “greenness, as emblematic of strength and prosperity. The leaves, too, are not deciduous. Those who see olives for the first time are occasionally disappointed by the dusty color of their foilage; but those who are familiar with them find an inexpressible charm in the rippling changes of their slender gray-green leaves. (See Ruskin’s “Stones of Venice,” iii. 175-177.) The olive furnishes the basis of one of Paul’s allegories. (Romans 11:16-25) The Gentiles are the “wild olive” grafted in upon the “good olive,” to which once the Jews belonged, and with which they may again be incorporated, (The olive grows from 20 to 40 feet high. In general appearance it resembles the apple tree; in leaves and sterns, the willow. The flowers are white and appear in June, The fruit is like a plum in shape and size, and at first is green, but gradually becomes purple, and even black, with a hard stony kernel, and is remarkable from the outer fleshy part being that in which much oil is lodged, and not, as is usual, in the almond of the seed. The fruit ripens from August to September. It is sometimes eaten green, but its chief value is in its oil. The wood is hard, fine beautifully veined, and is open used for cabinet work. Olive trees were so abundant in Galilee that at the siege of Jotapata by Vespasian the Roman army were driven from the ascent of the walls by hot olive oil poured upon them and scalding them underneath their armor. Josephus, Wars, 3; 7:28. ED.)
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Olives, Mount Of – “The Mount of Olives” occurs in the Old Testament in (Zechariah 14:4) only. In (2 Samuel 15:30) it is called “Olivet;” in other places simply “the mount,” (Nehemiah 8:15) “the mount facing Jerusalem” (1 Kings 11:7) or “the mountain which is on the east aide of the city. ” (Ezekiel 11:23) In the New Testament the usual form is “the Mount of Olives. ” It is called also “Olivet. ” (Acts 1:12) This mountain is the well-known eminence on the east of Jerusalem, intimately connected with some of the gravest events of the history of the Old Testament and the New Testament, the scene of the flight of David and the triumphal progress of the Son of David, of the idolatry-of Solomon, and the agony and betrayal of Christ. It is a ridge of rather more than a mile in length, running in general direction north and south, covering the whole eastern side of the city. At its northern end the ridge bends round to the west so as to form an enclosure to the city on that side also. On the north a space of nearly a mile of tolerably level surface intervenes between the walls of the city and the rising ground; on the east the mount is close to the walls, parted only by the narrow ravine of the Kidron. It is this portion which is the real Mount of Olives of the history. In general height it is not very much above-the city: 300 feet higher than the temple mount, hardly more than 100 above the so-called Zion. It is rounded, swelling and regular in form. Proceeding from north to south there occur four independent summits, called– 1, “Viri Galilaei:” 2, “Mount of Ascension;” 3, “Prophets”–subordinate to the last and almost a part of it; 4, “Mount of Offence. ”
• Of these the central one -the “Mount of Ascension”–is the most important. Three paths lead from the valley to the summit-one on the north, in the hollow between the two crests of the hill another over the summit, and a third winding around the southern shoulder still the most frequented and the best. The central hill, which we are now considering, purports to contain the sites of some of the most sacred and impressive events of Christian history. The majority of these sacred spots now command little or no attention; but three still remain, sufficiently sacred–if authentic–to consecrate any place. These are:
• Gethsemane, at the foot of the mount;
• The spot from which our Saviour ascended on the summit;
• The place of the lamentation of Christ over Jerusalem, halfway up. Of these, Gethsemane is the only one which has any claim to be authentic. [Gethsemane]

• Next to the central summit, on the southern side is a hill remarkable only for the fact that it contains the “singular catacomb” known as the “Tombs of the Prophets,” probably in allusion to the words of Christ. (Matthew 23:29)
• The most southern portion of the Mount of Olives is that usually known as the “Mount of Offence,” Mons Offensionis. It rises next to that last mentioned. The title “Mount of Offence,” or “Scandal,” was bestowed on the supposition that it is the “Mount of Corruption” on which Solomon erected the high places for the gods of his foreign wives. (2 Kings 23:13; 1 Kings 11:7) The southern summit is considerably lower than the centre one.
• There remains the “Viri Galilaei,” about 400 yards from the “Mount of Ascension. ” It stands directly opposite the northeast corner of Jerusalem, and is approached by the path between it and the “Mount of Ascension. ” The presence of a number of churches and other edifices must have rendered the Mount of Olives, during the early and middle ages of Christianity, entirely unlike what it was in the time of the Jewish kingdom or of our Lord. Except the high places on the summit, the only buildings then to be seen were probably the walls of the vineyards and gardens and the towers and presses which were their invariable accompaniment. But though the churches are nearly all demolished, there must be a considerable difference between the aspect of the mountain now and in those days when it received its name from the abundance of its olive proves. It does not now stand so pre-eminent in this respect among the hills in the neighborhood of Jerusalem. It is only in the deeper and more secluded slope leading up to the northernmost summit that these venerable trees spread into anything like a forest. The cedars commemorated by the Talmud sad the date-palms implied in the name Bethany have fared still worse; there is not one of either to be found within many miles. Two religious ceremonies performed there must have done much to increase the numbers who resorted to the mount. The appearance of the new moon was probably watched for, certainly proclaimed, from the summit. The second ceremony referred to was the burning of the red heifer. This solemn ceremonial was enacted on the central mount, and in a spot so carefully specified that it would seem not difficult to fix it. It was due east of the sanctuary, and at such an elevation on the mount that the officiating priest, as he slew the animal and sprinkled blood, could see the facade of the sanctuary through the east gate of the temple.
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Olivet – (place of olives). (2 Samuel 15:30; Acts 1:12) [Olives, Mount Of, Mount, Mount, Mountain OF]
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Olympas – (heavenly), a Christian at Rome. (Romans 16:15) (A. D. 65.)
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Omar – (eloquent, talkative), son of Eliphaz the first-born of Esau. (Genesis 36:11,15; 1 Chronicles 1:38) (B. C. 1750.)
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Omega, Or Omega – The last letter of the Greek alphabet. It is used metephorically to denote the end of anything (Revelation 1:8,11)
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Omer – [Weights and Measures AND Measures.]
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Omri – (pupil of Jehovah).
• Originally “captain of the host” to Elah, was afterward himself king of Israel, and founder of the third dynasty. (B. C. 926.) Omri was engaged in the siege of Gibbethon situated in the tribe of Dan, which had been occupied by the Philistines. As soon as the army heard of Elah’s death they proclaimed Omri king. Thereupon he broke up the siege of Gibbethon and attacked Tirzah, where Zimri was holding his court as king of Israel. The city was taken, and Zimri perished in the flames of the palace, after a reign of seven days. Omri, however, was not allowed to establish his dynasty without a struggle against Tibni, whom “half the people,” (1 Kings 16:21) desired to raise to the throne. The civil war lasted four years. Comp. (1 Kings 16:15) with 1Kin 16:23 After the defeat sad death of Tibni, Omri reigned for six years in Tirzah. At Samaria Omri reigned for six years more. He seems to have been a vigorous and unscrupulous ruler, anxious to strengthen his dynasty by intercourse and alliances with foreign states.
• One of the sons of Becher the son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 7:8)
• A descendant of Pharez the son of Judah, (1 Chronicles 9:4)
• Son of Michael, and chief of the tribe of Issachar in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:18) (B. C. 1030.)
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On –
I. (abode or city of the sun), a town of lower Egypt, called BETH-SHEMESH in (Jeremiah 43:13) On is better known under its Greek name Heliopolis. It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite so feet 2 inches high above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty. Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. The first mention of this place in the Bible is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh gave “to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On. ” (Genesis 41:45) comp. Ver, Genesis41:60 and Genesis46:20 (On is to be remembered not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt. The two famous obelisks, long called “Cleopatra’s Needles,” one of which now stands in London and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel before the exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On (Heliopolis) by Thothmes III. , B. C. 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II. (Sesostris) two hundred years later. They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A. D. 23, from which they were removed to their present places. ED.)
II. The son of Peleth and one of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben, who took part with Korah, Dathan and Abiram in their revolt against Moses. (Numbers 16:1) (B. C. 1491.) His name does not again appear in the narrative of the conspiracy, nor is he alluded to when reference is made to the final catastrophe.
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Onam – (strong).
• One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir. (Genesis 36:23; 1 Chronicles 1:40) (B. C. 1964.)
• The son of Jerahmeel by his wife Atarah. (1 Chronicles 2:26,28)
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Onan – (strong), the second son of Judah by the Canaanitess, “the daughter of Shua. ” (Genesis 38:4; 1 Chronicles 2:3) “What he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah and he slew him also, as he had slain his elder brother. (Genesis 38:9) His death took place before the family of Jacob went down into Egypt. (Genesis 46:12; Numbers 26:19) (B. C. 1706.)
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Onesimus – (profitable, useful), the name of the servant or slave in whose behalf Paul wrote the Epistle to Philemon. He was a native, or certainly an inhabitant, of Colosse. (Colossians 4:9) (A. D. 58.) He fled from his master end escaped to Rome, where he was led to embrace the gospel through Paul’s instrumentality. After his conversion the most happy and friendly relations sprung up between the teacher and disciple. Whether Paul desired his presence as a personal attendant or as a minister of the gospel is not certain from verse 13 of the epistle.
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Onesiphorus – (bringing profit) is named twice only in the New Testament, viz. (2 Timothy 1:16-18) and 2Tim 4:19 Paul mentions him in terms of grateful love as having a noble courage and generosity in his behalf, amid his trials as a prisoner at Rome, when others from whom he expected better things had deserted him. (2 Timothy 4:16) Probably other members of the family were also active Christians. (2 Timothy 4:19) It is evident from (2 Timothy 1:18) that Onesiphorus had his home at Ephesus. (A. D. 64.)
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Onias – the name of five high priests in the period between the Old and the New Testament.
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Onion – This product is mentioned only in (Numbers 11:5) as one of the good things of Egypt of which the Israel regretted the loss. Onions have been from time immemorial a favorite article of food among the Egyptians, The onions of Egypt are much milder in flavor and less pungent than those of this country.
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Ono – (strong), one of the towns of Benjamin, is first found in (1 Chronicles 8:12) A plain was attached to the town called “the plain of Ono” (Nehemiah 6:2) perhaps identical with the valley of craftsmen” (Nehemiah 11:35)
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Onycha – spoken of in (Exodus 30:34) was one of the ingredients of the sacred perfume. It consists of the shells of several kinds of mussels, which when burned emit a strong odor.
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Onyx – (a nail) is the translation of the Hebrew shoham ; but there is some doubt as to its signification. Some writers believe that the “beryl” is intended; but the balance of authority is in favor of some variety of the onyx. (“The onyx is not a transparent stone, but as the color of the flesh appears through the nail (Greek onyx) on the human body, so the reddish mass which is below shines delicately through the whitish surface of the onyx. There are several varieties. White and reddish stripes alternating form the sardonyx; white and reddish gray, the chalcedony. When polished it has a fine lustre, and is easily wrought into a gem of great beauty. “-Rosenmiller.
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Ophel – (hill), a part of ancient Jerusalem. Ophel was the swelling declivity by which the mount of the temple slopes on its southern side into the valley of Hinnom–a long, narrowish rounded spur or promontory, which intervenes between the mouth of the central valley of Jerusalem (the Tyropoeon) and the Kidron, or valley of Jehoshaphat. Halfway down it on its eastern face is the (“Fount of the Virgin,” so called; and at its foot the lower outlet of the same spring–the Pool of Siloam. In (2 Chronicles 27:3) Jotham is said to have built much “on the wall of Ophel. ” Manasseh, among his other defensive works, “compassed about Ophel. ” Ibid. (2 Chronicles 33:14) It appears to have been near the “water-gate,” (Nehemiah 3:26) and the “great tower that lieth out. ” ver. (Nehemiah 3:27) It was evidently the residence of the Levites. (Nehemiah 11:21)
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Ophir – (abundane).
• The eleventh in order of the sons of Joktan. (Genesis 10:29; 1 Chronicles 1:23) (B. C. After 2450.)
• A seaport or region from which the Hebrews in the time of Solomon obtained gold. The gold was proverbial for its fineness, so that “gold of Ophir” is several times used as an expression for fine gold, (1 Chronicles 29:4; Job 28:16; Psalms 45:9; Isaiah 13:12) and in one passage (Job 22:24) the word “Ophir” by itself is used for gold of Ophir, and for gold generally. In addition to gold, the vessels brought from Ophir almug wood and precious stones. The precise geographical situation of Ophir has long been a subject of doubt and discussion. The two countries which have divided the opinions of the learned have been Arabia and India, while some have placed it in Africa. In five passages Ophir is mentioned by name – (1 Kings 9:28; 10:11; 22:18; 2 Chronicles 8:18; 9:10) If the three passages of the book of Kings are carefully examined, it will be seen that all the information given respecting Ophir is that it was a place or region accessible by sea from Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, from which imports of gold, almug trees and precious stones were brought back by the Tyrian and Hebrew sailors. The author of the tenth chapter of Genesis certainly regarded Ophir as the name of some city, region or tribe in Arabia. It is almost certain that the Ophir of Genesis is the Ophir of the book of Kings. There is no mention, either in the Bible or elsewhere, of any other Ophir; and the idea of there having been two Ophirs evidently arose from a perception of the obvious meaning of the tenth chapter of Genesis on the one hand, coupled with the erroneous opinion, on the other that the Ophir of the book of Kings could not have been in Arabia. (Hence we conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon’s ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet, there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia and, moreover, Ophir may not have been the original place of production of some of them, but the great market for traffic in them.)
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Ophni – (mouldy), a town of Benjamin, mentioned in (Joshua 18:24) the same as the Gophna of Josephus a place which at the time of Vespasian’s invasion was apparently so important as to be second only to Jerusalem. It still survives in the modern Jifna or Jufna, 23 miles northwest of Bethel.
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Ophrah – (fawn).
• A town in the tribe of Benjamin. (Joshua 18:23; 1 Samuel 13:17) Jerome places it five miles east of Bethel. It is perhaps et-Taiyibeh, a small village on the crown of a conspicuous hill, four miles east-northeast of Beitin (Bethel).
• More fully, OPHRAH OF THE ABIEZRITES, the native place of Gideon (Judges 6:11) and the scene of his exploits against Baal, ver. (Judges 6:24) his residence after his accession to power ch. (Judges 9:5) and the place of his burial in the family sepulchre. Ch. (Judges 8:32) It was probably In Manasseh, ch. (Judges 6:15) and not far distant from Shechem, (Judges 9:1,5)
• The son of Meonothai. (1 Chronicles 4:14)
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Orator –
• The Authorized Version rendering in (Isaiah 3:3) for what is literally “skillful in whisper or incantation. ”
• The title applied to Tertullus, who appeared as the advocate of the Jewish accusers of St. Paul before Felix, (Acts 24:1)
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Orchard – [Garden]
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Oreb – (raven), one of the chieftains of the Midianite host which invaded Israel, and was defeated and driven back by Gideon. (Judges 7:25) (B. C. 1362.) Isaiah, (Isaiah 10:26) refers to the magnitude of this disaster. Comp. (Psalms 83:1). . .
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Oreb, The Rock – the “raven’s crag,” the spot, east of Jordan, at which the Midianite chieftain Oreb with thousands of his countrymen, fell by the hand of the Ephraimites, and which probably acquired its name therefrom. It is mentioned in (Judges 7:25; Isaiah 10:26) Perhaps the place called ‘Orbo which in the Bereshith Rabba is stated to have been in the neighborhood of Bethshean, may have some connection with it.
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Oren – (pine tree), one of the sons of Jerahmeel, the first-born of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
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Organ – (Genesis 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31; Psalms 150:4) The Hebrew word thus rendered probably denotes a pipe or perforated wind-instrument. In (Genesis 4:21) it appears to be a general term for all wind-instruments. In (Job 21:12) are enumerated three kinds of musical instruments which are possible under the general terms of the timbrel harp and oryan. Some identify it with the pandean pipe or syrinx an instrument of unquestionably ancient origin, and common in the East. [See Music]
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Orion – (the giant), a large and bright constellation of 80 stars, 17 large ones, crossed by the equinoctial line. It is named after a mythical personage of the Greeks, of gigantic stature and “the handsomest man in the world. ” The Arabs called it” the giant,” referring to Nimrod, the mighty hunter who was fabled to have been bound in the sky for his impiety. (Job 9:9) Also alluded to in (Job 38:31)
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Ornaments, Personal – The number, variety and weight of the ornaments ordinarily worn upon the person form one of the characteristic features of Oriental costume, in both ancient and modem times. The monuments of ancient Egypt exhibit the persons of ladies load with rings, earrings Of vary great size, anklets, armlets, bracelets of the most varied forms, richly-ornamented necklaces, and chains of various kinds. There is sufficient evidence in the Bible that the inhabitants of Palestine were equally devoted to finery. In the Old Testament. Isaiah, (Isaiah 3:18-23) supplies us with a detailed description of the articles with which the luxurious women of his day were decorated. Eliezer decorated Rebekah with “a golden nose-ring of half a shekel (1/4 oz.) Weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels (4 1/2 oz.) Weight of gold. ” (Genesis 23:22) Earrings were worn by Jacob’s wives. (Genesis 35:4) The number of personal ornaments worn by the Egyptians, particularly by the females, 19 incidentally noticed in (Exodus 3:22)
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Ornan – (active). (1 Chronicles 21:15; 2 Chronicles 3:1) [Araunah]
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Orpah – (a gazelle), a Moabite woman wife of Chilion son of Naomi, and thereby sister-in-law to Ruth. (Ruth 2:4,14) (B. C. 1360.)
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Oshea – (salvation). [Joshua]
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Osprey – The Hebrew word occurs in (Leviticus 11:13) and Deuteronomy 14:12 So the name of some unclean bird. It’s probably either the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) or the white-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicella).
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Ossifrage – (the bone-breaker). The Hebrew word occurs, as the name of an unclean bird, in (Leviticus 11:13) and Deuteronomy 14:12 It is probably the lammergeyer, or bearded vulture as it is sometimes called, one of the largest of the birds of prey. It well deserves its name ossifrage, bone breaker, for “not only does he push kids and lambs and even men off the rocks, but he takes the bones of animals that other birds of prey have denuded of the flesh high up into the air and lets them fall upon a stone in order to crack them and render them more digestible even for his enormous powers of deglutition. Marrow-bones are the dainties he loves. This is probably the bird that dropped a tortoise on the bald head of poor old aeschylus. “–N. H. Simpson.
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Ostrich – a large bird, native of African and Arabia, nearly ten feet high, having s long neck and short wings. It seeks retired places, (Job 30:29; Lamentations 4:13) and has a peculiar mournful cry that is sometimes mistaken by the Arabs for that of the lion. (Micah 1:8) In (Job 39:13-18) will be found a description of the bird’s habits. Ostriches are polygamous; the hens lay their eggs promiscuously in one nest, which is merely a hole scratched in the sand; the eggs are then covered over to the depth of about a foot, and are, in the case of those birds which are found within the tropics, generally left for the greater part of the day to the heat of the sun, the parent-birds taking their turns at incubation during the night. The habit of the ostrich leaving its eggs to be matured by the sun’s heat is usually appealed to in order to confirm the scriptural account, “she leaveth her eggs to the earth;” but this is probably the case only with the tropical birds. We believe that the true explanation of this passage is that some of the eggs are left exposed around the nest for the nourishment of the young birds. It is a general belief among the Arabs that the ostrich is a very stupid bird; indeed they have a proverb, “stupid as an ostrich. ” As is well known, the ostrich will swallow almost any substance, iron, stones, and even has been known to swallow “several leaden bullets scorching hot from the mould. ” But in many other respects the ostrich is not as stupid as this would indicate, and is very hard to capture. It is the largest of all known birds, and perhaps the swiftest of all cursorial animals. -The feathers so much prized are the long white plumes of the wings. The best are brought from Barbary and the west coast of Africa.
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Othni – (lion of Jehovah), son of Shemaiah, the first-horn of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:7) (B. C. 1013.)
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Othniel – (lion of God), son of Kenaz and younger brother of Caleb. (Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:13; 3:9; 1 Chronicles 4:13) (B. C. 1460.) The first mention of Othniel is on occasion of the taking of Kirjath-sepher, or Debir as it was afterward called. Caleb promised to give his daughter Achsah to whosoever should assault and take the city. Othniel won the prize. The next mention of him is in (Judges 3:9) where he appears as the first judge of Israel after the death of Joshua, and the deliverer of his countrymen from the oppression of Chushahrishathaim (Judges 3:8- 9)
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Oven – The eastern oven is of two kinds–fixed and portable. The former is found only in towns, where regular bakers are employed. (Hosea 7:4) The latter ia adapted to the nomad state, it consists of a large jar made of clay, about three feet high and widening toward the bottom, with a hole for the extraction of the ashes. Each household possessed such an article, (Exodus 8:3) and it was only in times of extreme dearth that the same oven sufficed for several families. (Leviticus 26:26) It was heated with dry twigs and grass, (Matthew 6:30) and the loaves were placed both inside and outside of it.
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Owl – A number of species of the owl are mentioned in the Bible, (Leviticus 11:17; 14:16; Isaiah 14:23; 34:15; Zephaniah 2:14) and in several other places the same Hebrew word is used where it is translated ostrich. (Job 30:29; Jeremiah 50:39) Some of these species were common in Palestine, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins. (Isaiah 34:11,13-15)
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Ox – There was no animal in the rural economy of the Israelites, or indeed in that of the ancient Orientals generally, that was held in higher esteem than the ox and deservedly so, for the ox was the animal upon whose patient labors depended all the ordinary operations of farming. Oxen were used for ploughing, (22:10; 1 Samuel 14:14) etc. ; for treading out corn, (25:4; Hosea 10:11) etc. ; for draught purposes, when they were generally yoked in pairs, (Numbers 7:3; 1 Samuel 6:7) etc. ; as beasts of burden, (1 Chronicles 12:40) their flesh was eaten, (14:4; 1 Kings 1:9) etc. ; they were used in the sacrifices; cows supplied milk, butter, etc. (32:14; 2 Samuel 17:29; Isaiah 7:22) Connected with the importance of oxen in the rural economy of the Jews is the strict code of laws which was mercifully enacted by God for their protection and preservation. The ox that threshed the corn was by no means to be muzzled; he was to enjoy rest on the Sabbath as well as his master. (Exodus 23:12; 5:14) The ox was seldom slaughtered. (Leviticus 17:1-6) It seems clear from (Proverbs 15:17) and 1Kin 4:23 That cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Palestine. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Palestine. Hence the force of the Psalmist’s complaint of his enemies. (Psalms 22:13)
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Ozem – (power).
• The sixth son of Jesse, the next eldest above David. (1 Chronicles 2:15) (B. C. 1055.)
• Son of Jerahmeel. (1 Chronicles 2:25)
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Ozias – (strength from the Lord).
• Uzzi, one of the ancestors of Ezra. 2, Esd. 2:2.
• Uzziah, king of Judah. (Matthew 1:8,9)
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Ozni – (hearing), one of the sons of Gad (Numbers 26:16) and founder of the family of the Oznites. (Numbers 26:16)

Bible Dictionary N

Smith’s Bible Dictionary – N

Naam, Naamah, Naaman, Naamathite, Naamites, The, Naarah, Naarai, Naaran, Naarath, Naashon, Naasson, Nabal, Naboth, Nabuchodonosor, Nachons, Nachor, Nadab, Naggai, Nagge, Nahalal, Or Nahalal, Nahaliel, Nahalol, Naham, Nahamaai, Naharai, Nahari, Nahash, Nahath, Nahbi, Nahor, Nahshon, Or Naashon, Nahum, Nail Of finger, Nain, Naioth, Names, Naomi, Naphish, Naphtali, Naphtali, Mount, Naphtuhim, Narcissus, Nard, Nathan, Nathanael, Nathanmelech, Naum, Nave, Nazarene, Nazareth, Nazarite, Neah, Neapolis, Neariah, Nebai, Nebaioth, Nebajoth, Neballat, Nebat, Nebo, Nebuchadnezzar, Or Nebuchadrezzar, Nebushasban, Nebuzaradan, Necho, Nedabiah, Neginah, Neginoth, Nehelamite, The, Nehemiah, Nehemiah, The Book Of, Nehiloth, Nehum, Nehushta, Nehushtan, Neiel, Nekeb, Nekoda, Nemuel, Nepheg, Nephish, Nephishesim, Nephthalim, Nephtoah, Or Nephtoah, Nephusim, Ner, Nereus, Nergal, Nergalsharezer, Neri, Neriah, Net, Nethaneel, Nethaniah, Nethinim, Netophah, Netophathite, Nettle, New Moon, New Testament, New Year, Neziah, Nezib, Nibhaz, Nibshan, Nicanor, Nicodemus, Nicolaitans, Nicolas, Nicopolis, Niger, Night, Nighthawk, Nile, Nimrah, Nimrim, Nimrod, Nimshi, Nineveh, Ninevites, Nisan, Nisroch, Nitre, No, No-Adiah, No-Amon, Noah, Nob, Nobah, Nod, Nodab, Nogah, Nohah, Non, Noph, Nopha, Nose-Jewel, Number, Numbers, Nun, Nurse, Nuts, Nym Phas

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Naam – (pleasantness), one of the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh. (1 Chronicles 4:15) (B. C. About 1451-1420.)
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Naam – (pleasantness), one of the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh. (1 Chronicles 4:15) (B. C. About 1451-1420.)
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Naamah –
I. One of the towns of Judah in the district of the lowland or Shefelah. (Joshua 15:41) Capt. Warren, in Report of Palestine Exploration Fund, 1871, locates it at Naameh, six miles northeast of Yebna.
II. (loveliness).
• One of the four women whose names are preserved in the records of the world before the flood; all except Eve being Cainites. Site was daughter of Lamech by his wife Zillah, and sister, as is expressly mentioned to Tubal-cain (Genesis 4:22) only. (B. C. About 3550.)
• Mother of King Rehoboam. (1 Kings 14:21,31; 2 Chronicles 12:13) In each of these passages she is distinguished by the title “the (not ‘an,’ as in Authorized Version) Ammonite. ” She was therefore one of the foreign women whom Solomon took into his establishment. (1 Kings 11:1) (B. C. 1015-975.)
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Naaman – (pleasantness).
• “Naaman the Syrian. ” (Luke 4:27) Naaman was commander-in-chief of the army of Syria, and was nearest to the person of the king, Ben-hadad II. , whom he accompanied officially and supported when he went to worship in the temple of Rimmon, (2 Kings 5:18) at Damascus, the capital. (B. C. 885.) A Jewish tradition at least as old as the time of Josephus, and which may very well be a genuine one identifies him with the archer whose arrow, whether at random or not, struck Ahab with his mortal wound, and thus “gave deliverance to Syria. ” The expression in (2 Kings 5:1) is remarkable–“because that by him Jehovah had given deliverance to Syria. ” The most natural explanation perhaps is that Naaman in delivering his country, had killed one who was the enemy of Jehovah not less than he was of Syria. Whatever the particular exploit referred to was, it had given Naaman a great position at the court of Ben-hadad. Naaman was afflicted with a leprosy of the white kind which had hitherto defied cure. A little Israelitish captive maiden tells him of the fame and skill of Elisha, and he is cured by him by following his simple directions to bathe in the Jordan seven times. See (2 Kings 5:14) His first business after his cure is to thank his benefactor and gratefully acknowledge the power of the God of Israel, and promise “henceforth to offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the Lord. ” How long Naaman lived to continue a worshipper of Jehovah while assisting officially at the worship of Rimmon we are not told; (“but his memory is perpetuated by a leper hospital which occupies the traditional site of his house in Damascus, on the banks of the Abana. “–Schaff.)
• One of the family of Benjamin who came down to Egypt with Jacob as read in (Genesis 46:21) He was the son of Bela, and head of the family of the Naamites. (Numbers 26:40; 1 Chronicles 8:3,4) (B. C. 1706.)
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Naamathite – the Gentile name of one of Job’s friends, Zophar the Naamathite. (Job 2:11; 11:1; 20:1; 42:9) There is no other trace of this name in the Bible, and the town whence it is derived is unknown. (But as Uz was in Arabia, probably the Naamah where he lived was on the Arabian borders of Syria.)
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Naamites, The – the family descended from Naaman, the grandson of Benjamin. (Numbers 28:40) only.
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Naarah – (a maiden), the second wife of Ashur; a descendant of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:5,6)
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Naarai – (handmaid), one of the valiant men of David’s armies. (1 Chronicles 11:37) In 1 Chron. He is called the son of Ezbai, but in (2 Samuel 23:35) he appears as “Paarai the Arbite. ” Kennicott decides that the former is correct. (B. C. About 1015.)
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Naaran – (juvenile), a city of Ephraim, which in a very ancient record, (1 Chronicles 7:28) is mentioned as the eastern limit of the tribe. It is very probably identical with Naarath, or more accurately Naarah.
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Naarath – (juvenile) (the Hebrew is equivalent to Naarah, which is therefore the real form of the name), a place named (Joshua 16:7) only as one of the landmarks on the southern boundary of Ephraim. It appears to have lain between Ataroth and Jericho, in the Jordan valley: Eusebius and Jerome speak of it as if well known to them–“Naorath, a small village of the Jews, five miles from Jericho. ”
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Naashon – [Nahshon, Or Naashon]
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Naasson – (enchanter), the Greek form of the name Nahshon, Or Naashon. (Matthew 1:4; Luke 3:32) only.
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Nabal – (fool) was a sheepmaster on the confines of Judea and the desert, in that part of the country which bore from its great conqueror the name of Caleb. (1 Samuel 25:3; 30:14) (B. C. About 1055.) His residence was on the southern Carmel, in the pasture lands of Maon. His wealth, as might be expected from his abode, consisted chiefly of sheep and goats. It was the custom of the shepherds to drive them into the wild downs on the slopes of Carmel; and it was whilst they were on one of these pastoral excursions that they met a band of outlaws, who showed them unexpected kindness, protecting them by day and night, and never themselves committing any depredations. (1 Samuel 25:7,15,18) Once a year there was a grand banquet on Carmel, “like the feast of a king. ” ch. (1 Samuel 25:2,4; 36) It was on one of these occasions that ten youths from the chief of the freebooters approached Nabal, enumerated the services of their master, and ended by claiming, with a mixture of courtesy and defiance characteristic of the East, “whatsoever cometh into thy hand for thy servants and for thy son David. ” The great sheepmaster peremptorily refused. The moment that the messengers were gone, the shepherds that stood by perceived the danger that their master and themselves would incur. To Nabal himself they durst not speak. Ch. (1 Samuel 25:17) To his wife, as to the good angel of the household, one of the shepherds told the state of affairs. She, with the offerings usual on such occasions, with her attendants running before her, rode down the hill toward David’s encampment. David had already made the fatal vow of extermination. Ch. (1 Samuel 26:22) At this moment, as it would seem, Abigail appeared, threw herself on her face before him, and poured forth her petition in language which in both form and expression almost assumes the tone of poetry. She returned with the news of David’s recantation of his vow. Nabal was then at the height of his orgies and his wife dared not communicate to him either his danger or his escape. Ch. (1 Samuel 28:36) At break of day she told him both. The stupid reveller was suddenly roused to a sense of that which impended over him. “His heart died within him, and he be came as a stone. ” It was as if a stroke of apoplexy or paralysis had fallen upon him. Ten days he lingered “and the Lord smote Nabal, and he died. ” ch. (1 Samuel 25:37,38)
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Naboth – (fruits), the victim of Ahab and Jezebel, was the owner of a small vineyard at Jezreel, close to the royal palace of Shab. (1 Kings 21:1,2) (B. C. 897.) It thus became an object of desire to the king, who offered an equivalent in money or another vineyard. In exchange for this Naboth, in the independent spirit of a Jewish landholder, refused: “The Lord forbid it me that I should give the inheritance of my father unto thee. ” Ahab was cowed by this reply; but the proud spirit of Jezebel was aroused. She took the matter into her own hands. A fast was proclaimed, as on the announcement of some impending calamity. Naboth was “set on high” in the public place of Samaria; two men of worthless character accused him of having “cursed God and the king. ” He and his children, (2 Kings 9:26) were dragged out of the city and despatched; the same night. The place of execution there was by the large tank or reservoir which still remains an the slope of the hill of Samaria, immediately outside the walls. The usual punishment for blasphemy was enforced: Naboth and his sons were stoned; and the blood from their wounds ran down into the waters of the tank below. For the signal retribution taken on this judicial murder–a remarkable proof of the high regard paid in the old dispensation to the claims of justice and independence–see Ahab; Jehu; Jezebel.
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Nabuchodonosor – [Nebuchadnezzar, Or Nebuchadrezzar]
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Nachons – (prepared) threshing floor, the place at which the ark had arrived in its progress from Kirajathjearim to Jerusalem, when Uzzah lost his life in his too-hasty zeal for its safety. (2 Samuel 6:6) (B. C. 1042.)
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Nachor – [Nahor]
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Nadab – (liberal).
• The eldest son of Aaron and Elisheba. Exod 8 13 Numb 3:2. (B. C. 1490.) He, his father and brother, and seventy old men of Israel were led out from the midst of the assembled people, (Exodus 24:1) and were commended to stay and worship God “afar off,” below the lofty summit of Sinai, where Moses alone was to come near to the Lord. Subsequently, (Leviticus 10:1) Nadab and his brother were struck dead before the sanctuary by fire from the Lord. Their offence was kindling the incense in their censers with “strange” fire, i. E. Not taken from that which burned perpetually, (Leviticus 6:13) on the altar.
• King Jeroboam’s son, who succeeded to the throne of Israel B. C. 954, and reigned two years. (1 Kings 15:25-31) At the siege of Gibbethon a conspiracy broke out in the midst of the army, and the king was slain by Baasha, a man of Issachar.
• A son of Shammai (1 Chronicles 2:28) of the tribe of Judah.
• A son of Gibeon, (1 Chronicles 8:30; 9:36) of the tribe of Benjamin.
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Naggai – (illuminating), the true form of Nagge, (Luke 3:25) and so given in the Revised Version.
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Nagge – one of the ancestors of Christ. (Luke 3:25) See [Naggai]
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Nahalal, Or Nahalal – (pasture), one of the cities of Zebulun, given with its “suburbs” to the Merarite Levites. (Joshua 21:35) It is the same which in (Joshua 19:15) is inaccurately given in the Authorized Version as Nahallal, the Hebrew being in both cases identical. Elsewhere it is called Nahalol. (Judges 1:30) It is identified with the modern Malul, a village in the plain of Esdraelon.
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Nahaliel – (torrents of God), one of the halting-places of Israel in the latter part of their progress to Canaan. (Numbers 21:19) It lay “beyond,” that is, north of, the Amen, ver. (Numbers 21:13) and between Mattanah and Bamoth, the next after Bamoth being Pisgah.
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Nahalol – [Nahalal, Or Nahalal]
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Naham – (consolation), the brother of Modiah or Jehudiah, wife of Ezra. (1 Chronicles 4:19)
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Nahamaai – (merciful), a chief man among those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel and Jeshua. (Nehemiah 7:7) (B. C. 536.)
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Naharai – (snorter) the armor-bearer of Joab, called Nahari in the Authorized Version of (2 Samuel 23:37) He was a native of Beeroth. (1 Chronicles 11:39) (B. C. 1013.)
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Nahari – The same as Naharai. (2 Samuel 23:37) In the Authorized Version of 1611 the name is printed “Naharai the Berothite. ”
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Nahash – (serpent).
• King of the Ammonites who dictated to the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead that cruel alternative of the loss of their right eyes or slavery which roused the swift wrath of Saul, and caused the destruction of the Ammonite force. (1 Samuel 11:2-11) (B. C. 1092.) “Nahaph” would seem to have been the title of the king of the Ammonites rather than the name of an individual. Nahash the father of Hanun had rendered David some special and valuable service, which David was anxious for an opportunity of requiting. (2 Samuel 10:2)
• A person mentioned once only– (2 Samuel 17:25)–in stating the parentage of Amasa, the commander-in-chief of Absalom’s army. Amasa is there said to have been the son of a certain Ithra by Abigail, “daughter of Nahash and sister to Zeruiah. ” (B. C. Before 1023.)
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Nahath – (rest).
• One of the “dukes” of Edom, eldest son of Reuel the son of Esau. (Genesis 36:13,17; 1 Chronicles 1:37) (B. C. 1700.)
• A Kohathite Levite, son of Zophai. (1 Chronicles 6:26)
• A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 31:13) (B. C. 725.)
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Nahbi – (hidden), the son of Vophsi, a Naphtalite, and one of the twelve spies. (Numbers 13:14)
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Nahor – (snorting), the name of two persons in the family of Abraham.
• His grandfather; the son of Serug and father of Terah. (Genesis 11:22-25) (B. C. 2174.)
• Grandson of the preceding son of Terah and brother of Abraham and Haran. (Genesis 11:26,27) (B. C. 2000.) The order of the ages of the family of Terah is not improbably inverted in the narrative; in which case Nahor instead of being younger than Abraham, was really older. He married Milcah, the daughter of his brother Haran; and when Abraham and Lot migrated to Canaan, Nahor remained behind in the land of his birth, on the eastern side of the Euphrates.
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Nahshon, Or Naashon – (enchanter) son of Amminadab, and prince of the children of Judah (as he is styled in the genealogy of Judah,) (1 Chronicles 2:10) at the time of the first numbering in the wilderness. (Exodus 6:23; Numbers 1:7) etc. His sister, Elisheba, was wife to Aaron, and his son, Salmon, was husband to Rahab after the taking of Jericho. He died in the wilderness, according to (Numbers 26:64,65) (B. C. Before 1451.)
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Nahum – (consolation). Nahum, called “the Elkoshite,” is the seventh in order of the minor prophets. His personal history is quite unknown. The site of Elkosh, his native place, is disputed, some placing it in Galilee, others in Assyria. Those who maintain the latter view assume that the prophet’s parents were carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser and that the prophet was born at the village of Alkush, on the east bank of the Tigris, two miles north of Mosul. On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, (Nahum 1:4) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile. The language employed in ch. (Nahum 1:15; 2:2) is appropriate to one who wrote for his countrymen in their native land. (mcclintock and Strong come to the conclusion that Nahum was a native of Galilee that at the captivity of the ten tribes he escaped into Judah, and prophesied in the reign of Hezekiah, 726- 698. ED.) Prophecy of Nahum. The date of Nahum a prophecy can be determined with as little precision as his birthplace. It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. B. C. 625. The allusions to the Assyrian power imply that it was still unbroken. Ch. (Nahum 1:12; 2:8,13; 3:16-17) It is most probable that Nahum flourished in the latter half of the return of Hezekiah, and wrote his prophecy either in Jerusalem or its neighborhood. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, “the burden of Nineveh,” the destruction of which he predicts. As a poet Nahum occupies a high place in the first rank of Hebrew literature. His style is clear and uninvolved, though pregnant and forcible; his diction sonorous and rhythmical, the words re-echoing to the sense. Comp. (Nahum 2:4; 3:3)
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Nail Of finger –
• A nail or claw of man or animal.
• A point or style e. G. For writing; see (Jeremiah 17:1)
• A nail, (Isaiah 11:7) a stake, (Isaiah 33:20) also a tent-peg. Tent-pegs were usually of wood and of large size; but some times, as was the case with those used to fasten the curtains of the tabernacle of metal. (Exodus 27:19; 38:20)
• A nail, primarily a point. We are told that David prepared iron for the nails to be used in the temple; and as the holy of holies was plated with gold, the nails for fastening the plates were probably of gold.
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Nain – (beauty), a village of Galilee, the gate of which is made illustrious by the raising of the widow’s son. (Luke 7:12) The modern Nein is situated on the northwestern edge of the “Little Hermon,” or Jebel-ed-Duhy, where the ground falls into the plain of Esdraelon. The entrance to the place, where our Saviour met the funeral, must probably always have seen up the steep ascent from the plain; and here on the west side of the village, the rock is full of sepulchral caves.
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Naioth – (habitations), or more fully, “Naioth in Ramah,” a place of Mount Ephraim, the birthplace of Samuel and Saul, and in which Samuel and David took refuge together after the latter had made his escape from the jealous fury of Saul. (1 Samuel 19:18,19,22,23; 20:1) It is evident from ver. (1 Samuel 20:18) that Naioth was not actually in Ramah, Samuel’s habitual residence. In its corrected from the name signifies “habitations,” and probably means the huts or dwellings of a school or college of prophets over which Samuel presided as Elisha did over those at Gilgal and Jericho.
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Names –
• Names of places. These may be divided into two general classes–descriptive and historical. The former are such as mark some peculiarity of the locality, usually a natural one, e. G. Sharon, “plain” Gibeah, “hill;” Pisgah. “height. ” Of the second class of local names, some were given in honor of individual men, e. G. The city Enoch (Genesis 4:17) etc. More commonly, however, such names were given to perpetuate that memory of some important historic occurrence. Bethel perpetuated through all Jewish history the early revelations of God to Jacob. (Genesis 28:19; 35:15) So Jehovah-jireh, (Genesis 22:14) Mahanaim, (Genesis 32:2) Peniel etc. In forming compounds to serve as names of towns or other localities, some of the most common terms employed were Kir, a “wall” or “fortress;” Kirjath, “city;” En, “fountain;” Beer, “a well,” etc. The names of countries were almost universally derived from the name of the first settlers or earliest historic population.
• Names of persons. Among the Hebrews each person received hut a single name. In the case of boys this was conferred upon the eighth day, in connection with the rite of circumcision. (Luke 1:59) comp. Genesis17:5-14 To distinguish an individual from others of the same name it was customary to add to his own proper name that of his father or ancestors. Sometimes the mother’s was used instead. Simple names in Hebrew, as in all languages, were largely borrowed from nature; e. G. Deborah, “bee;” Tamar, “a palm tree;” Jonah, “dove. ” Many names of women were derived from those of men by change of termination; e. G. Hammelech. “the king;” Harnmoleketh, “the queen. ” The majority of compound names have special religious or social significance being compounded either
• with terms denoting relationship, as Abi or Ab father, as Abihud, “father of praise,” Abimelech “father of the king;” Ben son, as Benoni, “son of my sorrow,” Benjamin, “son of the right hand;” or
• nouns denoting natural life, as am, “people,” melech “king;” or
• with names of God and Jah or Ja, shortened from “Jehovah. ” As outside the circle of Revelation, particularly among the Oriental nations, it is customary to mark one’s entrance into a new relation by a new name, in which case the acceptance of the new name involves the acknowledgment of the sovereignty of the name giver, so the importance and new sphere assigned to the organs of Revelation in God’s kingdom are frequently indicated by a change of name. Examples of this are Abraham, (Genesis 17:5) Sarah, (Genesis 17:15) Israel, as the designation of the spiritual character in place of Jacob, which designated the natural character. (Genesis 32:28)
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Naomi – or Nao’mi (my delight), the wife of Elimelech and mother-in-law of Ruth. (Ruth 1:2) etc. ; Ruth 2:1 etc. ; Ruth 3:1; 4:3 etc. (B. C. 1363.) The name is derived from a root signifying sweetness or pleasantness. Naomi left Judea with her husband and two sons, in a time of famine and went to the land of Moab. Here her husband and sons died; and on her return to Bethlehem she wished to be known as Mara, bitterness, instead of Naomi, sweetness.
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Naphish – (refreshment), the last but one of the sons of Ishmael. (Genesis 25:15; 1 Chronicles 1:31)
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Naphtali – (wrestling), the fifth son of Jacob; the second child name to him by Bilhah, Rachel’s slave. His birth and the bestowal of his name are recorded in (Genesis 30:8) When the census was taken at Mount Sinai the tribe of Naphtali numbered no less than 53,400 fighting men, (Numbers 1:43; 2:50) but when the borders of the promised land were reached, its numbers were reduced to, 45,400. (Numbers 26:48-50) During the march through the wilderness Naphtali occupied a position on the north of the sacred tent with Dan and Asher. (Numbers 2:25-31) In the apportionment of the land, the lot of Naphtali was enclosed on three sides by those of other tribes. On the west lay Asher, on the south Zebulun, and on the east the transjordanic Manasseh. (In the division of the kingdom Naphtali belonged to the kingdom of Israel, and later was a part of Galilee, bordering on the northwestern pert of the Sea of Galilee, and including Capernaum and Bethsaida. Ed.)
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Naphtali, Mount – the mountainous district which formed the main part of the inheritance of Naphtali, (Joshua 20:7) answering to “Mount Ephraim” in the centre and “Mount Judah” in the south of Palestine.
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Naphtuhim – (border-people), a Mizraite (Egyptian) nation or tribe mentioned only in the account of the descendants of Noah. (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11) If we may judge from their position in the list Of the Mizraites, the Naphtuhim were possibly settled, at first, either in Egypt or immediately to the west of it.
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Narcissus – (stupidity), a dweller at Rome, (Romans 16:11) some members of whose household were known us Christians to St. Paul. Some have assumed the identity of this Narcissus with the secretary of the emperor Claudius; but this is quite uncertain.
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Nard – [Spikenard]
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Nathan – (a giver).
• An eminent Hebrew prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon. (B. C. 1015.) He first appears in the consultation with David about the building of the temple. (2 Samuel 7:2,3,17) He next comes forward as the reprover of David for the sin with Bathsheba; and his famous apologue on the rich man and the ewe lamb, which is the only direct example of his prophetic power, shows it to have been of a very high order. (2 Samuel 12:1-12)
• A son of David; one of the four who were borne to him by Bathsheba. (1 Chronicles 3:5) comp, 1Chr 14:4 and 2Sam 5:14
• Son or brother of one of the members of David’s guard. (2 Samuel 23:36; 1 Chronicles 11:38)
• One of the head men who returned from Babylon with Ezra on his second expedition. (Ezra 8:16) 1 Esdr. 8:44. It is not impossible that he may be the same with the “son of Bani. ” (Ezra 10:39)
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Nathanael – (gift of God), a disciple of Jesus Christ, concerning whom, under that name at least, we learn from Scripture little more than his birthplace, Cana of Galilee, (John 21:2) and his simple, truthful character. (John 1:47) The name does not occur in the first three Gospels; but it is commonly believed that Nathanael and Bartholomew are the same person. The evidence for that belief is as follows: St, John who twice mentions Nathanael, never introduces the name of Bartholomew at all. St. Matthew, (Matthew 10:3) St. Mark, (Mark 3:18) and St. Luke, (Luke 8:14) all speak of Bartholomew but never of Nathanael. If was Philip who first brought Nathanael to Jesus, just as Andrew had brought his brother Simon.
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Nathanmelech – (the gift of the king), a eunuch (Authorized Version “chamberlain”) in the court of Josiah. (2 Kings 23:11) (B. C. 628.)
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Naum – (consolation), son of Esli, and father of Amos, in the genealogy of Christ, (Luke 3:25) about contemporary with the high priesthood of Jason all the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes. (B. C. 175.)
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Nave – (Heb. Gao), anything convex or arched, as the boss of a shield, (Job 15:26) the eyebrows, (Leviticus 14:9) an eminent place. (Ezekiel 16:31) It is rendered once only in the plural, “naves,” (1 Kings 7:33) meaning the centres of the wheels in which the spokes are inserted i. E. The hubs. In (Ezekiel 1:18) it is rendered twice “rings,” and margin “strakes,” an old word apparently used for the nave (hub) of a wheel and also more probably for the felloe or the tire, as making the streak or stroke upon the ground.
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Nazarene – an inhabitant of Nazareth. This appellative is applied to,Jesus in many passages in the New Testament. This name, made striking in so many ways, and which, if first given in scorn, was adopted and gloried in by the disciples, we are told in (Matthew 2:23) possesses a prophetic significance. Its application to Jesus, in consequence of the providential arrangements by which his Parents were led to take up their abode in Nazareth, was the filling out of the predictions in which the promised Messiah is described as a netser i. E. A shoot, sprout, of Jesse, a humble and despised descendant of the decayed royal family. Once, (Acts 24:5) the term Nazarenes is applied to the followers of Jesus by way of contempt. The name still exists in Arabic as the ordinary designation of Christians.
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Nazareth – (the guarded one) the ordinary residence of our Saviour, is not mentioned in the Old Testament, but occurs first in (Matthew 2:23) It derives its celebrity from its connection with the history of Christ, and in that respect has a hold on the imagination and feelings of men which it shares only with Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It is situated among the hills which constitute the south ridges of Lebanon,just before they sink down into the plain of Esdraelon, (Mr. Merrill, in “Galilee in the Time of Christ” (1881), represents Nazareth in Christ’s time as a city (so always called in the New Testament) of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, of some importance and considerable antiquity, and not so insignificant and mean as has been represented. ED.) Of the identification of the ancient site there can be no doubt. The name of the present village is en-Nazirah the same, therefore, as of old it is formed on a hill or mountain, (Luke 4:29) it is within the limits of the province of Galilee, (Mark 1:9) it is near Cana, according to the implication in (John 2:1,2,11) a precipice exists in the neighborhood. (Luke 4:29) The modern Nazareth belongs to the better class of eastern villages. It has a population of 3000 or 4000; a few are Mohammadans, the rest Latin and Greek Christians. (Near this town Napoleon once encamped (1799), after the battle of Mount Tabor.) The origin of the disrepute in which Nazareth stood, (John 1:47) is not certainly known. All the inhabitants of Galilee were looked upon with contempt by the people of Judea because they spoke a ruder dialect, were less cultivated and were more exposed by their position to contact with the heathen. But Nazareth labored under a special opprobrium, for it was a Galilean and not a southern Jew who asked the reproachful question whether “any good thing” could come from that source. Above the town are several rocky ledges, over which a person could not be thrown without almost certain destruction. There is one very remarkable precipice, almost perpendicular and forty or fifty near the Maronite church, which may well be supposed to be the identical one over which his infuriated fellow townsmen attempted to hurl Jesus.
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Nazarite – more properly Naz’irite (one separated), one of either sex who was bound by a vow of a peculiar kind to be set apart from others for the service of God. The obligation was either for life or for a defined time. There is no notice in the Pentateuch of Nazarites for life; but the regulations for the vow of a Nazarite of days are given. (Numbers 6:1-21) The Nazarite, during-the term of has consecration, was bound to abstain from wine grapes, with every production of the vine and from every kind of intoxicating drink. He was forbidden to cut the hair of his head, or to approach any dead body, even that of his nearest relation. When the period of his vow was fulfilled he was brought to the door of the tabernacle, and was required to offer a he lamb for a burnt offering, a ewe lamb for a sin offering, and a ram for a peace offering, with the usual accompaniments of peace offerings, (Leviticus 7:12,13) and of the offering made at the consecration of priests. (Exodus 29:2; Numbers 6:15) He brought also a meat offering and a drink offering, which appear to have been presented by themselves as a distinct act of service. Ver. (Numbers 6:17) He was to cut off the hair of “the head of his separation “(that is, the hair which had grown during the period of his consecration) at the door of the tabernacle, and to put it into the fire under the sacrifice on the altar. Of the Nazarites for life three are mentioned in the Scriptures–Samson, Samuel and St. John the Baptist. The only one of these actually called a Nazarite is Samson. We do not know whether the vow for life was ever voluntarily taken by the individual. In all the cases mentioned in the sacred history, it was made by the parents before the birth of the Nazarite himself. The consecration of the Nazarite bore a striking resemblance to that of the nigh priest. (Leviticus 21:10-12) The meaning of the Nazarite vow has been regarded in different lights. It may be regarded as an act of self-sacrifice, That it was essentially a sacrifice of the person to the Lord is obviously in accordance with the terms of the law. (Numbers 6:2) As the Nazarite was a witness for the straitness of the law, as distinguished from the freedom of the gospel, his sacrifice of himself was a submission to the letter of the rule. Its outward manifestations were restraints and eccentricities. The man was separated from his brethren that he might be peculiarly devoted to the Lord. This was consistent with the purpose of divine wisdom for the time for which it was ordained.
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Neah – (shaking) a place which was one of the landmarks on the boundary of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:13) only. It has not yet been certainly identified.
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Neapolis – (new city) is the place in northern Greece where Paul and his associates first landed in Europe. (Acts 16:11) where, no doubt, he landed also on his second visit to Macedonia, (Acts 20:1) and whence certainly he embarked on his last journey through that province to Troas and Jerusalem. (Acts 20:6) Philippi being an inland town, Neapolis was evidently the port, and is represented by the present Kavalla. (Kavalla is a city of 5000 or 6000 inhabitants, Greeks and Turks. Neapolis was situated within the bounds of Thrace, ten miles from Philippi, on a high rocky promontory jutting out into the aegean Sea, while a temple of Diana crowned the hill-top. ED.)
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Neariah – (servant of Jehovah).
• One of the six sons of Shemaiah in the line of the royal family of Judah after the captivity. (1 Chronicles 3:22,23) (B. C. About 350.)
• A son of Ishi, and one of the captains of the 500 Simeonites who in the days of Hezekiah, drove out the Amalekites from Mount Seir. (1 Chronicles 4:42) (B. C. 715.)
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Nebai – (fruitful), a family of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:19)
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Nebaioth, Nebajoth – (heights), the “first-born of Ishmael,” (Genesis 25:13; 1 Chronicles 1:29) (B. C. About 1850), and father of a pastoral tribe named after him, the “rams Of Nebaioth” being mentioned by the prophet Isaiah, (Isaiah 60:7) with the; flocks of Kedar. From the days of Jerome: this people had been identified with the Nabathaeans of Greek and Roman history Petra was their capital. (They first settled in the country southeast of Palestine, and wandered gradually in search of pasturage till they came to Kedar, of which Isaiah speaks. Probably the Nebaioth of Arabia Petrea were, as M. Quatremere argues the same people as the Nebat of Chaldea. Mcclintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia.)
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Neballat – (hidden folly), town of Benjamin, one of those which the Benjamites reoccupied after the captivity. (Nehemiah 11:34)
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Nebat – (aspect), the father of Jeroboam, (1 Kings 11:26; 12:2,15) etc. , is described as an Ephrathite or Ephraimite of Zereda. (B. C. About 1000.)
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Nebo –
• A town of Reuben on the east side of Jordan. (Numbers 32:3,38) In the remarkable prophecy adopted by Isaiah, (Isaiah 15:2) and Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 48:1,26) concerning Moab, Nebo is mentioned in the same connection as before, but in the hands of Moab. Eusebius and Jerome identify it with Nobah or Kerrath, and place it eight miles South of Heshbon, where the ruins of el-Habis appear to stand at present. (Prof. Paine identifies it with some ruins on Mount Nebo, a mile south of its summit, and Dr. Robinson seems to agree with this. ED.)
• The children of Nebo returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Ezra 2:29; 10:43; Nehemiah 7:33) The name occurs between Bethel and Ai and Lydda, which implies that it was situated in the territory of Benjamin to the northwest of Jerusalem. This is possibly the modern Beit-Nubah, about 12 miles northwest by west of Jerusalem, 8 from Lydda.
• Nebo, which occurs both in Isaiah, (Isaiah 46:11) and Jeremiah, (Jeremiah 45:1) as the name of a Chaldean god, is a well known deity of the Babylonians and Assyrians. He was the god who presided over learning and letters. His general character corresponds to that of the Egyptian Thoth the Greek Hermes and the Latin Mercury. Astronomically he is identified with the planet nearest the sun. In Babylonia Nebo held a prominent place from an early time. The ancient town of Borsippa was especially under his protection, and the great temple here, the modern Birs-Nimrud, was dedicated to him from a very remote age. He was the tutelar god of the most important Babylonian kings, in whose names the word Nabu or Nebo appears as an element.
• (prophet), Mount, the mountain from which Moses took his first and last view of the promised land. (32:41; 34:1) It is described as in the land of Moab, facing Jericho; the head or summit of a mountain called Pisgah, which again seems to have formed a portion of the general range of Abarim. (Notwithstanding the minuteness of this description, it is only recently that any one has succeeded in pointing out any spot which answers to Nebo. Tristram identifies it with a peak (Jebel Nebbah) of the Abarim or Moab mountains, about three miles southwest of Heshban (Heshbon) and about a mile and a half due west of Baal-meon. “It overlooks the mouth of the Jordan, over against Jericho,” (34:1) and the gentle slopes of its sides may well answer to the “field of Zophim. ” (Numbers 23:14) Jebel Nebbah is 2683 feet high. It is not an isolated peak but one of a succession of bare turf-clad eminences, so linked together that the depressions between them were mere hollows rather than valleys. It commands a wide prospect. Prof. Paine, of the American Exploration Society, contends that Jebel Nebbah, the highest point of the range, is Mount Nebo, that Jebel Siaghah, the extreme headland of the hill, is Mount Pisgah, and that “the mountains of Abarim “are the cliffs west of these points, and descending toward the Dead Sea. Probably the whole mountain or range was called sometimes by the name of one peak and sometimes by that of another as is frequently the case with mountains now. ED.)
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Nebuchadnezzar, Or Nebuchadrezzar – (may Nebo protect the crown), was the greatest and most powerful of the Babylonian kings. His name is explained to mean “Nebo is the protector against misfortune. ” He was the son and successor of Nabopolassar, the founder of the Babylonian empire. In the lifetime of his father Nebuchadnezzar led an army against Pharaoh-necho, king of Egypt, defeated him at Carchemish, B. C. 605, in a great battle (Jeremiah 46:2-12) recovered Coele-Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine, took Jerusalem, (Daniel 1:1,2) pressed forward to Egypt, and was engaged in that country or upon its borders when intelligence arrived which recalled him hastily to Babylon. Nabopolassar, after reigning twenty-one years, had died and the throne was vacant. In alarm about the succession Nebuchadnezzar returned to the capital, accompanied only by his light troops; and crossing the desert, probably by way of Tadmor or Palmyra, reached Babylon before any disturbance had arisen and entered peaceably on his kingdom, B. C. 604. Within three years of Nebuchadnezzar’s first expedition into Syria and Palestine, disaffection again showed itself in those countries. Jehoiakim, who, although threatened at first with captivity, (2 Chronicles 36:6) had been finally maintained on the throne as a Babylonian vassal, after three years of service “turned and rebelled” against his suzerain, probably trusting, to be supported by Egypt. (2 Kings 24:1) Not long afterward Phoenicia seems to have broken into revolt, and the Chaldean monarch once more took the field in person, and marched first of all against Tyre. Having invested that city and left a portion of his army there to continue the siege, he proceeded against Jerusalem, which submitted without a struggle. According to Josephus, who is here our chief authority, Nebuchadnezzar punished Jehoiakim with death, comp. (Jeremiah 23:18,19) and Jere 36:30 But placed his son Jehoiachin upon the throne. Jehoiachin reigned only three months; for, on his showing symptoms of disaffection, Nebuchadnezzar came up against Jerusalem for the third time, deposed the son’s prince whom he carried to Babylon, together with a large portion of the population of the city and the chief of the temple treasures), and made his uncle, Zedekiah, king in his room. Tyre still held out; and it was not till the thirteenth year from the time of its first investment that the city of merchants fell, B. C. 585. Ere this happened, Jerusalem had been totally destroyed. Nebuchadnezzar had commenced the final siege of Jerusalem in the ninth year of Zedekiah–his own seventeenth year (B. C. 588)–and took it two years later, B. C. 586. Zedekiah escaped from the city, but was captured near Jericho, (Jeremiah 39:5) and brought to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah in the territory of Hamath, where his eyes were put out by the king’s order while his sons and his chief nobles were slain. Nebuchadnezzar then returned to Babylon with Zedekiah, whom he imprisoned for the remainder of his life. The military successes of Nebuchadnezzar cannot be traced minutely beyond this point. It may be gathered from the prophetical Scriptures and from Josephus that the conquest of Jerusalem was rapidly followed by the fall of Tyre and the complete submission of Phoenicia, Ezek 26-28 after which the Babylonians carried their arms into Egypt, and inflicted severe injuries on that fertile country. (Jeremiah 46:13-26; Ezekiel 23:2-20) We are told that the first care of Nebuchadnezzar, on obtaining quiet possession of his kingdom after the first Syrian expedition, was to rebuild the temple of Bel (Bel-Merodach) at Babylon out of the spoils of the Syrian war. The next proceeded to strengthen and beautify the city, which he renovated throughout and surrounded with several lines of fortifications, himself adding one entirely new quarter. Having finished the walls and adorned the gates magnificently, he constructed a new palace. In the grounds of this palace he formed the celebrated “hanging garden,” which the Greeks placed among the seven wonders of the world. But he did not confine his efforts to the ornamentation and improvement of his capital. Throughout the empire at Borsippa, Sippara, Cutha, Chilmad, Duraba, Teredon, and a multitude of other places, he built or rebuilt cities, repaired temples, constructed quays, reservoirs, canals and aqueducts, on a scale of grandeur and magnificence surpassing everything of the kind recorded in history unless it be the constructions of one or two of the greatest Egyptian monarchs. The wealth greatness and general prosperity of Nebuchadnezzar are strikingly placed before us in the book of Daniel. Toward the close of his reign the glory of Nebuchadnezzar suffered a temporary eclipse. As a punishment for his pride and vanity, that strange form of madness was sent upon him which the Greeks called Lycanthropy, wherein the sufferer imagines himself a beast, and, quitting the haunts of men, insists on leading the life of a beast. (Daniel 4:33) (This strange malady is thought by some to receive illustration from an inscription; and historians place at this period the reign of a queen to whom are ascribed the works which by others are declared to be Nebuchadnezzar’s. Probably his favorite wife was practically at the head of affairs during the malady of her husband. Other historians, Eusebius and Berosus also confirm the account. See Rawlinson’s “Historical Illustrations. “–ED.) After an interval of four or perhaps seven years, (Daniel 4:16) Nebuchadnezzar’s malady left him. We are told that “his reason returned, and for the glory of his kingdom his honor and brightness returned;” and he “was established in his kingdom, and excellent majesty was added to him. ” (Daniel 4:36) He died in the year B. C. 561, at an advanced age (eighty-three or eighty-four), having reigned forty-three years. A son, Evilmerodach, succeeded him.
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Nebushasban – (Nebo saves me), one of the officers of Nebuchadnezzar at the time of the capture of Jerusalem. He was Rab-saris, i. E. A chief of the eunuchs. (Jeremiah 39:13) Nebushasban’s office and title were the same as those of Ashpenaz, (Daniel 1:3) whom he probably succeeded.
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Nebuzaradan – (chief whom Nebo favors), the Rab-tabbachim i. E. Chief of the slaughterers (Authorized Version “captain of the guard”), a high officer in the court of Nebuchadnezzar. On the capture of Jerusalem he was left by Nebuchadnezzar in charge of the city. Comp. (Jeremiah 39:11) He seems to have quitted Judea when he took down the chief people of Jerusalem to his master at Riblah. (2 Kings 25:18-20) In four years he again appeared. (Jeremiah 52:30) Nebuchadnezzar in his twenty-third year made a descent on the regions east of Jordan, including the Ammonites and Moabites, who escaped when Jerusalem was destroyed. Thence he proceeded to Egypt, and, either on the way thither or on the return, Nebuzaradan again passed through the country and carried off more captives. (Jeremiah 52:30)
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Necho – (lame). (2 Chronicles 35:20,22; 36:4) [PHARAOH-NECHO]
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Nedabiah – (whom Jehovah impels) apparently one of the sons of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, king of Judah. (1 Chronicles 3:18)
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Neginah – (stringed instruments), the singular of Neginoth. If occurs in the title of (Psalms 61:1) It is the general term by which all stringed instruments are described. “The chief musician on Neginoth ” was therefore the conductor of that portion of the temple-choir who played upon the stringed instruments, and who are mentioned in (Psalms 68:25)
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Neginoth – [Neginah]
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Nehelamite, The – the designation of a man named Shemaiah, a false prophet, who went with the captivity to Babylon. (Jeremiah 29:24,31,32) The name is no doubt formed from that either of Shemaiah’s native place or the progenitor of his family which of the two is uncertain.
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Nehemiah – (consolation of the Lord).
• Son of Hachaliah, and apparently of the tribe of Judah. All that we know certainly concerning him is contained in the book which bears his name. We first find him at Shushan, the winter residence of the kings of Persia, in high office as the cupbearer of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. In the twentieth year of the king’s reign, i. E. B. C. 445, certain Jews arrived from Judea, and gave Nehemiah a deplorable account of the state of Jerusalem. He immediately conceived the idea of going to Jerusalem to endeavor to better their state, and obtained the king’s consent to his mission. Having received his appointment as governor of Judea, he started upon his journey, being under promise to return to Persia within a given time. Nehemiah’s great work was rebuilding, for the first time since their destruction by Nebuzar-adan, the walls of Jerusalem, and restoring that city to its former state and dignity as a fortified town. To this great object therefore Nehemiah directed his whole energies without an hour’s unnecessary delay. In a wonderfully short time the walls seemed to emerge from the heaps of burnt rubbish, end to encircle the city as in the days of old. It soon became apparent how wisely Nehemiah had acted in hastening on the work. On his very first arrival, as governor, Sanballat and Tobiah had given unequivocal proof of their mortification at his appointment; but when the restoration was seen to be rapidly progressing, their indignation knew no bounds. They made a great conspiracy to fall upon the builders with an armed force and put a stop to the undertaking. The project was defeated by the vigilance and prudence of Nehemiah. Various stratagems were then resorted to get Nehemiah away from Jerusalem and if possible to take his life; but that which most nearly succeeded was the attempt to bring him into suspicion with the king of Persia, as if he intended to set himself up as an independent king as soon as the walls were completed. The artful letter of Sanballat so-far wrought upon Artaxerxes that he issued a decree stopping the work till further orders. If is probable that at the same time he recalled Nehemiah, or perhaps his leave of absence had previously expired. But after a delay, perhaps of several years he was permitted to return to Jerusalem land to crown his work by repairing the temple and dedicating the walls. During his government Nehemiah firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles and the usury of the rich, and rescued the poor Jews from spoliation and slavery. He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from the people, in consideration of their poverty, during the whole twelve years that he was in office but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews, at which any who returned from captivity were welcome. He made most careful provision for the maintenance of the ministering priests and Levites and for the due and constant celebration of divine worship. He insisted upon the sanctity of the precincts of the temple being preserved inviolable, and peremptorily ejected the powerful Tobiah from one of the chambers which Eliashib had assigned to him. With no less firmness and impartiality he expelled from all sacred functions those of the high priest’s family who had contracted heathen marriages, and rebuked and punished those of the common people who had likewise intermarried with foreigners; and lastly, he provided for keeping holy the Sabbath day, which was shamefully profaned by many both Jews and foreign merchants, and by his resolute conduct succeeded in repressing the lawless traffic on the day of rest. Beyond the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes, to which Nehemiah’s own narrative leads us, we have no account of him whatever.
• One of the leaders of the first expedition from Babylon to Jerusalem under Zerabbabel. (Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7)
• Son of Azbuk and ruler of the half part of Beth-zur, who helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 3:18)
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Nehemiah, The Book Of – like the preceding one of Ezra, is clearly and certainly not all by the same hand. [Ezra, Book Of, BOOK OF] By far the most important portion, indeed is the work of Nehemiah but other portions are either extracts from various chronicles and registers or supplementary narratives and reflections, some apparently by Ezra, others, perhaps the work of the same person who inserted the latest, genealogical extracts from the public chronicles. The main history contained in the book of Nehemiah covers about twelve years, viz. , from the twentieth to the thirty-second year of Artaxerxes Langimanus i. E. From B. C. 445 to 433. The whole narrative gives us a graphic and interesting account of the state of Jerusalem and the returned captives in the writer’s times, and, incidentally, of the nature of the Persian government and the condition of its remote provinces, The book of Nehemiah has always had an undisputed place in the Canon, being included by the Hebrews under the general head of the book of Ezra, and, as Jerome tells us in the Prolog. Gal. , by the Greeks and Latins under the name of the second book of Ezra.
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Nehiloth – The title of (Psalms 5:1) in the Authorized Version is rendered “To the chief musician upon Nehiloth. ” It is most likely that nehiloth is the general term for perforated wind-instruments of all kinds, as neginoth denotes all manner of stringed instruments.
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Nehum – (consolation), one of those who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:7)
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Nehushta – (brass), the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem, wife of Jehoiakim and mother of Jehoiachin, kings of Judah. (2 Kings 24:8) (B. C. 616.)
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Nehushtan – (a thing of brass), the name by which the brazen serpent made by Moses in the wilderness, (Numbers 21:9) was worshipped in the time of Hezekiah. (2 Kings 18:4) It is evident that our translators by their rendering “and he called it Nehushtan” understood that the subject of the sentence is Hezekiah and that when he destroyed the brazen serpent he gave it the name Nehushtan “a brazen thing” in token of his utter contempt. But it is better to understand the Hebrew as referring to the name by which the serpent was generally known, the subject of the verb being indefinite– “and one called it ‘Nehushtan. ‘”
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Neiel – (moved by God), a place which formed one of the landmarks of the boundary of the tribe of Asher. (Joshua 19:27) only. It occurs between Jiphthahel and Cabul. If the former of these be identified with Jefat, and the latter with Kabul, eight or nine miles east- southeast of Akka, then Neiel may possibly be represented by Mi’ar, a village conspicuously placed on a lofty mountain brow, just halfway between the two.
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Nekeb – (cavern), one of the towns on the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:3) It lay between Adami and Jabneel. A great number of commentators have taken this name as being connected with the preceding.
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Nekoda – (distinguished).
• The descendants of Nekoda returned among the Nethinim after the captivity. (Ezra 2:48; Nehemiah 7:50)
• The sons of Nekoda were among those who went up after the captivity from Tel-melah, Tel-harsa, and other places, but were unable to prove their descent from Israel. (Ezra 2:60; Nehemiah 7:62)
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Nemuel – (day of God).
• A Reubenite, son of Eliab and eldest brother of Dathan and Abiram. (Numbers 26:9)
• The eldest son of Simeon, (Numbers 26:12; 1 Chronicles 4:24) from whom were descended the family of the Nemuelites. In (Genesis 46:10) he is called JERIUEL.
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Nepheg – (sprout).
• One of the sons of Izhar the son of Kohath. (Esther 6:21)
• One of David’s sons born to him in Jerusalem. (2 Samuel 5:15; 1 Chronicles 3:7; 14:6)
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Nephish – (refreshed), an inaccurate variation (found in (1 Chronicles 1:19) only) of the name Nephish.
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Nephishesim – (expansions). The children of Nephishesim were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:62)
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Nephthalim – A form of the name Naphtali. (Job 7:3; Matthew 4:13,15; Revelation 7:6)
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Nephtoah, Or Nephtoah – (opening), The water of. The spring or source of the water or (inaccurately) waters of Nephtoah was one of the landmarks in the boundary line which separated Judah from Benjamin. (Joshua 15:9; 18:15) It lay northwest of Jerusalem in which direction, it seems to have been satisfactorily identified in Ain Lifta, a spring situated a little distance above the village of the same name.
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Nephusim – (expansions), the same as Nephishesim, of which name according to Gesenius it is the proper form. (Ezra 2:50)
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Ner – (a light or lamp), son of Jehiel, according to (1 Chronicles 8:33) father of Abner, and grandfather of King Saul. (B. C. 1140.) Abner was, therefore, uncle to Saul, as is expressly stated in (1 Samuel 14:50)
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Nereus – (lamp), a Christian at Rome, saluted by St. Paul. (Romans 16:15) According to tradition he was beheaded at Terracina, probably in the reign of Nerva.
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Nergal – (hero), one of the chief Assyrian and Babylonian deities, seems to have corresponded closely to the classical Mars. (2 Kings 17:30) It is conjectured that he may represent the deified Nimrod.
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Nergalsharezer – (prince of fire) occurs only in (Jeremiah 39:3) and Jere 39:13 There appear to have been two persons in the name among the “princes of the king of Babylon” who accompanied Nebuchadnezzar on his last expedition against Jerusalem. One of these is not marked by any additional title; but the other has the honorable distinction of Rab-mag, probably meaning chief of the Magi [see RAB-MAG], and it is to him alone that any particular interest attaches. In sacred Scripture he appears among the persons who, by command of Nebuchadnezzar, released Jeremiah from prison. Profane history gives us reason to believe that he was a personage of great importance, who not long afterward mounted the Babylonian throne. He is the same as the monarch called Neriglissar or Neriglissor, who murdered Evil-merodach, the son of Nebuchadnezzar and succeeded him upon the throne. His reign lasted from B. C. 559, to B. C. 556.
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Neri – short form for Neriah (Jehovah is my lamp) son of Melchi and father of Salathiel, in the genealogy of Christ.
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Neriah – (lamp of Jehovah), the son of Maaseiah and father of Baruch and Seraiah.
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Net – [See FISHING]
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Nethaneel – (given of God).
• The son of Zuar and prince of the tribe of Issachar at the time of the exodus. (Numbers 1:8; 2:5; 7:18) (B. C. 1491.)
• The fourth son of Jesse and brother of David. (1 Chronicles 2:14)
• A priest in the reign of David who blew the trumpet before the ark when it was brought from the house of Obededom. (1 Chronicles 15:24) (B. C. 1055.)
• A Levite, father of Shemaiah the scribe, in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 24:6)
• A son of Obed-edom. (1 Chronicles 26:4)
• One of the princes of Judah whom Jehoshaphat sent to teach in the cities of his kingdom. (2 Chronicles 17:7) (B. C. 912.)
• A chief of the Levites in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 35:9) (B. C. 628.)
• A priest of the family of Pashur, in the time of Ezra, who married a foreign wife. (B. C. 458.)
• The representative of the priestly family of Jedaiah in the time of Joiakim. (Nehemiah 12:21) (B. C. 446.)
• A Levite, of the sons of Asaph, who with his brethren played upon the musical instruments of David at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem under Ezra and Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 12:36) (B. C. 446.)
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Nethaniah – (given of Jehovah).
• The son of Elishama, and father of Ishmael who murdered Gedaliah. (2 Kings 25:23,25) He was of the royal family of Judah. (B. C. 620.)
• One of the four sons of Asaph the minstrel. (1 Chronicles 25:12) (B. C. 1015.)
• A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 17:8) (B. C. 912.)
• The father of Jehudi. (Jeremiah 36:14) (B. C. 638.)
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Nethinim – (given, dedicated), As applied specifically to a distinct body of men connected with the services of the temple, this name first meets us in the later books of the Old Testament– in 1 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, The word and the ideas embodied in it may, however, be traced to a much earlier period. As derived from the verb nathan, i. E. Give, set apart, dedicate, it was applied to those who were pointed to the liturgical offices of the tabernacle. We must not forget that the Levites were given to Aaron and his sons, i. E. To the priests as an order, and were accordingly the first Nethinim. (Numbers 3:9; 8:19) At first they were the only attendants, and their work must have been laborious enough. The first conquests, however, brought them their share of the captive slaves of the Midianites and 320 were given to them as having charge of the tabernacle, (Numbers 31:47) while 32 only were assigned specially to the priests. This disposition to devolve the more laborious offices of their ritual upon slaves of another race showed itself again in the treatment of the Gibeonites. No addition to the number thus employed pears to have been mad ring the period of the judges, and they continued to be known by their own name as the Gibeonites. Either the massacre at Nob had involved the Gibeonites as well as the priests, (1 Samuel 22:19) or else they had fallen victims to some other outburst of Saul’s fury; and though there were survivors, (2 Samuel 21:2) the number was likely to be quite inadequate for the greater stateliness of the new worship at Jerusalem. It is to this period accordingly that the origin of the class bearing this name may be traced. The Nethinim were those “whom David and the princes appointed (Heb. Gave) for the service of the Levites. ” (Ezra 8:20) At this time the Nethinim probably lived within the precincts of the temple, doing its rougher work and so enabling the Levites to take a higher position as the religious representatives and instructors of the people. The example set by David was followed by his successor.
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Netophah – (distillation), a town the name of which occurs only in the catalogue of those who returned with Zerubbabel from the captivity. (Ezra 2:22; Nehemiah 7:26) 1 Esdr. 5:18. But, though not directly mentioned till so late a period, Netophah was really a much older place. Two of David’s guard, (1 Chronicles 17:13,15) were Netophathites. The “villages of the Neophathites” were the residence of the Levites. (1 Chronicles 9:16) From another notice we learn that the particular Levites who inhabited these villages were singers. (Nehemiah 12:28) To judge from (Nehemiah 7:26) the town was in the neighborhood of, or closely connected with, Bethlehem.
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Netophathite – an inhabitant of Neophah.
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Nettle – a well-known plant covered with minute sharp hairs; containing a poison that produces a painful, stifling sensation. It grows on neglected ground. A different Hebrew word in (Job 30:7; Proverbs 24:31; Zephaniah 2:9) seems to indicate a different species.
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New Moon – The first day of the lunar month was observed as a holy day. In addition to the daily sacrifice there were offered two young bullocks, a ram and seven lambs of the first year as a burnt offering, with the proper meat offerings and drink offerings, and a kid as a sin offering. (Numbers 28:11-15) As on the Sabbath, trade and handicraft work were stopped, (Amos 8:5) and the temple was opened for public worship. (Isaiah 66:23; Ezekiel 46:3) The trumpets were blown at the offering of the special sacrifices for the day, as on the solemn festivals. (Numbers 10:10; Psalms 81:3) It was an occasion for state banquets. (1 Samuel 20:5-24) In later, if not in earlier, times fasting was intermitted at the new moons. Judith 8:6. The new moons are generally mentioned so as to show that they were regarded as a peculiar class of holy days, distinguished from the solemn feasts and the Sabbaths. (1 Chronicles 113:31; 2 Chronicles 2:4; 8:13; 31:3; Ezra 3:5; Nehemiah 10:33; Ezekiel 45:17) The seventh new moon of the religious year, being that of Tisri, commenced the civil year, and had a significance and rites of its own. It was a day of holy convocation. The religious observance of the day of the new moon may plainly be regarded as the consecration of a natural division of time.
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New Testament – It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. The subject naturally divides itself into�
I. The history of the written text; II. The history of the printed text.
I. THE HISTORY OF THE WRITTEN TEXT.
A. The early history of the apostolic writings externally, as far as it can be traced, is the same as that of other contemporary books. St. Paul, like Cicero or Pliny often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation “with his own hand. ” (1 Corinthians 16:21; 2 Thessalonians 3:17; Colossians 4:18) The original copies seem to have soon perished.
B. In the natural course of things the apostolic autographs would be likely to perish soon. The material which was commonly used for letters the papyrus paper, to which St. John incidentally alludes. (2 John 1:12) comp. 3Joh 1:13 Was singularly fragile, and even the stouter kinds, likely to be used for the historical books, were not fitted to bear constant use. The papyrus fragments which have come down to the present time have been preserved under peculiar circumstances as at Herculaneum or in the Egyptian tombs.
C. In the time of the Diocletian persecution, A. D. 303, copies of the Christian Scriptures were sufficiently numerous to furnish a special object for persecutors. Partly, perhaps, owing to the destruction thus caused, but still more from the natural effects of time. No MS. Of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains but though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings.
D. In addition to the later MSS. The earliest versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. Only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance.
E. Several very important conclusions follow from this earliest appearance of textual criticism. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. History affords a trace of the pure apostolic originals. Again, from the preservation of the first variations noticed, which are often extremely minute, in one or more of the primary documents still left, we may be certain that no important changes have been made in the sacred text which we cannot now detect.
F. Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. A. D. 220) and Origen (A. D. 1842-4). From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible store house for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen’s time the variations in the New Testament MSS. Were beginning to lead to the formation of specific groups of copies.
G. The most ancient MSS. And versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. These cannot have had their source later than the beginning of the third century, and probably were much earlier. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of MSS. , which as he remarks, must have arisen before the first versions were made. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. According to him two distinct recensions of the Gospels existed at the beginning of the third century-the Alexandrine and the Western.
H. From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. The quotations of Dionsius Alex. (A. D. 264), Petrus Alex. (cir. A. D. 312), Methodius (A. D. 311) and Eusebius (A. D. 340) confirm the prevalence of the ancient type of tent; but the public establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire necessarily led to important changes. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly MSS. As a natural consequence the rude Hellenistic forms gave way before the current Greek, and at the same time it is reasonable to believe that smoother and fuller constructions were substituted for the rougher turns of the apostolic language. In this way the foundation of the Byzantine text was laid. Meanwhile the multiplication of copies in Africa and Syria was checked by Mohammedan conquests.
I. The appearance of the oldest MSS. Have been already described. The MSS. Of the fourth century, of which Codex Vaticanus may be taken as a type present a close resemblance to these. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript. A small interval serves as a simple punctuation; and there are no accents or breathings by the hand of the first writer, though these have been added subsequently. Uncial writing continued in general use till the middle of the tenth century. From the eleventh century downward cursive writing prevailed. The earliest cursive biblical MS, is dated 964 A. D. The MSS. Of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries abound in the contractions which afterward passed into the early printed books. The oldest MSS. Are written on the thinnest and finest vellum; in later copies the parchment is thick and coarse. Papprus was very rarely used after the ninth century. In the tenth century cotton paper was generally employed in Europe; and one example at least occurs of its use in the ninth century. In the twelfth century the common linen or rag paper came into use. One other kind of material requires notice–re-dressed parchment, called palimpsests. Even at a very early period the original text of a parchment MS. Was often erased, that the material might be used afresh. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical MSS. Which had been once obliterated for the transcription of other works, have been recovered.
J. The division of the Gospels into “chapters” must have come into general use some time before the fifth century. The division of the Acts and Epistles into chapters came into use at a later time. It is commonly referred to Euthalius, who, however, says that he borrowed the divisions of the Pauline Epistles from an earlier father and there is reason to believe that the division of the Acts and Catholic Epistles which he published was originally the work of Pamphilus the martyr. The Apocalypse was divided into sections by Andreas of Caesarea about A. D. 500. The titles of the sacred books are from their nature additions to the original text. The distinct names of the Gospels imply a collection, and the titles of the Epistles are notes by the possessors, and not addresses by the writers.
K. Very few MSS. Certain the whole New Testament–twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. Besides the MSS. Of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services.
L. The number of uncial MSS. Remaining. Though great when compared with the ancient MSS. Extent of other writings, is inconsiderable. Tischendorf reckons forty in the Gospels. In these must be added Cod. Sinait. , which is entire; a new MS. Of Tischendorf, which is nearly entire; and Cod. Zacynth. , Which contains considerable fragments of St. Luke. In the Acts there are nine: in the Catholic Epistles five; in the Pauline Epistles fourteen; in the Apocalypse three.
M. A complete description these MSS. Is given In the great critical editions of the New Testament. Here those only can be briefly noticed which are of primary importance, the first place being given to the latest-discovered and most complete Codex Sinaiticus–the Cod. Frid. Aug. Of LXX. At St. Petersburg, obtained by Tischendorf from the convent of St. Catherine, Mount Sinai, in 1859. The New Testament is entire, and the Epistle of Bamabas and parts of the Shepherd of Hermas are added. It is probably the oldest of the MSS. Of the New Testament and of the fourth century. Codex Alexandrinus (Brit. Mus.), a MS. Of the entire Greek Bible, with the Epistles of Clement added. It was given-by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I. In 1628, and is now in the British Museum. It contains the whole of the New Testament, with some chasms. It was probably written in the first half of the fifth century. Codex Vaticanus (1209) a MS. Of the entire Greek Bible which seems to have been in the Vatican Library almost from its commencement (cir. A. D. 1450). It contains the New Testament entire to (Hebrews 9:14) katha : the rest of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Pastoral Epistles and the Apocalypse were added in the fifteenth century. The MS. Is assigned to the fourth century. Codex Ephraemi rescriptus (Paris, Bibl, Imp. 9), a palimpsest MS. Which contains fragments of the LXX. And of every part of the New Testament. In the twelfth century the original writing was effaced and some Greek writings of Ephraem Syrus were written over it. The MS was brought to Florence from the East at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and came thence to Paris with Catherine Deuteronomy Medici. The only entire books which have perished are 2 Thess. And 2 John.
N. The number of the cursive MSS. (minuscules) in existence cannot be accurately calculated. Tischendorf catalogues about 500 of the Gospels, 200 of the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 250 of the Pauline Epistles, and a little less than 100 of the Apocalypse (exclusive of lectionaries); but this enumeration can only be accepted as a rough approximation,
O. Having surveyed in outline the history of the transmission of the written text and the chief characteristics of the MSS. In which it is preserved, we are in a position to consider the extent and nature of the variations which exist in different copies. It is impossible to estimate the number of these exactly, but they cannot be less than 120,000 in all, though of these a very large proportion consists of differences of spelling and isolated aberrations of scribes and of the remainder comparatively few alterations are sufficiently well supported to create reasonable doubt as to the final judgment. Probably there are not more than 1600-2000 places in which the true reading is a matter of uncertainty.
P. Various causes: readings are due to some arose from accidental, others from intentional alterations of the original text.
Q. Other variations are due to errors of sight. Others may be described as errors of impression or memory. The copyist, after reading a sentence from the text before him, often failed to reproduce it exactly. Variations of order are the most frequent and very commonly the most puzzling questions of textual criticism. Examples occur in every page, almost in every verse, of the New Testament.
R. Of intentional changes some affect the expression, others the substance of the passage.
S. The number of readings which seem to have been altered for distinctly dogmatic reasons is extremely small. In spite of the great revolutions in thought, feeling and practice through which the Christian Church passed In fifteen centuries, the copyists of the New Testament faithfully preserved, according to their ability, the sacred trust committed to them. There is not any trace of intentional revision designed to give support to current opinions. (Matthew 17:21; Mark 9:29; 1 Corinthians 7:5) need scarcely be noticed.
T. The great mass of various readings are simply variations in form. There are, however, one or two greater variations of a different character. The most important of these are (Mark 16:9) and John 7:53. . . 8:12; Roma 16:25-27 The first stands quite by itself and there seems to be little doubt that it contains an authentic narrative but not by the hand of St. John. The two others taken in connection with the last chapter of St. John’s Gospel, suggest the possibility that the apostolic writings may have undergone in some cases authoritative revision.
U. Manuscripts, it must be remembered, are but one of the three sources of textual criticism. The versions and patristic quotations are scarcely less important in doubtful cases.
II. THE HISTORY OF THE PRINTED TEXT. The history of the printed text of the New Testament may be these divided into three periods. The extends from the labors of the Complutensian errors to those of Mill; the second from Mill to Scholz; the third from Lachmann to the present time. The criticism of the first period was necessarily tentative and partial: the materials available for the construction of the text were few and imperfectly known. The second period made a great progress: the evidence of MSS. Of versions, of the fathers, was collected with the greatest diligence and success; authorities were compared and classified; principles of observation and judgment were laid down. But the influence of the former period still lingered. The third period was introduced by the declaration of a new and sounder law. It was laid down that no right of possession could be pleaded against evidence, The “received” text, as such, was allowed no weight whatever. Its authority, on this view, must depend solely on critical worth. From first to last, in minute details of order and orthography, as well as in graver questions of substantial alteration, the text must be formed by a free and unfettered judgment. The following are the earliest editions:
A. The Complutensian Polyglot. -The glory of printing the first Greek Testament is due to the princely Cardinal Ximenes. This great prelate as early as 1502 engaged the services of a number of scholars to superintend an edition of the whole Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek, with the addition of the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos, the LXX. Version and the Vulgate. The volume containing the New Testament was Printed first, and was completed on January 10, 1524. The whole work was not finished till July 10, 1517. (It was called Complutensian because it was printed at Complutum, in Spain. ED.)
B. The edition of Erasmus. The edition of Erasmus was the first published edition of the New Testament. Erasmus had paid considerable attention to the study of the New Testament, when he received an application from Froben, a Printer of Basle with whom he was acquainted, to prepare a Greek text for the press. The request was made on April 17, 1515 and the whole work was finished in February, 1516.
C. The edition of Stephens. The scene of our history now changes from Basle to Paris. In 1543, Simon Deuteronomy Colines: (Colinaeus) published a Greek text of the New Testament, corrected in about 150 places on fresh MS. Authority. Not long after it appeared, R. Estienne (Stephanus) published his first edition (1546), which was based on a collation of MSS, in the Royal Library with the Complutensian text.
D. The editions of Beta and Elzevir. The Greek text of Beta (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth) was printed by H. Stephens in 1565 and a second edition in 1576; but the chief edition was the third, printed in 1582, which contained readings from Codez Bezae and Codex Clarontontanus. The literal sense of the apostolic, writings must be gained in the same way as the literal sense of any other writings-by the fullest use of every appliance of scholarship, and the most complete confidence in the necessary and absolute connection of words and thoughts. No variation of phrase, no peculiarity of idiom, no change of tense, no change of order, can be neglected. The truth lies in the whole expression, and no one can presume to set aside any part as trivial or indifferent. The importance of investigating most patiently and most faithfully the literal meaning of the sacred text must be felt with tenfold force when it is remembered that the literal sense is the outward embodiment of a spiritual sense, which lies beneath and quickens every part of Holy Scripture, Bible]

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New Year – [Trumpets, Feast Of]
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Neziah – (pre-eminent). The descendants of Neziah were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel, (Ezra 2:54; Nehemiah 7:56) (B. C. 536.)
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Nezib – (garrison, pillar), a city of Judah, (Joshua 15:43) only, in the district of the Shefelah or lowland, one of the same group with Keilah and Mareshah. To Eusebius and Jerome it was evidently known. They place it on the road between Eleutheropolis and Hebron, seven or nine miles from the former, and there it still stands under the almost identical name of Beit Nusib or Chirbeh Nasib.
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Nibhaz – (the barker), a deity of the Avites, introduced by them into Samaria in the time of Shalmaneser. (2 Kings 17:31) The rabbins derived the name from a Hebrew root nabach, “to bark,” and hence assigned to it the figure of a dog, or a dog-headed man. The Egyptians worshipped the dog. Some indications of this worship have been found in Syria, a colossal figure of a dog having formerly stood at a point between Berytus and Tripolis.
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Nibshan – (soft soil) one of the six cities of Judah, (Joshua 15:62) which were in the district of the Midbar (Authorized Version “wilderness”).
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Nicanor – (conqueror).
• Son of Patroclus, 2 Macc. 8:9, a general who was engaged in the Jewish wars under Antiochus Epiphanes and Demetrius I. 1 Macc. 3:38; 4; 7:26,49. (B. C. 160.)
• One of the first seven deacons. Acts 6:5.
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Nicodemus – (conqueror of the people), a Pharisee, a ruler of the Jews and a teacher of Israel, (John 3:1,10) whose secret visit to our Lord was the occasion of the discourse recorded only by St. John. In Nicodemus a noble candor and a simple love of truth shine out in the midst of hesitation and fear of man. He finally became a follower of Christ, and came with Joseph of Arimathaea to take down and embalm the body of Jesus.
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Nicolaitans – (followers of Nicolas), a sect mentioned in (Revelation 2:6,15) whose deeds were strongly condemned. They may have been identical with those who held the doctrine of Balaam. They seem to have held that it was lawful to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit fornication, in opposition to the decree of the Church rendered in (Acts 15:20,29) The teachers of the Church branded them with a name which expressed their true character. The men who did and taught such things were followers of Balaam. (2 Peter 2:15; Jude 1:11) They, like the false prophet of Pethor, united brave words with evil deeds. In a time of persecution, when the eating or not eating of things sacrificed to idols was more than ever a crucial test of faithfulness, they persuaded men more than ever that was a thing indifferent. (Revelation 2:13,14) This was bad enough, but there was a yet worse evil. Mingling themselves in the orgies of idolatrous feasts, they brought the impurities of those feasts into the meetings of the Christian Church. And all this was done, it must be remembered not simply as an indulgence of appetite: but as a part of a system, supported by a “doctrine,” accompanied by the boast of a prophetic illumination, (2 Peter 2:1) It confirms the view which has been taken of their character to find that stress is laid in the first instance on the “deeds” of the Nicolaitans. To hate those deeds is a sign of life in a Church that otherwise is weak and faithless. (Revelation 2:6) To tolerate them is well nigh to forfeit the glory of having been faithful under persecution. (Revelation 2:14,15)
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Nicolas – (victor of the people), (Acts 6:5) a native of Antioch and a proselyte to the Jewish faith. When the church was still confined to Jerusalem, he became a convert and being a man of honest report full of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom, he was chosen by the whole multitude of the disciples to be one of the first seven deacons, and was ordained by the apostles. There is no reason except the simplicity of name for identifying Nicolas with the sect of Nicolaitans which our Lord denounces, for the traditions on the subject are of no value.
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Nicopolis – (city of victory) is mentioned in (Titus 3:12) as the place where St. Paul was intending to pass the coming winter. Nothing is to be found in the epistle itself to determine which Nicopolis is here intended. One Nicopolis was in Thrace, near the borders of Macedonia. The subscription (which, however, is of no authority) fixes on this place, calling it the Macedonian Nicopolis. But there is little doubt that Jerome’s view is correct, and that the Pauline Nicopolis was the celebrated city of Epirus. This city (the “city of victory”) was built by Augustus in memory the battle of Actium. It was on a peninsula, to the west of the bay of Actium.
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Niger – (black) is the additional or distinctive name given to the Simeon who was one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch. (Acts 13:1)
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Night – [Day]
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Nighthawk – The Hebrew word so translated, (Leviticus 11:10; 14:15) probably denotes some kind of owl.
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Nile – (blue, dark), the great river of Egypt. The word Nile nowhere occurs in the Authorized Version but it is spoken of under the names of Sihor [Sihor] and the “river of Egypt. ” (Genesis 15:18) We cannot as yet determine the length of the Nile, although recent discoveries have narrowed the question. There is scarcely a doubt that its largest confluent is fed by the great lakes on and south of the equator. It has been traced upward for about 2700 miles, measured by its course, not in a direct line, and its extent is probably over 1000 miles more. (The course of the river has been traced for 3300 miles. For the first 1800 miles (mcclintock and Strong say 2300) from its mouth it receives no tributary; but at Kartoom, the capital of Nubia, is the junction of the two great branches, the White Nile and the Blue Nile, so called from the color of the clay which tinges their waters. The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt. The White Nile is the larger branch. Late travellers have found its source in Lake Victoria Nyanza, three degrees south of the equator. From this lake to the mouth of the Nile the distance is 2300 miles in a straight line–one eleventh the circumference of the globe. From the First Cataract, at Syene, the river flows smoothly at the rate of two or three miles an hour with a width of half a mile. To Cairo. A little north of Cairo it divides into two branches, one flowing to Rosetta and the other to Damietta, from which place the mouths are named. See Bartlett’s “Egypt and Palestine,” 1879. The great peculiarity of the river is its annual overflow, caused by the periodical tropical rains. “With wonderful clock-like regularity the river begins to swell about the end of June, rises 24 feet at Cairo between the 20th and 30th of September and falls as much by the middle of May. Six feet higher than this is devastation; six feet lower is destitution. “–Bartlett. So that the Nile increases one hundred days and decreases one hundred days, and the culmination scarcely varies three days from September 25 the autumnal equinox. Thus “Egypt is the gift of the Nile. ” As to the cause of the years of plenty and of famine in the time of Joseph, Mr. Osburn, in his “Monumental History of Egypt,” thinks that the cause of the seven years of plenty was the bursting of the barriers (and gradually wearing them away) of “the great lake of Ethiopia,” which once existed on the upper Nile, thus bringing more water and more sediment to lower Egypt for those years. And he shows how this same destruction of this immense sea would cause the absorption of the waters of the Nile over its dry bed for several years after thus causing the famine. There is another instance of a seven-years famine-A. D. 1064-1071. ED.) The great difference between the Nile of Egypt in the present day and in ancient times is caused by the failure of some of its branches and the ceasing of some of its chief vegetable products; and the chief change in the aspect of the cultivable land, as dependent on the Nile, is the result of the ruin of the fish-pools and their conduits and the consequent decline of the fisheries. The river was famous for its seven branches, and under the Roman dominion eleven were counted, of which, however, there were but seven principal ones. The monuments and the narratives of ancient writers show us in the Nile of Egypt in old times a stream bordered By flags and reeds, the covert of abundant wild fowl, and bearing on its waters the fragrant flowers of the various-colored lotus. Now in Egypt scarcely any reeds or waterplants–the famous papyrus being nearly, if not quite extinct, and the lotus almost unknown–are to he seen, excepting in the marshes near the Mediterranean. Of old the great river must have shown a more fair and busy scene than now. Boats of many kinds were ever passing along it, by the painted walls of temples and the gardens that extended around the light summer pavilions, from the pleasure,valley, with one great square sail in pattern and many oars, to the little papyrus skiff dancing on the water and carrying the seekers of pleasure where they could shoot with arrows or knock down with the throw-stick the wild fowl that abounded among the reeds, or engage in the dangerous chase of the hippopotamus or the crocodile. The Nile is constantly before us in the history of Israel in Egypt.
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Nimrah – (limpid, pure), a place mentioned by this name in (Numbers 32:3) only. If it is the same as BETU-NIMRAH, ver. 36, it belonged to the tribe of Gad. It was ten miles north of the Dead Sea and three miles east of the Jordan, in the hill of Nimrim.
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Nimrim – (limpid, pure), The waters of, a stream or brook within the country of Moab, which is mentioned in the denunciations of that nation by Isaiah. (Isaiah 15:6) and Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 48:34) We should perhaps look for the site of Nimrim in Moab proper, i. E. On the southeastern shoulder of the Dead Sea.
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Nimrod – (rebellion; or the valiant), a son of Cush and grandson of Ham. The events of his life are recorded in (Genesis 10:8) ff. , from which we learn
• that he was a Cushite;
• that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia) the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh; and
• that he extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah and Resen.
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Nimshi – (rescued), the grandfather of Jehu, who is generally called “the son of Nimshi. ” (1 Kings 19:16; 2 Kings 9:2; 14:20; 2 Chronicles 22:7)
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Nineveh – (abode of Ninus), the capital of the ancient kingdom and empire of Assyria. The name appears to be compounded from that of an Assyrian deity “Nin,” corresponding, it is conjectured, with the Greek Hercules, and occurring in the names of several Assyrian kings, as in “Ninus,” the mythic founder, according to Greek tradition of the city. Nineveh is situated on the eastern bank of the river Tigris, 50 miles from its mouth and 250 miles north of Babylon. It is first mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with the primitive dispersement and migrations of the human race. Asshur, or according to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is there described, (Genesis 10:11) as extending his kingdom from the land of Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh. Hence Assyria was subsequently known to the Jews as “the land of Nimrod,” cf. (Micah 5:6) and was believed to have been first peopled by a colony from Babylon. The kingdom of Assyria and of the Assyrians is referred to in the Old Testament as connected with the Jews at a very early period, as in (Numbers 24:22,24) and Psalm 83:8 But after the notice of the foundation of Nineveh in Genesis no further mention is made of the city until the time of the book of Jonah, or the eighth century B. C. In this book no mention is made of Assyria or the Assyrians, the king to whom the prophet was sent being termed the “king of Nineveh,” and his subjects “the people of Nineveh. ” Assyria is first called a kingdom in the time of Menahem, about B. C. 770. Nahum (? B. C. 645) directs his prophecies against Nineveh; only once against the king of Assyria. Ch. (Nahum 3:18) In (2 Kings 19:36) and Isai 37:37 The city is first distinctly mentioned as the residence of the monarch. Sennacherib was slain there when worshipping in the temple of Nisroch his god. Zephaniah, about B. C. 630, couples the capital and the kingdom together, (Zephaniah 2:13) and this is the last mention of Nineveh as an existing city. The destruction of Nineveh occurred B. C. 606. The city was then laid waste, its monuments destroyed and its inhabitants scattered or carried away into captivity. It never rose again from its ruins. This total disappearance of Nineveh is fully confirmed by the records of profane history. The political history of Nineveh is that of Assyria, of which a sketch has already been given. [Assyria, shur#] Previous to recent excavations and researches, the ruins which occupied the presumed site of Nineveh seemed to consist of mere shapeless heaps or mounds of earth and rubbish. Unlike the vast masses of brick masonry which mark the site of Babylon, they showed externally no signs of artificial construction, except perhaps here and there the traces of a rude wall of sun-dried bricks. Some of these mounds were of enormous dimensions, looking in the distance rather like natural elevations than the work of men’s hands. They differ greatly in form, size and height. Some are mere conical heaps, varying from 50 to 150 feet high; others have a broad flat summit, and very precipitous cliff-like sites furrowed by deep ravines worn by the winter rains.
I. The principal ruins are:
A. The group immediately opposite Mosul, including the great mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebbi Yunus ;
B. that near the junction of the Tigris and Zab comprising the mounds of Nimroud and Athur ;
C. Khorsabad, about ten miles to the east of the former river;
D. Shereef Khan, about 5 1/2 miles to the north Kouyunjik; and
• Selamiyah, three miles to the north of Nimroud.
II. Discoveries. The first traveller who carefully examined the supposed site of Nineveh was Mr. Rich formerly political agent for the East India Company at Bagdad; but his investigations were almost entirely confined to Kouyunjik and the surrounding mounds of which he made a survey in 1820. In 1843 M. Botta, the French consul at Mosul, fully explored the ruins. M. Botta’s discoveries at Khorsabad were followed by those of Mr. Layard at Nimroud and Kouyunjik, made between the years 1846 and 1850. (Since then very many and important discoveries have been made at Nineveh, more especially those by George Smith, of the British Museum. He has discovered not only the buildings, but the remains of fin ancient library written on stone tablets. These leaves or tablets were from an inch to 1 foot square, made of terra-cotta clay, on which when soft the inscriptions were written; the tablets were then hardened and placed upon the walls of the library rooms, so as to cover the walls. This royal library contained over 10,000 tablets. It was begun by Shalmaneser B. C. 860; his successors added to it, and Sardanapalus (B. C. 673) almost doubled it. Stories or subjects were begun on tablets, and continued on tablets of the same size sometimes to the number of one hundred. Some of the most interesting of these give accounts of the creation and of the deluge and all agree with or confirm the Bible. ED.)
III. Description of remains. The Assyrian edifices were so nearly alike in general plan, construction an decoration that one description will suffice for all, They were built upon artificial mounds or platforms, varying in height, but generally from 30 to 50 feet above the level of the surrounding country, and solidly constructed of regular layers of sun-dried bricks, as at Nimroud, or consisting merely of earth and rubbish heaped up, as at Kouyunjik. This platform was probably faced with stone masonry, remains probable which were discovered at Nimroud, and broad flights of steps or inclined ways led up to its summit. Although only the general plan of the ground-floor can now be traced, it is evident that the palaces had several stories built of wood and sun-dried bricks, which, when the building was deserted and allowed to fall to decay, gradually buried the lower chambers with their ruins, and protected the sculptured slabs from the effects of the weather. The depth of soil and rubbish above the alabaster slabs varied from a few inches to about 20 feet. It is to this accumulation of rubbish above them that the bas-reliefs owe their extraordinary preservation. The portions of the edifices still remaining consist of halls, chambers and galleries, opening for the most part into large uncovered courts. The wall above the wainscoting of alabaster was plastered, and painted with figures and ornaments. The sculptured, with the exception of the human headed lions and bulls, were for the most part in low relief, The colossal figures usually represent the king, his attendants and the gods; the smaller sculptures, which either cover the whole face of the slab or are divided into two compartments by bands of inscriptions, represent battles sieges, the chase single combats with wild beasts, religious ceremonies, etc. , etc. All refer to public or national events; the hunting-scenes evidently recording the prowess and personal valor of the king as the head of the people– “the mighty hunter before the Lord. ” The sculptures appear to have been painted, remains of color having been found on most of them. Thus decorated without and within, the Assyrian palaces must have displayed a barbaric magnificence, not, however, devoid of a certain grandeur and beauty which probably no ancient or modern edifice has exceeded. These great edifices, the depositories of the national records, appear to have been at the same time the abode of the king and the temple of the gods. Prophecies relating to Nineveh, and illustrations of the Old Testament. These are exclusively contained in the books of Nahum and Zephaniah. Nahum threatens the entire destruction of the city, so that it shall not rise again from its ruins. The city was to be partly destroyed by fire. (Nahum 3:13,16) The gateway in the northern wall of the Kouyunjik enclosure had been destroyed by fire as well as the palaces. The population was to be surprised when unprepared: “while they are drunk as drunkards they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry ” (Nahum 1:10) Diodorus states that the last and fatal assault was made when they were overcome with wine. The captivity of the inhabitants and their removal to distant provinces are predicted. (Nahum 3:18) The fullest and the most vivid and poetical picture of Nineveh’s ruined and deserted condition is that given by Zephaniah, who probably lived to see its fall. (Zephaniah 2:13-15)
IV. Site of the city. Much diversity of opinion exists as to the identification of the ruins which may be properly included within the site of ancient Nineveh. According to Sir H. Rawlinson and those who concur in his interpretation of the cuneiform characters, each group of mounds already mentioned represents a separate and distinct city. On the other hand it has been conjectured, with much probability, that these groups of mounds are not ruins of separate cities, but of fortified royal residences, each combining palaces, temples, propylaea, gardens and parks, and having its peculiar name; and that they all formed part of one great city built and added to at different periods, sad consisting of distinct quarters scattered over a very large and frequently very distant one from the other. Thus the city would be, as Layard says, in the form of a parallelogram 18 to 20 miles long by 12 to 14 wide; or, as Diodorus Siculus says, 55 miles in circumference.
V. Writing and language. The ruins of Nineveh have furnished a vast collection of inscriptions partly carved on marble or stone slabs and partly impressed upon bricks anti upon clay cylinders, or sixsided and eight-sided prisms, barrels and tablets, which, used for the purpose when still moist, were afterward baked in a furnace or kilo. Comp. (Ezekiel 4:4) The character employed was the arrow-headed or cuneiform–so called from each letter being formed by marks or elements resembling an arrow-head or a wedge. These inscribed bricks are of the greatest value in restoring the royal dynasties. The most important inscription hitherto discovered in connection with biblical history is that upon a pair of colossal human-headed bulls from Kouyunjik, now in the British Museum, containing the records of Sennacherib, and describing, among other events, his wars with Hezekiah. It is accompanied by a series of bas-reliefs believed to represent the siege and capture of Lachish. A list of nineteen or twenty kings can already be compiled, and the annals of the greater number of them will probably be restored to the lost history of one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world. And of one which appears to have exercised perhaps greater influence than any other upon the subsequent condition and development of civilized man. The people of Nineveh spoke a Shemitic dialect, connected with the Hebrew and with the so called Chaldee of the books of Daniel and Ezra. This agrees with the testimony of the Old Testament.
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Ninevites – the inhabitants of Nineveh. (Luke 11:30)
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Nisan – [Month]
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Nisroch – (the great eagle) an idol of Nineveh, in whose temple Sennacherib was worshipping when assassinated by his sons, Adrammelech and Shizrezer. (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38) This idol is identified with the eagle-headed human figure, which is one of the most prominent on the earliest Assyrian monuments, and is always represented as contending with and conquering the lion or the bull.
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Nitre – Mention of this substance is made in (Proverbs 25:20)–“and as vinegar upon nitre”–and in (Jeremiah 2:26) The article denoted is not that which we now understand by the term nitre i. E. Nitrate of Potassa–“saltpetre”–but the nitrum of the Latins and the natron or native carbonate of soda of modern chemistry. Natron was and still is used by the Egyptians for washing linen. The value of soda in this respect is well known. This explains the passage in Jeremiah. Natron is found In great abundance in the well-known soda lakes of Egypt.
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No – [No-Amon]
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No-Adiah – (whom Jehovah meets).
• A Levite, son of Binnui who with Meremoth, Eleazar and Jozabad weighed the vessels of gold and silver belonging to the temple which were brought back from Babylon. (Ezra 8:33) (B. C. 459.)
• The prophetess Noadiah joined Sanballet and Tobiah in their attempt to intimidate Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 6:14) (B. C. 445.)
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No-Amon – (temple of Amon) (Nahum 3:8) No, (Jeremiah 46:25; Ezekiel 30:14,16) a city of Egypt, better known under the name of Thebes or Diospolis Magna, the ancient and splendid metropolis of upper Egypt The second part of the first form as the name of Amen, the chief divinity of Thebes, mentioned or alluded to in connection with this place in Jeremiah. There is a difficulty as to the meaning of No. It seems most reasonable to suppose that No is a Shemitic name and that Amen is added in Nahum (l. C.) To distinguish Thebes from some other place bearing the same name or on account of the connection of Amen with that city. The description of No-amon as “situated among the rivers, the waters round about it” (Nah. L. C.), remarkably characterizes Thebes. (It lay on both sides of the Nile, and was celebrated for its hundred gates, for its temples, obelisks, statues. Etc. It was emphatically the city of temples, in the ruins of which many monuments of ancient Egypt are preserved, The plan of the city was a parallelogram, two miles from north to south and four from east to west, but none suppose that in its glory if really extended 33 miles along both aides of the Nile. Thebes was destroyed by Ptolemy, B. C. 81, and since then its population has dwelt in villages only. ED.)
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Noah –
I. (motion), one of the five daughters of Zelophehad. (Numbers 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Joshua 17:3) (B. C. 1450.)
II. (rest), the tenth in descent from Adam, in the line of Seth was the son of Lamech and grandson of Methuselah. (B. C. 2948-1998.) We hear nothing of Noah till he is 500 years old when It is said he begat three sons, Shem, Ham and Japheth. In consequence of the grievous and hopeless wickedness of the world at this time, God resolved to destroy it. Of Noah’s life during this age of almost universal apostasy we are told but little. It is merely said that he was a righteous man and perfect in his generations (i. E. Among his contemporaries), and that he, like Enoch, walked with God. St. Peter calls him “a preacher of righteousness. ” (2 Peter 2:5) Besides this we are merely told that he had three: sons each of whom had married a wife; that he built the ark in accordance with divine direction; end that he was 600 years old when the flood came. (Genesis 6:7)
A. The ark. The precise meaning of the Hebrew word (tebah) is uncertain. The word occurs only in Genesis and in (Exodus 2:3) In all probability it is to the old Egyptian that we are to look for its original form. Bunsen, in his vocabulary gives tba, “a chest,” tpt, “a boat,” and in the Coptic version of (Exodus 2:3,5) thebi is the rendering of tebah. This “chest” or “boat” was to be made of gopher (i. E. Cypress) wood, a kind of timber which both for its lightness and its durability was employed by the Phoenicians for building their vessels. The planks of the ark, after being put together were to be protected by a coating of pitch, or rather bitumen, both inside and outside, to make it water-tight, and perhaps also as a protection against the attacks of marine animals. The ark was to consist of a number of “nests” or small compartments, with a view, no doubt, to the convenient distribution of the different animals and their food. These were to be arranged in three tiers, one above another; “with lower, second and third (stories) shalt thou make it. ” Means were also to be provided for letting light into the ark. There was to be a door this was to be placed in the side of the ark. Of the shape of the ark nothing is said, but its dimensions are given. It was to be 300 cubits in length, 50 in breadth and 30 in height. Taking 21 inches for the cubit, the ark would be 525 feet in length, 87 feet 6 inches in breadth and 52 feet 6 inches in height. This is very considerably larger than the largest British man-of-war, but not as large as some modern ships. It should be remembered that this huge structure was only intended to float on the water, and was not in the proper sense of the word a ship. It had neither mast, sail nor rudder it was in fact nothing but an enormous floating house, or rather oblong box. The inmates of the ark were Noah and his wife and his three sons with their wives. Noah was directed to take also animals of all kinds into the ark with him, that they might be preserved alive. (The method of speaking of the animals that were taken into the ark “clean” and “unclean,” implies that only those which were useful to man were preserved, and that no wild animals were taken into the ark; so that there is no difficulty from the great number of different species of animal life existing in the word. ED.)
B. The flood. The ark was finished, and all its living freight was gathered into it as a place of safety. Jehovah shut him in, says the chronicler, speaking of Noah; and then there ensued a solemn pause of seven days before the threatened destruction was let loose. At last the before the threatened destruction was flood came; the waters were upon the earth. A very simple but very powerful and impressive description is given of the appalling catastrophe. The waters of the flood increased for a period of 190 days (40+150, comparing) (Genesis 7:12) and Genesis7:24 And then “God remembered Noah” and made a wind to pass over the earth, so that the waters were assuaged. The ark rested on the seventeenth day of the seventh month on the mountains of Ararat. After this the waters gradually decreased till the first day of the tenth month, when the tops of the mountains were seen but Noah and his family did not disembark till they had been in the ark a year and a month and twenty days. Whether the flood was universal or partial has given rise to much controversy; but there can be no doubt that it was universal, so far as man was concerned: we mean that it extended to all the then known world. The literal truth of the narrative obliges us to believe that the whole human race, except eight persons, perished by the flood. The language of the book of Genesis does not compel us to suppose that the whole surface of the globe was actually covered with water, if the evidence of geology requires us to adopt the hypothesis of a partial deluge. It is natural to suppose it that the writer, when he speaks of “all flesh,” “all in whose nostrils was the breath of life” refers only to his own locality. This sort of language is common enough in the Bible when only a small part of the globe is intended. Thus, for instance, it is said that “all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn and that” a decree went out from Caesar Augustus that all the world should be taxed. ” The truth of the biblical narrative is confirmed by the numerous traditions of other nations, which have preserved the memory of a great and destructive flood, from which but a small part of mankind escaped. They seem to point back to a common centre whence they were carried by the different families of man as they wandered east and west. The traditions which come nearest to the biblical account are those of the nations of western Asia. Foremost among these is the Chaldean. Other notices of a flood may be found in the Phoenician mythology. There is a medal of Apamea in Phrygia, struck as late as the time of Septimius Severus, in which the Phrygian deluge is commemorated. This medal represents a kind of a square vessel floating in the water. Through an opening in it are seen two persons, a man and a woman. Upon the top of this chest or ark is perched a bird, whilst another flies toward it carrying a branch between its feet. Before the vessel are represented the same pair as having just, quitted it and got upon the dry land. Singularly enough, too, on some specimens of this medal the letters NO or NOE have been found on the vessel, as in the cut on p. 454. (Tayler Lewis deduces the partial extent of the flood from the very face of the Hebrew text. ” “Earth,” where if speaks of “all the earth,” often is, and here should be, translated “land,” the home of the race, from which there appears to have been little inclination to wander. Even after the flood God had to compel them to disperse. “Under the whole heavens” simply includes the horizon reaching around “all the land” the visible horizon. We still use the words in the same sense and so does the Bible. Nearly all commentators now agree on the partial extent of the deluge. If is probable also that the crimes and violence of the previous age had greatly diminished the population, and that they would have utterly exterminated the race had not God in this way saved out some good seed from their destruction. So that the flood, by appearing to destroy the race, really saved the world from destruction. ED.)
C. The scene of the deluge–Hugh Miller, in his “Testimony of the Rocks,” argues that there is a remarkable portion of the globe, chiefly on the Asiatic continent, though it extends into Europe, and which is nearly equal to all Europe in extent, whose rivers (some of them the Volga, Oural, Sihon, Kour and the Amoo, of great size) do not fall into the ocean, but, on the contrary are all turned inward, losing themselves in the eastern part of the tract, in the lakes of a rainless district in the western parts into such seas as the Caspian and the Aral. In this region there are extensive districts still under the level of the ocean. Vast plains white with salt and charged with sea-shells, show that the Caspian Sea was at no distant period greatly more extensive than it is now. With the well-known facts, then, before us regarding this depressed Asiatic region, let us suppose that the human family, still amounting to several millions, though greatly reduced by exterminating wars and exhausting vices, were congregated in that tract of country which, extending eastward from the modern Ararat to far beyond the Sea of Aral, includes the original Caucasian centre of the race. Let us suppose that, the hour of judgment having arrived, the land began gradually to sink (as the tract in the Run of Cutch sank in the year 1819) equably for forty days at the rate of about 400 feet per day a rate not twice greater than that at which the tide rises in the Straits of Magellan, and which would have rendered itself apparent as but a persistent inward flowing of the sea. The depression, which, by extending to the Euxine Sea and the Persian Gulf on the one hand and the Gulf of Finland on the other, would open up by three separate channels the “fountains of the great deep,” and which included an area of 2000 miles each way, would, at the end of the fortieth day, be sunk in its centre to the depth of 16,000 feet,–sufficient to bury the loftiest mountains of the district; and yet, having a gradient of declination of but sixteen feet per mile, the contour of its hills and plains would remain apparently what they had been before, and the doomed inhabitants would, but the water rising along the mountain sides, and one refuge after another swept away. ED.)
D. After the Flood. Noah’s great act after he left the ark was to build an altar and to offer sacrifices. This is the first altar of which we read in Scripture, and the first burnt sacrifice. Then follows the blessing of God upon Noah and his sons. Noah is clearly the head of a new human family, the representative of the whole race. It is as such that God makes his covenant with him; and hence selects a natural phenomenon as the sign of that covenant. The bow in the cloud, seen by every nation under heaven, is an unfailing witness to the truth of God. Noah now for the rest of his life betook himself to agricultural pursuits. It is particularly noticed that he planted a vineyard. Whether in ignorance of its properties or otherwise we are not informed, but he drank of the juice of the grape till he became intoxicated and shamefully exposed himself in his own tent. One of sons, Ham, mocked openly at his father’s disgrace. The others, with dutiful care and reverence, endeavored to hide it. When he recovered from the effects of his intoxication, he declared that a curse should rest upon the sons of Ham. With the curse on his youngest son was joined a blessing on the other two. After this prophetic blessing we hear no more of the patriarch but the sum of his years, 950.
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Nob – (high place) (1 Samuel 22:19; Nehemiah 11:32) a sacerdotal city in the tribe of Benjamin and situated on some eminence near Jerusalem. It was one of the places where the ark of Jehovah was kept for a time during the days of its wanderings. (2 Samuel 6:1) etc. But the event for which Nob was most noted in the Scripture annals was a frightful massacre which occurred there in the reign of Saul. (1 Samuel 22:17-19)
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Nobah – (barking), an Israelite warrior, (Numbers 32:42) who during the conquest of the territory on the east of Jordan possessed himself of the town of Kenath and the villages or hamlets dependent upon it, and gave them his own name. (B. C. 1450.) For a certain period after the establishment of the Israelite rule the new name remained, (Judges 8:11) but it is not again heard of, and the original appellation, as is usual in such cases, appears to have recovered its hold, has since retained; for in the slightly-modified form of Kunawat it is the name of the place to the present day.
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Nod – (flight), the land to which Cain fled after the murder of Abel. [Cain]
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Nodab – (nobility), the name of an Arab tribe mentioned only in (1 Chronicles 6:19) in the account of the war of the Reubenites against the Hagarites. Vs. 9-22. It is probable that Nodab, their ancestor, was the son of Ishmael, being mentioned with two of his other sons in the passage above cited, and was therefore a grandson of Abraham.
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Nogah – (brightness), one of the thirteen sons of David who were born to him in Jerusalem, (1 Chronicles 3:7; 14:6) (B. C. 1050-1015.)
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Nohah – (rest), the fourth son of Benjamin. (1 Chronicles 8:2)
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Non – (fish). Nun, the father of Joshua. (1 Chronicles 7:27)
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Noph – [Memphis]
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Nopha – (blast), a place mentioned only in (Numbers 21:30) in the remarkable song apparently composed by the Amorites after their conquest of Heshbon from the Moabites, and therefore of an earlier date than the Israelite invasion. It is named with Dibon and Medeba, and was possibly in the neighborhood of Heshbon. A name very similar to Nophah is Nobah, which is twice mentioned. Ewald decides that Nophah is identical with the latter of these.
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Nose-Jewel – (Genesis 24:22; Exodus 35:22) “earing;” (Isaiah 3:21; Ezekiel 16:12) “jewel on the forehead,” a ring of metal, sometimes of gold or silver, passed usually through the right nostril, and worn by way of ornament by women in the East. Upon it are strung beads, coral or jewels. In Egypt it is now almost confined to the lower classes.
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Number – Like most Oriental nations, it is probable that the Hebrews in their written calculations made use of the letters of the alphabet. That they did so in post-Babylonian times we have conclusive evidence in the Maccabaean coins; and it is highly probable that this was the ease also in earlier times. But though, on the one hand, it is certain that in all existing MSS of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament the numerical expressions are written at length, yet, on the other, the variations in the several versions between themselves and from the Hebrew text, added to the evident inconsistencies in numerical statement between certain passages of that text itself seems to prove that some shorter mode of writing was originally in vogue, liable to be misunderstood, and in fact misunderstood by copyists and translators. These variations appear to have proceeded from the alphabetic method of writing numbers. There can be little doubt, however, that some at least of the numbers mentioned in Scripture are intended to be representative rather than determinative. Certain numbers, as 7,10,40,100, were regarded as giving the idea of completeness. Without entering into St. Augustine’s theory of this usage, we may remark that the notion of representative numbers in certain cases is one extremely common among eastern nations, who have a prejudice against counting their possessions accurately; that it enters largely into many ancient systems of chronology, and that it is found in the philosophical and metaphysical speculations not only of the Pythagorean and other ancient schools of philosophy, both Greek and Roman, but also in those of the later Jewish writers, of the Gnostics, and also of such Christian writers se St. Augustine himself. We proceed to give some instances of numbers used,
1. Representatively, and thus probably by design indefinitely, or,
2. Definitely, but, as we may say, preferentially, i. E. Because some meaning (which we do not in all cases understand) was attached to them.
• Seven as denoting either plurality or completeness, perhaps because seven days completed the week is so frequent as to make a selection only of instances necessary, e. G. Seven fold (Genesis 4:24) seven times, i. E. Completely, (Leviticus 26:24; Psalms 12:6) seven (i. E. Many) ways, (28:25)
• Ten as a preferential number is exemplified in the Ten Commandments and the law of tithe.
• Seventy, as compounded of 7 X 10, appears frequently e. G. Seventy fold. (Genesis 4:24; Matthew 18:22) Its definite use appears in the offerings of 70 shekels, (Numbers 7:13,19) ff,; the 70 elders, ch. (Numbers 11:16) 70 Years of captivity. (Jeremiah 25:11)
• Five appears in the table of punishments, of legal requirements, (Exodus 22:1; Leviticus 5:16; 22:14; 27:15; Numbers 5:7; 18:16) and in the five empires of Daniel. (Daniel 2:1). . .
• Four is used in reference to the 4 winds, (Daniel 7:2) and the so-called 4 corners of the earth; the creatures, each with 4 wings and 4 faces, of Ezekiel, (Ezekiel 1:5) ff. ; 4 Rivers of Paradise (Genesis 2:10) 4 Beasts, (Daniel 7:1). . . And Reve 4:6 The 4 equal-sided temple-chamber. (Ezekiel 40:47)
• Three was regarded, by both the Jews and other nations as a specially complete and mystic number.
• Twelve (3X4) appears in 12 tribes 12 stones in the high priest’s breastplate, 12 apostles, 12 foundation-stones, and 12 gates. (Revelation 21:19-21)
• Lastly, the mystic number 666. (Revelation 13:18)
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Numbers – the fourth book of the law or Pentateuch. It takes its name in the LXX. And Vulgate (whence our “Numbers”) from the double numbering or census of the people, the first of which is given in chs. 1-4, and the second in ch. 28.
I. Contents. The book may be said to contain generally the history of the Israelites from the time of their leaving Sinai, in the second year after the exodus till their arrival at the borders of the Promised land in the fortieth year of their journeyings It consists of the following principal divisions: 1, The Preparations for the departure from Sinai. (Numbers 1:1; Numbers 10:10)
A. The journey from Sinai to the borders of Canaan. Ch. (Numbers 10:11; Numbers 14:45)
B. A brief notice of laws and events which transpired during the thirty-seven years wandering in the wilderness. Ch. (Numbers 15:1; Numbers 19:22)
II. The history of the last year, from the second arrival of the Israelites in Kadesh till they reached “the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho. ” ch, (Numbers 20:1; Numbers 36:13)
III. Integrity. This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, is supposed by many critics to consist of a compilation from two or three or more earlier documents; but the grounds on which this distinction of documents rests are in every respect most unsatisfactory, and it may, in common with the preceding books and Deuteronomy, be regarded as the work of Moses. The book of Numbers is rich in fragments of ancient poetry, some of them of great beauty and all throwing an interesting light on the character of the times in which they were composed. Such, for instance, is the blessing of the high priest. Ch. (Numbers 6:24-26) Such too are chants which were the signal for the ark to move when the people journeyed, and for it to rest when they were about to encamp. In ch. 21 we have a passage cited from a book called the “Book of the Wars of Jehovah. ” This was probably a collection of ballads and songs composed on different occasions by the watch-fires of the camp, and for the most part, though not perhaps exclusively, in commemoration of the victories of the Israelites over their enemies.
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Nun – (fish, or posterity), the father of the Jewish captain Joshua. (Exodus 33:11) etc. His genealogical descent from Ephraim is recorded in (1 Chronicles 7:1). . . (B. C. Before 1530.)
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Nurse – In ancient times the position of the nurse, wherever one was maintained, was one of much honor sad importance. See (Genesis 24:59; 36:8; 2 Samuel 4:4; 2 Kings 11:2) The same term is applied to a foster-father or mother, e. G. (Numbers 11:12; Ruth 4:16; Isaiah 49:23)
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Nuts – are mentioned among the good things of the things which the sons of Israel were to take as a present to Joseph in Egypt. (Genesis 43:11) There can scarcely be a doubt that the Hebrew word, here denotes the fruit of the pistachio tree (Pistacia vera), for Syria and Palestine have been long famous. In (Song of Solomon 6:11) a different Hebrew word is translated “nuts. ” In all probability it here refers to the walnut tree. According to Josephus the walnut tree was formerly common and grew most luxuriantly around the Lake of Gennesareth.
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Nym Phas – (bridegroom), a wealthy and zealous Christian in Laodicea. (Colossians 4:15) (A. D.

Bible Dictionary M

Smith’s Bible Dictionary – M

Maacah, Maachah, Maachathi, Maadai, Or Maadai, Maadiah, Maai, Maalehacrabbim, Maaseiah, Maasiai, Maath, Maaziah, Macaerus, Maccabees, Maccabees, Books Of, Macedonia, Machbanai, Machbenah, Machi, Machir, Machirites, The, Machnadebai, Machpelah, Madai, Madian, Madmannah, Madmen, Madmenah, Madness, Madon, Magadan, Magbish, Magdala, Magdiel, Magi, Magic, Magicians, Magog, Magormissabib, Magpiash, Mahalah, Mahalaleel, Mahalath, Mahali, Mahanaim, Mahanehdan, Maharai, Mahath, Mahavite, The, Mahazioth, Mahershalalhashbaz, Mahlah, Mahli, Mahlon, Mahol, Makaz, Makheloth, Makkedah, Maktesh, Malchishua, Malchus, Maleleel, Or Mahalaleel, Mallothi, Mallows, Malluch, Mamaias, Mammon, Mamre, Man, Manaen, Manahath, Manahetbites, Manasseh, Manasses, Manassites, The, Mandrakes, Maneh, Manger, Manna, Manoah, Manslayer, Mantle, Maoch, Maon, Maonites, The, Mara, Marah, Maralah, Maranatha, Marble, Marcheshvan, Marcus, Mareshah, Or Mareshah, Mark, Mark, Gospel Of, Market Of Appius, Marketplaces, Maroth, Marriage, Mars Hill, Marsena, Martha, Mary, Mary Magdalene, Mary, The Virgin, Mary, Mother Of Mark, Mary, Sister Of Lazarus, Maschil, Mash, Mashal, Massa, Massah, Massrekah, Mathusala, Matithiah, Matred, Matri, Mattan, Mattanah, Mattaniah, Mattathah, Mattathias, Mattenai, Matthan, Matthat, Matthew, Matthew, Gospel Of, Matthias, Mattock, Maul, Mauzzim, Mazzaroth, Meadow, Meah, Meals, Mearah, Measures, Meat, Meat Offering, Mebunnai, Mecherathite, The, Medad, Medan, Medeba, Medes, Media, Median, The, Medicine, Megiddo, Mehetabel, Mehetableel, Mehida, Mehir, Meholathite, The, Mehujael, Mehuman, Mehunim, Mehunims, The, Mejarkon, Mekonah, Melatiah, Melchi, Melchiah, Melchisedec, Melchishua, Melchizedek, Melea, Melech, Melicu, Melita, Melons, Melzar, Memphis, Memucan, Menahem, Menan, Mene, Meni, Menna, Meonenim, Meonothai, Mephaath, Mephibosheth, Merab, Meraiah, Meraioth, Merarath, Merari, Merarites, Merathaim, Mercurius, Mercury, Mercyseat, Mered, Meremoth, Meres, Meribah, Meribbaa, Merodach, Merodachbaladan, Merom, Meronothithe, The, Meroz, Mesech, Meshech, Mesha, Meshach, Meshelemiah, Meshezabeel, Meshillemith, Meshillemoth, Meshullam, Meshullemeth, Mesobaite, The, Mesopotamia, Messiah, Messias, Metals, Methegammah, Methusael, Methuselah, Meunim, Meuzai, Mezahab, Miamin, Mibhar, Mibsam, Mibzar, Micah, Micah, The Book Of, Micaiah, Micha, Michael, Michah, Michaiah, Michal, Michmas Or Michmash, Michmethah, Michri, Michtam, Middin, Midian, Migdalel, Migdalgad, Migdol, Migron, Mijamin, Mikloth, Mikneiah, Milalai, Milcah, Milcom, Mile, Miletus, Milk, Mill, Millet, Millo, Millo, The House Of, Mines, Mining, Miniamin, Minister, Minni, Minnith, Minstrel, Mint, Miphkad, Miracles, Miriam, Mirma, Mirror, Misgab, Mishael, Mishal, Or Misheal, Misham, Mishma, Mishmannah, Mishraites, The, Mispereth, Misrephothmaim, Mite, Mithcah, Mithnite, The, Mithredath, Mitre, Mitylene, Mixed Multitude, Mizar, Mizpah, Mizpar, Mizpeh, Mizraim, Or Mizraim, Mizzah, Mnason, Moab, Moabite Stone, The, Moadiah, Modin, Moladah, Mole, Molech, Moli, Molid, Moloch, Money, Moneychangers, Month, Moon, Moon, New, Morasthite, The, Mordecai, Moreh, Moreshethgath, Moriah, Mortar, Moserah, Moses, Moth, Mother, Mount, Mount, Mountain, Mountain Of The Amorites, Mourning, Mouse, Mowing, Moza, Mozah, Muaz, Mulbury Trees, Mule, Muppim, Murder, Mushi, Music, Musical Instruments Of The Hebrews, Mustard, Muthlabben, Myra, Myrrh, Myrtle, Mysia

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Maacah – (oppression).
• The mother of Absalom; also called Maachah. (2 Samuel 3:3)

• Maacah, or (in (1 Chronicles 19:6,7)) Maachah, a small kingdom in close proximity to Palestine which appears to have lain outside Argob, (3:14) and Bashun. (Joshua 12:5) The Ammonite war was the only occasion on which the Maacathites came into contact with Israel when their king assisted the Ammonites against Joab with a force which he led himself. (2 Samuel 10:6,8; 1 Chronicles 19:7)
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Maachah – (oppression).
• The daughter of Nahor by his concubine Beumah. (Genesis 22:24)
• The father of Achish who was king of Gath at the beginning of Solomon’s reign. (1 Kings 2:39)
• The daughter, or more probably granddaughter, of Absalom named after his mother; the third and favorite wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijah. (1 Kings 15:22; 2 Chronicles 11:20-22) The mother of Abijah is elsewhere called “Michaiah the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah. ” (2 Chronicles 13:2) During the reign of her grandson Asa she occupied at the court of Judah the high position of “king’s mother,” comp. (1 Kings 15:13) but when he came of age she was removed because of her idolatrous habits. (2 Chronicles 15:16)
• The concubine of Caleb the son of Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:48)
• The daughter of Talmai king of Geshur, and mother of Absalom (1 Chronicles 3:2) also called Maacah in Authorized Version of (2 Samuel 3:3)
• The wife of Machir the Manassite. (1 Chronicles 7:15,16)
• The wife of Jehiel, father or founder of Gibeon. (1 Chronicles 8:20; 9:35)
• The father of Hanan, one of the heroes of David body-guard. (2 Chronicles 11:43)
• A Simeonite, father of Sephatiah, prince of his tribe in the reign of David. (1 Chronicles 27:16)
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Maachathi – (oppression) and Maach’athites, The, two words which denote the inhabitants of the small kingdom of Maachah. (3:14; Joshua 12:5; 13:11,13); (2 Samuel 23:34; 2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:8)
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Maadai, Or Maadai – (ornament of Jehovah), one of the sons of Kani, who had married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:34)
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Maadiah – one of the priests who returned with Zerubbabel, (Nehemiah 12:5) elsewhere (ver. (Nehemiah 12:17)) called Moadiah.
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Maai – (compassionate), one of the Bene-Asaph who took part in the solemn musical service by which the wall of Jerusalem was dedicated. (Nehemiah 12:36)
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Maalehacrabbim – (ascent of scorpions), the full form of the name given as Akrabbim in (Joshua 15:3) [Akrabbim]
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Maaseiah – (work of the Lord), the name of four persons who had married foreign wives. In the time of Ezra,
• A descendant of Jeshua the priest. (Ezra 10:18)
• A priest, of the sons of Harim. (Ezra 10:21)
• A priest, of the sons of Pashur. (Ezra 10:22)
• One of the laymen, a descendant of Pahath-moab. (Ezra 10:30)
• The father of Azariah. (Nehemiah 3:23)
• One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people. (Nehemiah 8:4)
• A Levite who assisted on the same occasion. (Nehemiah 8:7)
• One of the heads of the people whose descendants signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:25)
• Son of Baruch the descendant of Pharez the son of Judah, (Nehemiah 11:5)
• A Benjamite, ancestor of Sallu. (Nehemiah 11:7)
• Two priests of this name are mentioned, (Nehemiah 12:41,42) as taking part in the musical service which accompanied the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem under Ezra. One of them is probably the same as No. 6.
• Father of Zephaniah, who was a priest in the reign of Zedekiah. (Jeremiah 21:1; 29:25; 37:3)
• Father of Zedekiah the false prophet. (Jeremiah 29:21)
• One of the Levites of the second rank, appointed by David to sound “with psaltries on Alamoth. ” (1 Chronicles 15:18,20)
• The son of Adaiah, and one of the captains of hundreds in the reign of Joash king of Judah. (2 Chronicles 23:1)
• An officer of high rank in the reign of Uzziah. (2 Chronicles 26:11) He was probably a Levite, comp: (1 Chronicles 23:4) and engaged in a semi-military capacity.
• The “king’s son,” killed by Zichri the Ephraimitish hero in the invasion of Judah by Pekah king of Israel, during the reign of Ahaz. (2 Chronicles 28:7)
• The governor of Jerusalem in the reign of Josiah. (2 Chronicles 34:8)
• The son of Shallum, a Levite of high rank in the reign of Jehoiakim. (Jeremiah 35:4) comp, 1Chr 9:19
• A priest; ancestor of Baruch and Seraiah, the sons of Neriah. (Jeremiah 32:12; 51:59)
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Maasiai – (work of the Lord), a priest who after the return from Babylon dwelt in Jerusalem. (1 Chronicles 9:12)
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Maath – (small), son of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ. (Luke 3:26)
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Maaziah – (consolation of Jehovah).
• One of the priests who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:8)
• A priest in the reign of David, head of the twenty-fourth course. (1 Chronicles 24:18)
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Macaerus – a castle of the Herods on the southern border of their Perean dominions, nine miles east of the northern end of the Dead Sea. Here John the Baptist was imprisoned, and here was held the feast where Herodias, at whose request John was beheaded, danced before the king.
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Maccabees – (a hammer), The. This title, which was originally the surname of Judas, one of the sons of Mattathias, was afterward extended to the heroic family of which he was one of the noblest representatives. Asmonaeans or Hasmonaeans is the Proper name of the family, which is derived from Cashmon, great grandfather of Mattathias. The Maccabees were a family of Jews who resisted the authority of Antiochus Epiphanes king of Syria and his successors who had usurped authority over the Jews, conquered Jerusalem, and strove to introduce idolatrous worship. The standard of independence was first raised by Mattathias, a priest of the course of Joiarih. He seems, however, to have been already advanced in years when the rising was made, and he did not long survive the fatigues of active service. He died B. C. 166, having named Judas–apparently his third son–as his successor in directing the war of independence. After gaining several victories over the other generals of Antiochus, Judas was able to occupy Jerusalem except the “tower,” and purified the temple exactly three years after its profanation. Nicanor was defeated, first at Capharsalama, and again in a decisive battle at Adasa B. C. 161, where he was slain. This victory was the greatest of Judas’ successes, and practically decided the question of Jewish independence; but shortly after Judas fell at Eleasa, fighting at desperate odds against the invaders. After the death of Judas, Jonathan his brother succeeded to the command, and later assumed the high-priestly office. He died B. C. 144, and was succeeded by Simon the last remaining brother of the Maccabaean family, who died B. C. 135. The efforts of both brothers were crowned with success. On the death of Simon, Johannes Hyrcanus, one of his sons, at once assumed the government, B. C. 135, and met with a peaceful death B. C. 105. His eldest son, Aristobulus I. , who succeeded him B. C. 105-101, was the first who assumed the kingly title, though Simon had enjoyed the fullness of the kingly power. Alexander Jannaeus was the next successor B. C. 104-78. Aristobulus II. And Hyrcanus III. Engaged in a civil war On the death of their mother, Alexandra, B. C. 78-69, resulting in the dethronement of Aristobulus II. , B. C. 69-69, and the succession of Hyrcanus under Roman rule but without his kingly title, B. C. 63-40. From B. C. 40 to B. C. 37 Antigonus, a son of Aristobulus II. , ruled, and with his two grandchildren, Aristobulus and Mariurnne, the Asmonaean dynasty ended.
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Maccabees, Books Of – Four books which bear the common title of “Maccabees” are found in some MSS. Of the LXX. Two of these were included in the early current Latin versions of the Bible, and thence passed into the Vulgate. As forming part of the Vulgate they were received as canonical by the Council of Trent, and retained among the Apocrypha by the reformed churches. The two other books obtained no such wide circulation and have only a secondary connection with the Maccabaean history.
• THE FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES contains a history of the patriotic struggle of the Jews in resisting the oppressions of the Syrian kings, from the first resistance of Mattathias to the settled sovereignty and death of Simon, a period of thirty-three years–B. C. 168-135. The great subject of the book begins with the enumeration of the Maccabaean family, ch, 2:1-5, which is followed by an account of the part which the aged Mattathias took in rousing and guiding the spirit of his countrymen. Ch. 2:6-70. The remainder of the narrative is occupied with the exploits of Mattathias’ five sons. The great marks of trustworthiness are everywhere conspicuous. Victory and failure end despondency are, on the whole, chronicled with the same candor. There is no attempt to bring into open display the working of Providence. The testimony of antiquity leaves no doubt that the book was first written in Hebrew. Its whole structure points to Palestine as the place of its composition. There is, however, considerable doubt as to its date. Perhaps we may place it between B. C. 120-100. The date and person of the Greek translator are wholly undetermined.
• THE SECOND BOOK OF MACCABEES. The history of the second book of Maccabees begins some years earlier than that of the first book. And closes with the victory of Judas Maccabaeus over Nicanor. It thus embraces a period of twenty years, from B. C. 180 to B. C. 161. The writer himself distinctly indicates the source of his narrative–the five books of Jason of Cyrene, ch. 2:23, of which he designed to furnish a short and agreeable epitome for the benefit of those who would be deterred from studying the larger work. Of Jason himself nothing more is known than may be gleaned from this mention of him. The second book of Maccabcees is not nearly so trustworthy as the first. In the second book the groundwork of facts is true, but the dress in which the facts are presented is due in part at least to the narrator. The latter half of the book, chs. 8-15, is to be regarded as a series of special incidents from the life of Judas, illustrating the providential interference of God in behalf of his people, true in substance, but embellished in form.
• THE THIRD BOOK OF MACCABEES contains the history of events which preceded the great Maccabaean struggle beginning with B. C. 217.
• THE FOURTH BOOK OF MACCABEES contains a rhetorical narrative of the martyrdom of Eleazar and of the “Maccabaean family,” following in the main the same outline as 2 Macc.
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Macedonia – (extended land), a large and celebrated country lying north of Greece, the first part of Europe which received the gospel directly from St. Paul, and an important scene of his subsequent missionary labors and those of his companions. It was bounded by the range of Haemus or the Balkan northward, by the chain of Pindus westward, by the Cambunian hills southward, by which it is separated from Thessaly, an is divided on the east from Thrace by a less definite mountain boundary running southward from Haemus. Of the space thus enclosed, two of the most remarkable physical features are two great plains, one watered by the Axius, which comes to the sea, at the Thermaic Gulf, not far from Thessalonica; the other by the Strymon, which after passing near Philippi, flows out below Amphipolis. Between the mouths of these two rivers a remarkable peninsula projects, dividing itself into three points, on the farthest of which Mount Athos rises nearly into the region of perpetual snow. Across the neck of this peninsula St. Paul travelled more than once with his companions. This general sketch sufficiently describes the Macedonia which was ruled over by Philip and Alexander and which the Romans conquered from Perseas. At first the conquered country was divided by Aemilius Paulus into four districts, but afterward was made one province and centralized under the jurisdiction of a proconsul, who resided at Thessalonica. The character of the Christians of Macedonia is set before us in Scripture in a very favorable light. The candor of the Bereans is highly commented, (Acts 17:11) the Thessalonians were evidently objects of St. Paul’s peculiar affection, (1 Thessalonians 2:8,17-20; 3:10) and the Philippians, besides their general freedom from blame, are noted as remarkable for their liberality and self-denial. (Philemon 4:10; 14-19) see 2Cor 9:2; 11:9
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Machbanai – (bond of the Lord), one of the lion-faced warriors of Gad, who joined the fortunes of David when living in retreat at Ziklag. (1 Chronicles 12:13)
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Machbenah – (bond). Sheva, the father of Machbena, is named in the genealogical list of Judah as the offspring of Manchah, the concubine of Caleb ben-Hezron. (1 Chronicles 2:49)
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Machi – (decrease), the father of Geuel the Gadite, who went with Caleb and Joshua to spy out the land of Canaan. (Numbers 13:15)
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Machir – (sold).
• The eldest son, (Joshua 17:1) of the patriarch Manasseh by an Aramite or Syrian concubine. (1 Chronicles 7:14) At the time of the conquest the family of Machir had become very powerful, and a large part of the country on the east of Jordan was subdued by them. (Numbers 32:39; 3:15)
• The son of Ammiel, a powerful sheikh of one of the transjordanic tribes, who rendered essential service to the cause of Saul and of David successively. (2 Samuel 9:4,5; 17:27-29)
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Machirites, The – the descendants of Machir the father of Gilead. (Numbers 26:29)
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Machnadebai – (what is like the liberal?), one of the sons of Bani who put away his foreign wife at Ezra’s command. (Ezra 10:40)
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Machpelah – (double, or a portion). [Hebron]
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Madai – (middle land), (Genesis 10:2) is usually called the third son of Japhet, and the progenitor of the Medes; but probably all that is intended is that the Medes, as well as the Gomerites, Greeks, Tabareni, Moschi, etc. , descended from Japhet.
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Madian – (Acts 7:29) [Midian]
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Madmannah – (dunghill), one of the towns in the south district of Judah. (Joshua 15:31) In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was called Menois, and was not far from Gaza. The first stage southward from Gaza is now el-Minyay, which is perhaps the modern representative of Menois, and therefore of Madmannah.
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Madmen – (dunghill), a place in Moab, threatened with destruction in the pronunciations of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 48:2)
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Madmenah – (dunghill), one of the, Benjamite villages north of Jerusalem the inhabitants of which were frightened away by the approach of Sennacherib along the northern road. (Isaiah 10:31)
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Madness – In Scripture “madness” is recognized as a derangement proceeding either from weakness and misdirection of intellect or from ungovernable violence of passion. In one passage alone, (John 10:20) is madness expressly connected with demoniacal possession by the Jews in their cavil against our Lord; in none is it referred to any physical causes.
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Madon – (strife) one of the principal cities of Canaan before the conquest, probably in the north. Its king joined Jabin and his confederates in their attempt against Joshua at the waters of Xierom, and like the rest was killed. (Joshua 11:1; 12:19)
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Magadan – (a tower). (The name given in the Revised Version of (Matthew 15:39) for Magdala. It is probably another name for the same place, or it was a village so near it that the shore where Christ landed may have belonged to either village. ED.)
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Magbish – (congregating), a proper name in (Ezra 2:30) but whether of a man or of a place is doubtful; probably the latter, as all the names from (Ezra 2:20) to 34, except Elam and Harim, are names of places.
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Magdala – (a tower). The chief MSS. And versions exhibit the name as Magadan, as in the Revised Version. Into the limits of Magadan Christ came by boat, over the Lake of Gennesareth after his miracle of feeding the four thousand on the Mountain of the eastern side, (Matthew 15:39) and from thence he returned in the same boat to the opposite shore. In the parallel narrative of St. Mark, ch. (Mark 8:10) we find the “parts of Dalmanutha,” on the western edge of the Lake of Gennesareth. The Magdala, which conferred her name on “Mary the Magdalene one of the numerous migdols, i. E. Towers, which stood in Palestine, was probably the place of that name which is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as near Tiberias, and this again is as probably the modern el-Mejdel, a miserable little Muslim village, of twenty huts on the water’s edge at the southeast corner of the plain of Gennesareth. It is now the only inhabited place on this plain.
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Magdiel – (prince of God), one of the “dukes” of Edom, descended from Esau. (Genesis 36:43; 1 Chronicles 1:54)
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Magi – (Authorized Version wise men).
• In the Hebrew text of the Old Testament the word occurs but twice, and then only incidentally. (Jeremiah 29:3,13) “Originally they were a class of priests among the Persians and Medes who formed the king’s privy council, and cultivated as trology, medicine and occult natural science. They are frequently referred to by ancient authors. Afterward the term was applied to all eastern philosophers. “–Schaff’s Popular Commentary. They appear in Herodotus’ history of Astyages as interpreters of dreams, i. 120; but as they appear in Jeremiah among the retinue of the Chaldean king, we must suppose Nebuchadnezzar’s conquests led him to gather round him the wise men and religious teachers of the nations which he subdued, and that thus the sacred tribe of the Medes rose under his rule to favor and power. The Magi took their places among “the astrologers and star gazers and monthly prognosticators. ” It is with such men that, we have to think of Daniel and his fellow exiles as associated. The office which Daniel accepted (Daniel 5:11) was probably rab-mag–chief of the Magi.
• The word presented itself to the Greeks as connected with a foreign system of divination and it soon became a byword for the worst form of imposture. This is the predominant meaning of the word as it appears in the New Testament. (Acts 8:9; 13:8)
• In one memorable instance, however, the word retains its better meaning. In the Gospel of St. Matthew, ch. (Matthew 2:1-12) the Magi appear as “wise men”–properly Magians–who were guided by a star from “the east” to Jerusalem, where they suddenly appeared in the days of Herod the Great, inquiring for the new-born king of the Jews, whom they had come to worship. As to the country from which they came, opinions vary greatly; but their following the guidance of a star seems to point to the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, where astronomy was Cultivated by the Chaldeans. [See Star Of The Wise Men OF THE East] (Why should the new star lead these wise men to look for a king of the Jews?

• These wise men from Persia were the most like the Jews, in religion, of all nations in the world. They believed in one God, they had no idols, they worshipped light as the best symbol of God.
• The general expectation of such a king. “The Magi,” says) Ellicott, “express the feeling which the Roman historians Tacitus and Suetonius tell us sixty or seventy years later had been for a long time very widely diffused. Everywhere throughout the East men were looking for the advent of a great king who was to rise from among the Jews. It had fermented in the minds of men, heathen as well as Jews, and would have led them to welcome Jesus as the Christ had he come in accordance with their expectation. ” Virgil, who lived a little before this, owns that a child from heaven was looked for, who should restore the golden age and take away sin.
• This expectation arose largely from the dispersion of the Jews among all nations, carrying with them the hope and the promise of a divine Redeemer. Isai 9, 11; Dani 7
• Daniel himself was a prince and chief among this very class of wise men. His prophecies: were made known to them; and the calculations by which he pointed to the very time when Christ should be born became, through the book of Daniel, a part of their ancient literature. ED.) According to a late tradition, the Magi are represented as three kings, named Gaspar, Melchior and Belthazar, who take their place among the objects of Christian reverence, and are honored as the patron saints of travellers.
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Magic, Magicians – Magic is “the science or practice of evoking spirits, or educing the occult powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural. ” It formed an essential element in many ancient religions, especially among the Persians, Chaldeans and Egyptians. The Hebrews had no magic of their own. It was so strictly forbidden by the law that it could never afterward have had any: recognized existence, save in times of general heresy or apostasy and the same was doubtless the case in the patriarchal ages. The magical practices which obtained among the Hebrews were therefore borrowed from the nations around. From the first entrance into the land of promise until the destruction of Jerusalem we have constant glimpses of magic practiced in secret, or resorted to not alone by the common but also as the great. It is a distinctive characteristic of the Bible that from first to last it warrants no such trust or dread. Laban attached great value to, and was in the habit of consulting, images. (Genesis 31:30,32) During the plagues in Egypt the magicians appear. (Exodus 7:11; 8:18,19) Balaam also practiced magic. (Numbers 22:7) Saul consulted the witch of Endor. An examination of the various notices of magic in the Bible gives this general result: They do not, act far as can be understood, once state positively that any but illusive results were produced by magical rites. (Even the magicians of Egypt could imitate the plagues sent through Moses only so long as they had previous notice and time to prepare. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the magicians failed; they “did so with their enchantments,” but in vain. So in the case of the witch of Endor. Samuel appearance was apparently unexpected by her; he did not come through the enchantments. Ed.) The Scriptures therefore afford no evidence that man can gain supernatural powers to use at his will. This consequence goes some way toward showing that we may conclude that there is no such thing se real magic; for although it is dangerous to reason on negative evidence, yet in a case of this kind it is especially strong. [Divination]
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Magog – (region of Gog). In (Genesis 10:2) Magog appears as the second son of Japheth; in (Ezekiel 38:2; 39:1,6) it appears as a country or people of which Gog was the prince. The notices of Magog would lead us to fix a northern locality: it is expressly stated by Ezekiel that “he was to come up from the sides of the north,” (Ezekiel 39:2) from a country adjacent to that of Togarmah or Armenia, ch. 58:6 and not far from “the isles” or maritime regions of Europe. Ch. (Ezekiel 39:6) The people of Magog further appear as having a force of cavalry, (Ezekiel 38:16) and as armed with the bow. Ch. (Ezekiel 39:3) From the above data, may conclude that Magog represents the important race of the Scythians.
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Magormissabib – (terror on every side), the name giver. By Jeremiah to Pashur the priest when he smote him and put him in the stocks for prophesying against the idolatry of Jerusalem. (Jeremiah 20:3)
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Magpiash – (moth-killer) one of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:20) The same as Magbish in (Ezra 2:30)
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Mahalah – (disease), one of the three children of Hammoleketh the sister of Gilead. (1 Chronicles 7:18)
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Mahalaleel – (praise of God).
• The fourth in descent from Adam, according to the Sethite genealogy, and son of Cainan. (Genesis 6:12,13,15-17; 1 Chronicles 1:2; Luke 3:37) Revised Version.
• A descendant of Perez or Pharez the son of Judah. (Nehemiah 11:4)
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Mahalath –
I. The title of Psalm 53, and Mahalath-leannoth, the title of Psalm 88. The meaning of these words is uncertain. The conjecture is that mahalath is a guitar, and that leannoth has reference to the character of the psalm, and might be rendered “to humble or afflict,” in which sense the root occurs in ver. 7.
II. (stringed instrument) one of the eighteen wives of King Rehoboam, apparently his first. (2 Chronicles 11:18) only. She was her husband’s cousin, being the daughter of King David’s son Jerimoth.
III. (stringed instrument), the daughter of Ishmael, and one of the wives of Esau. (Genesis 28:9)
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Mahali – (sick), Mah’li, the son of Merari. (Exodus 6:19)
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Mahanaim – a town on the east of the Jordan. The name signifies two hosts or two camps,and was given to it by Jacob, because he there met “the angels of God. ” (Genesis 32:1,2) We next meet with it in the records of the conquest. (Joshua 13:26,30) It was within the territory of Gad, (Joshua 21:38,39) and therefore on the south side of the torrent Jabbok. The town with its “suburbs” was allotted to the service of the Merarite Levites. (Joshua 21:39; 1 Chronicles 6:80) Mahanaim had become in the time of the monarchy a place of mark. (2 Samuel 2:8,12) David took refuge there when driven out of the western part of his kingdom by Absalom. (2 Samuel 17:24; 1 Kings 2:8) Mahanaim was the seat of one of Solomon’s commissariat officers. (1 Kings 4:14) and it is alluded to in the song which bears his name. Ch. (Song of Solomon 6:13) There is a place called Mahneh among the villages of the part of Jordan, through its exact position is not certain.
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Mahanehdan – (camp of Dan), spoken of as “behind Kirajathjearim,” (Judges 18:12) and as between Zorah and Eshtaol. ” ch. (Judges 13:25)
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Maharai – (impetuous), (2 Samuel 23:28; 1 Chronicles 11:30; 27:13) an inhabitant of Netophah in the tribe of Judah, and one of David’s captains.
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Mahath – (grabbing).
• A Zohathite of the house of Korah. (1 Chronicles 6:35)
• Also a Kohathite, in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:12; 31:13)
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Mahavite, The – the designation of Eliel, one of the warriors of King David’s guard, whose name is preserved in the catalogue of (1 Chronicles 11:46) only.
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Mahazioth – (visions). One of the fourteen sons of Heman the Kohathite. (1 Chronicles 25:4,30)
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Mahershalalhashbaz – (i. E. Hasten-booty speedspoil), whose name was given by divine direction to indicate that Damascus and Samaria were soon to be plundered by the king of Assyria. (Jeremiah 8:14)
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Mahlah – (disease), the eldest of the five daughters of Zelophehad the grandson of Manasseh. (Numbers 27:1-11)
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Mahli – (sick).
• Son of Merari, the son of Levi and ancestor of the family of the Mahlites. (Numbers 3:20; 1 Chronicles 6:19,29; 24:26)
• Bon of Mushi and grandson of Merari. (1 Chronicles 6:47; 23:23; 24:30)
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Mahlon – (sick) the first husband of Ruth; son of Eiimelech and Naomi. (Ruth 1:2,5; 4:9,10) comp. 1Sam 17:12
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Mahol – (dancing), the father of the four men most famous for wisdom next to Solomon himself. (1 Kings 4:31; 1 Chronicles 2:6)
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Makaz – (end), a place, apparently a town, named once only– (1 Kings 4:9)–in the: specification of the jurisdiction of Solomon a commissariat officer, Ben-Dekar. Makaz has not been discovered.
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Makheloth – (place of assemblies), a place mentioned only in (Numbers 33:26) as that of a desert encampment of the Israelites.
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Makkedah – (place of shepherds), a place memorable in the annals of the conquest of Canaan as the scene of the execution by Joshua of the five confederate kings, (Joshua 10:10-50) who had hidden themselves in a cave at this place. (It was a royal city of the Canaanites, in the plains of Judah. Conder identifies it with the modern el-Moghar, 25 miles northwest of Jerusalem, where are two caves large enough to contain five men each. Schaff says that “one cave has, curiously enough, five loculi rudely scooped in its side, and an enthusiast might contend that this was the very place of sepulchre of the five kings. “-ED.)
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Maktesh – (a mortar or deep hollow), a place evidently in Jerusalem, the inhabitants of which are denounced by Zephaniah. (Zephaniah 1:11) Ewald conjectures that it was the Phoenician quarter” of the city.
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Malchishua – (king of help), one of the sons of King Saul. (1 Samuel 14:49; 31:2; 1 Chronicles 8:33; 9:39)
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Malchus – (king or kingdom), the name of the servant of the high priest whose right ear Peter cut off at the time of the Saviour’s apprehension in the garden. (Matthew 26:51; Mark 14:17; Luke 22:49,51; John 18:10)
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Maleleel, Or Mahalaleel – the son of Cainan. (Genesis 5:12) marg. ; Luke 3:37
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Mallothi – (my fullness), a Kohathite, one of the fourteen sons of Heman the singer. (1 Chronicles 25:4,26)
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Mallows – (Job 30:4)
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Malluch – (counsellor).
• A Levite of the family of Merari, and ancestor of Ethan the singer (1 Chronicles 6:44)
• One of the sons of Bani. (Ezra 10:29) and
• One of the descendants of Harim, (Ezra 10:32) who had married foreign wives.
• A priest or family of priests. (Nehemiah 10:4) and
• One of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 10:27)
• One of the families of priests who returned with Zerubbabel, (Nehemiah 12:2) probably the same as No. 4.
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Mamaias – apparently the same with Shemaiah in (Ezra 8:16)
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Mammon – (riches) (Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:9) a word which often occurs in the Chaldee Terguma of Onkelos and later writers, and in the Syriac version, and which signifies “riches. ” It is used in St. Matthew as a personification of riches.
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Mamre – (strength, fatness) an ancient Amorite, who with his brothers, Eshcol and Aner, was in alliance with Abram, (Genesis 14:13,51) and under the shade of whose oak grove the patriarch dwelt in the interval between his residence at Bethel and at Beersheba. Ch. (Genesis 13:18; 18:1) In the subsequent chapters Mamre is a mere local appellation. Ch, (Genesis 23:17,19; 25:9; 49:30; 50:13)
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Man – Four Hebrew terms are rendered “man” in the Authorized Version:
• Adam, the name of the man created in the image of God. It appears to be derived from adam, “he or it was red or ruddy,” like Edom. This was the generic term for the human race.
• Ish, “man,” as distinguished from woman, husband.
• Geber, “a man,” from gabar, “to be strong,” generally with reference to his strength.
• Methim, “men,” always masculine. Perhaps it may be derived from the root muth, “he died. ”
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Manaen – (comforter) is mentioned in (Acts 13:1) as one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch at the time of the appointment of Saul and Barnabas as missionaries to the heathen. He is said to have been brought up with Herod Antipas. He was probably his foster-brother.
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Manahath –
I. (rest) one of the sons of Shobal, and descendant of Seir the Horite. (Genesis 36:23; 1 Chronicles 1:40)
II. (rest), a place named in (1 Chronicles 8:6) only in connection with the genealogies of the tribe of Benjamin.
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Manahetbites – (inhabitants of Mannahath), The. “Half the Manahethites” are named in the genealogies of Judah as descended from Shobal, the father of Kirajathjearim (1 Chronicles 2:52) and half from Salma, the founder of Bethlehem. Ver. 54.
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Manasseh –
I. (forgetting).
• The thirteenth king of Judah, son of Hezekiah, (2 Kings 21:1) ascended the throne at the age of twelve, and reigned 55 years, from B. C. 608 to 642. His accession was the signal for an entire change in the religious administration of the kingdom. Idolatry was again established to such an extent that every faith was tolerated but the old faith of Israel. The Babylonian alliance which the king formed against Assyria resulted in his being made prisoner and carried off to Babylon in the twenty-second year of his reign, according to a Jewish tradition. There his eyes were opened and he repented, and his prayer was heard and the Lord delivered him, (2 Chronicles 33:12,13) and he returned after some uncertain interval of time to Jerusalem. The altar of the Lord was again restored, and peace offerings and thank offerings were sacrificed to Jehovah. (2 Chronicles 38:15,16) But beyond this the reformation did not go. On his death, B. C. 642, he was buried as Ahaz had been, not with the burial of a king, in the sepulchres of the house of David, but in the garden of Uzza, (2 Kings 21:26) and long afterward, in suite of his repentance, the Jews held his name in abhorrence.
• One of the descendants of Pahathmoab, who in the days of Ezra had married a foreign wife. (Ezra 10:30)
• One of the laymen, of the family of Hashum who put away his foreign wife at Ezra command. (Ezra 10:33)
II. (forgetting), the eldest son of Joseph, (Genesis 41:51; 46:20) born 1715-10 B. C. Both he and Ephraim were born before the commencement of the famine. He was placed after his younger brother, Ephraim, by his grandfather Jacob, when he adopted them into his own family, and made them heads of tribes. Whether the elder of the two sons was inferior in form or promise to the younger, or whether there was any external reason to justify the preference of Jacob, we are not told. In the division of the promised land half of the tribe of Manasseh settled east of the Jordan in the district embracing the hills of Gilead with their inaccessible heights and impassable ravines, and the almost impregnable tract of Argob. (Joshua 13:29-33) Here they throve exceedingly, pushing their way northward over the rich plains of Jaulan and Jedur to the foot of Mount Hermon. (1 Chronicles 5:23) But they gradually assimilated themselves with the old inhabitants of the country, and on them descended the punishment which was ordained to he the inevitable consequence of such misdoing. They, first of all Israel, were carried away by Pul and Tiglath-pileser, and settled in the Assyrian territories. (1 Chronicles 5:25,26) The other half tribe settled to the west of the Jordan, north of Ephraim. (Joshua 17:1). . . For further particulars see Ephraim, Ephraim.

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Manasses –
• Manasseh, king of Judah. (Matthew 1:10)
• Manasseh the son of Joseph. (Revelation 7:6)
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Manassites, The – that is, the members of the tribe of Manasseh. (4:43; Judges 12:4; 2 Kings 10:33)
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Mandrakes – (Heb. Dudraim) are mentioned in (Genesis 30:14,16) and in Song 7:13 The mandrake, Atropa mandragora, is closely allied to the well-known deadly nightshade, A. Bellndonna, and to the tomato, and belongs to the order Solanaceae, or potato family. It grows in Palestine and Mesopotamia. (It grows low, like lettuce, which its leaves somewhat resemble, except that they are of a dark green. The flowers are purple,and the root is usually forked. Its fruit when ripe (early in May) is about the size of a small apple, 24 inches in diameter, ruddy or yellow and of a most agreeable odor (to Orientals more than to Europeans) and an equally agreeable taste. The Arabs call it “devil’s apple,” from its power to excite voluptuousness. Dr. Richardson (“Lectures on Alcohol,” 1881) tried some experiments with wine made of the root of mandrake, and found it narcotic, causing sleep, so that the ancients used it as an anaesthetic. Used in small quantities like opium, it excites the nerves, and is a stimulant. ED.)
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Maneh – (a portion (by weight)). [Weights and Measures]
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Manger – This word occurs only in (Luke 2:7,12,16) in connection with the birth of Christ. It means a crib or feeding trough; but according to Schleusner its real signification in the New Testament is the open court-yard attached to the inn or khan, in which the cattle would be shut at night, and where the poorer travellers might unpack their animals and take up their lodging, when they mere either by want of means excluded from the house.
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Manna – (what is this?) (Heb. Man). The most important passages of the Old Testament on this topic are the following: (Exodus 16:14-36; Numbers 11:7-9; 11:5,16; Joshua 5:12; Psalms 78:24; 25) From these passages we learn that the manna came every morning except the Sabbath, in the form of a small round seed resembling the hear frost that it must be gathered early, before the sun became so hot as to melt it; that it must be gathered every day except the Sabbath; that the attempt to lay aside for a succeeding day, except on the clay immediately preceding the Sabbath, failed by the substance becoming wormy and offensive; that it was prepared for food by grinding and baking; that its taste was like fresh oil, and like wafers made with honey, equally agreeable to all palates; that the whole nation, of at least 2,000,000, subsisted upon it for forty years; that it suddenly ceased when they first got the new corn of the land of Canaan; and that it was always regarded as a miraculous gift directly from God, and not as a product of nature. The natural products of the Arabian deserts and other Oriental regions which bear the name of manna have not the qualities or uses ascribed to the manna of Scripture. The latter substance was undoubtedly wholly miraculous, and not in any respect a product of nature, though its name may have come from its resemblance to the natural manna The substance now called manna in the Arabian desert through which the Israelites passed is collected in the month of June from the tarfa or tamarisk shrub (Tamarix gallica). According to Burckhardt it drops from the thorns on the sticks and leaves with which the ground is covered, and must be gathered early in the day or it will be melted by the sun. The Arabs cleanse and boil it, strain it through a cloth and put it in leathern bottles; and in this way it can be kept uninjured for several years. They use it like honey or butter with their unleavened bread, but never make it into cakes or eat it by itself. The whole harvest, which amounts to only five or six hundred pounds, is consumed by the Bedouins, “who,” says Schaff consider it the greatest dainty their country affords. ” The manna of European commerce conies mostly from Calabria and Sicily. It’s gathered during the months of June and July from some species of ash (Ornus europaea and O. Rotundifolia), from which it drops in consequence of a puncture by an insect resembling the locust, but distinguished from it by having a sting under its body. The substance is fluid at night and resembles the dew but in the morning it begins to harden.
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Manoah – (rest), the father of Samson; a Danite, native of the town of Zorah. (Judges 13:2) (B. C. 1161) [Samson]
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Manslayer – one who kills another unintentionally, and is thus distinguished from a murderer, who kills with malice aforethought. The cases of manslaughter mentioned in Scripture appear to be a sufficient indication of the intention of the lawgiver.
• Death by a blow in a sudden quarrel. (Numbers 35:22)
• Death by a stone or missile thrown at random. Ibid. (Numbers 35:22,23)
• By the blade of an axe flying from its handle. (19:5) In all these and the like cases the manslayer was allowed to retire to a city of refuge. A thief overtaken at night in the act of stealing might lawfully be put to death, but if the sun had risen the killing him was to be regarded as murder. (Exodus 22:2,8)
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Mantle – the word employed in the Authorized Version to translate no less than four Hebrew terms, entirely distinct and independent in both derivation and meaning.
• (Judges 4:18) the garment with which Jael covered Sisera.
• Rendered “mantle” in (1 Samuel 15:27; 28:14; Ezra 9:3,5) etc. This word is in other passages of the Authorized Version rendered “coat,” “cloak” and “robe. ”
• (Isaiah 3:22) only. Apparently some article of a lady’s dress.
• (1 Kings 19:13,19; 2 Kings 2:8,13,14) The sole garment of the prophet Elijah. It was probably of sheepskin, such as is worn by the modern dervishes.
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Maoch – (oppression) the father of Achish king of Gath, with whom David took refuge. (1 Samuel 27:2)
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Maon – (habitation), one of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the district of the mountains. (Joshua 15:55) Its interest for us lies in its connection with David. (1 Samuel 23:24,25) The name of Maon still exists in Main, a lofty conical hill, south of and about seven miles distant from Hebron.
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Maonites, The – a people mentioned in one of the addresses of Jehovah to the repentant Israelites, (Judges 10:12) elsewhere in the Authorized Version called Mehunim.
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Mara – (sad, bitter), the name which Naomi adopted in the exclamation forced from her by the recognition of her fellow citizens at Bethlehem. (Ruth 1:20)
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Marah – (bitterness), a place which lay in the wilderness of Shur or Etham, three days journey distant, (Exodus 15:23; Numbers 33:8) from the place at which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, and where was a spring of bitter water, sweetened subsequently by the casting in of a tree which “the Lord showed” to Moses. Howarah, distant 16 1/2 hours (47 miles) from Ayoun Mousa, the Israelites’ first encampment, has been by many identified with it, apparently because it is the bitterest water in the neighborhood.
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Maralah – (trembling) one of the land marks on the boundary of the tribe of Zebulun. (Joshua 19:11)
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Maranatha – an Aramaic or Syriac expression used by St. Paul at the conclusion of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, ch. (1 Corinthians 16:22) signifying “our Lord cometh. ”
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Marble – The Hebrew shesh, the generic term for marble, may probably be taken to mean almost any shining stone. The so-called marble of Solomon’s architectural works may thus have been limestone. There can be no doubt that Herod both in the temple and elsewhere employed Parian or other marble. The marble pillars and tesserae of various colors of the palace at Susa came doubtless from Persia. (Esther 1:8)
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Marcheshvan – [Month]
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Marcus – the evangelist Mark. (Colossians 4:10); Phle 1:24; 1Pet 5:13 [Mark]
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Mareshah, Or Mareshah – (crest of a hill), one of the cities of Judah in the low country. (Joshua 15:44) It was one of the cities fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam after the rupture with the northern kingdom. (2 Chronicles 11:8) Near it was fought the great battle between Asa and Zerah. (2 Chronicles 14:9-12) It is mentioned once or twice in the history of the Maccabaean war of independence. 2 Macc. 12:35. About 110 B. C. It was taken from the Idumaeans by John Hyrcanus. It was in ruins in the fourth century, when Eusebius and Jerome describe it as in the second mile from Eleutheropolis. South-southwest of Beitjibrin–in all probability Eleutheropolis-and it little over a Roman mile therefrom is a site called Marash, which is possibly the representative of the ancient Mareshah.
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Mark – one of the evangelists, and probable author of the Gospel bearing his name. (Marcus was his Latin surname. His Jewish name was John, which is the same as Johanan (the grace of God). We can almost trace the steps whereby the former became his prevalent name in the Church. “John, whose surname was Mark” in (Acts 12:12,25; 15:37) becomes “John” alone in (Acts 13:5,13) “Mark” in (Acts 15:39) and thenceforward there is no change. (Colossians 4:10); Phlm 1:24; 2Tim 4:11 The evangelist was the son of a certain Mary, a Jewish matron of some position who dwelt in Jerusalem, (Acts 12:12) and was probably born of a Hellenistic family in that city. Of his father we know nothing; but we do know that the future evangelist was cousin of Barnabas of Cyprus, the great friend of St. Paul. His mother would seem to have been intimately acquainted with St. Peter, and it was to her house, as to a familiar home, that the apostle repaired, A. D. 44, after his deliverance from prison (Acts 12:12) This fact accounts for St. Mark’s intimate acquaintance with that apostle, to whom also he probably owed his conversion, for St. Peter calls him his son. (1 Peter 5:13) We hear Of him for the first time in Acts 15:25 where we find him accompanying and Barnabas on their return from Jerusalem to Antioch, A. D. 45. He next comes before us on the occasion of the earliest missionary journey of the same apostles, A. D. 48, when he joined them as their “minister. ” (Acts 13:8) With them he visited Cyprus; but at Perga in Pamphylia, (Acts 13:13) when they were about to enter upon the more arduous part of their mission, he left them, and, for some unexplained reason, returned to Jerusalem to his mother and his home. Notwithstanding this, we find him at Paul’s side during that apostle’s first imprisonment at Rome, A. D. 61-63, and he Is acknowledged by him as one of his few fellow laborers who had been a “comfort” to him during the weary hours of his imprisonment. (Colossians 4:10,11); Phle 1:24 We next have traces of him in (1 Peter 5:13) “The church that is in Babylon. . . Saluteth you, and so doth Marcus my son. ” From this we infer that he joined his spiritual father, the great friend of his mother, at Babylon, then and for same hundred years afterward one of the chief seats of Jewish culture. From Babylon he would seem to have returned to Asia Minor; for during his second imprisonment A. D. 68 St. Paul, writing to Timothy charges him to bring Mark with him to me, on the ground that he was “profitable to him For the ministry. ” (2 Timothy 4:11) From this point we gain no further information from the New Testament respecting the evangelist. It is most probable, however that he did join the apostle at Rome whither also St. Peter would seem to have proceeded, and suffered martyrdom with St. Paul. After the death of these two great pillars of the Church; ecclesiastical tradition affirms that St. Mark visited Egypt, founded the church of Alexandria, and died by martyrdom. Condensed from Cambridge Bible for Schools. ED.)
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Mark, Gospel Of –
• By whom written. The author of this Gospel has been universally believed to be Mark or Marcus, designated in (Acts 12:12,25; 15:37) as John Mark, and in ch. 5,13 as John.
• When is was written. Upon this point nothing absolutely certain can be affirmed, and the Gospel itself affords us no information. The most direct testimony is that of Irenaeus, who says it was after the death of the apostles Peter and Paul. We may conclude, therefore, that this Gospel was not written before A. D. 63. Again we may as certainly conclude that it was not written after the destruction of Jerusalem, for it is not likely that he would have omitted to record so remarkable a fulfillment of our Lord’s predictions. Hence A. D. 63-70 becomes our limit, but nearer than this we cannot go. Farrar.
• Where it was written. As to the place, the weight of testimony is uniformly in favor of the belief that the Gospel was written and published at Rome. In this Clement, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, all agree. Chrysostom, indeed, asserts that it was published at Alexandria; but his statement receives no confirmation, as otherwise it could not fail to have done, from any Alexandrine writer. Farrar.
• In what language. As to the language in which it was written, there never has been any reasonable doubt that it was written in Greek.
• Sources of information. Mark was not one of the twelve; and there is no reason to believe that he was an eye and ear witness of the events which he has recorded but an almost unanimous testimony of the early fathers indicates Peter as the source of his information. The most important of these testimonies is that of Papias, who says, “He, the Presbyter (John), said, Mark, being the Interpreter of Peter, wrote exactly whatever he remembered but he did not write in order the things which were spoken or done by Christ. For he was neither a hearer nor a follower of the Lord, but, as I said, afterward followed Peter, who made his discourses to suit what was required, without the view of giving a connected digest of the discourses of our Lord. Mark, therefore, made no mistakes when he wrote down circumstances as he recollected them; for he was very careful of one thing, to omit nothing of what he heard, and to say nothing false in what he related. ” Thus Papias writes of Mark. This testimony is confirmed by other witnesses. Abbott.
• For whom it was written. The traditional statement is that it was intended primarily for Gentiles, and especially for those at Rome. A review of the Gospel itself confirms this view.
• Characteristics.
• Mark’s Gospel is occupied almost entirely with the ministry in Galilee and the events of the passion week. It is the shortest of the four Gospels, and contains almost no incident or teaching which is not contained in one of the other two synoptists; but
• it is by far the most vivid and dramatic in its narratives, and their pictorial character indicates not only that they were derived from an eye and ear witness, but also from one who possessed the observation and the graphic artistic power of a natural orator such as Peter emphatically was.
• One peculiarity strikes us the moment we open it,–the absence of any genealogy of our Lord. This is the key to much that follows. It is not the design of the evangelist to present our Lord to us, like St. Matthew as the Messiah, “the son of David and Abraham,” ch. 1:1, or, like St. Luke, as the universal Redeemer, “the son of Adam, which was the son of God. ” ch. 3:38.
• His design is to present him to us as the incarnate and wonder-working Son of God, living and acting among men; to portray him in the fullness of his living energy. Cambridge Bible for Schools.
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Market Of Appius – (Acts 28:15) In the Revised Version for Appii Forum of the Authorized Version, which see.
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Marketplaces – (Matthew 20:3; Mark 12:38; Luke 7:35; Acts 16:19) (any open place of public resort in cities or towns where public trials and assemblies were held and goods were exposed for sale. “The market-places or bazaars of the East were, and are at this day, the constant resort of unoccupied people, the idle, the news-mongers. “–Hackett s Ill. S. S. ED.)
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Maroth – (bitterness), one of the towns of the western lowland of Judah. (Micah 1:12)
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Marriage –
• Its origin and history. The institution of marriage dates from the time of man’s original creation. (Genesis 2:18-25) From (Genesis 2:24) we may evolve the following principles:
• The unity of man and wife, as implied in her being formed out of man.
• The indissolubleness of the marriage bond, except on; the strongest grounds, Comp. (Matthew 19:9)
• Monogamy, as the original law of marriage
• The social equality of man and wife.
• The subordination of the wife to the husband. (1 Corinthians 11:8,9; 1 Timothy 2:13)
• The respective duties of man and wife. In the patriarchal age polygamy prevailed, (Genesis 16:4; 25:1,8; 28:9; 29:23,26; 1 Chronicles 7:14) but to a great extent divested of the degradation which in modern times attaches to that practice. Divorce also prevailed in the patriarchal age, though but one instance of it is recorded. (Genesis 21:14) The Mosaic law discouraged polygamy, restricted divorce, and aimed to enforce purity of life. It was the best civil law possible at the time, and sought to bring the people up to the pure standard of the moral law. In the Post-Babylonian period monogamy appears to have become more prevalent than at any previous time. The practice of polygamy nevertheless still existed; Herod the Great had no less than nine wives at one time. The abuse of divorce continued unabated. Our Lord and his apostles re-established the integrity and sanctity of the marriage bond by the following measures:
1. By the confirmation of the original charter of marriage as the basis on which all regulations were to be framed. (Matthew 19:4,5)
2. By the restriction of divorce to the case of fornication, and the prohibition of remarriage in all persons divorced on improper grounds. (Matthew 5:32; 19:9; Romans 7:3; 1 Corinthians 7:10,11)
3. By the enforcement of moral purity generally (Hebrews 13:4) etc. , and especial formal condemnation of fornication. (Acts 15:20)
• The conditions of legal marriage. In the Hebrew commonwealth marriage was prohibited
1. Between an Israelite and a non-Israelite. There were three grades of prohibition: total in regard to the Canaanites on either side; total on the side of the males in regard to the Ammonites and Moabites; and temporary on the side of the males in regard to the Edomites and Egyptians, marriages with females in the two latter instances being regarded as legal. The progeny of illegal marriages between Israelites and non-Israelites was described as “bastard. ” (23:2)
2. Between an Israelite and one of his own community. The regulations relative to marriage between Israelites and Israelites were based on considerations of relationship. The most important passage relating to these is contained in (Leviticus 18:6-18) wherein we have in the first place a general prohibition against marriage between a man and the “flesh of his flesh,” and in the second place special prohibitions against marriage with a mother, stepmother, sister or half-sister, whether “born at home or abroad,” granddaughter, aunt, whether by consanguinity on either side or by marriage on the father’s side, daughter in-law, brother’s wife, stepdaughter, wife’s mother, stepgranddaughter, or wife’s sister during the lifetime of the wife. An exception is subsequently made, (26:5-9) in favor of marriage with a brother’s wife in the event of his having died childless. The law which regulates this has been named the “levirate,” from the Latin levir, “brother-in-law. ”
• The modes by which marriage was effected. The choice of the bride devolved not on the bridegroom himself, but on his relations or on a friend deputed by the bridegroom for this purpose. The consent of the maiden was sometimes asked (Genesis 24:58) but this appears to have been subordinate to the previous consent of the father and the adult brothers. (Genesis 24:51; 34:11) Occasionally the whole business of selecting the wife was left in the hands of a friend. The selection of the bride was followed by the espousal, which was a formal proceeding undertaken by a friend or legal representative on the part of the bridegroom and by the parents on the part of the bride; it was confirmed by oaths, and accompanied with presents to the bride. The act of betrothal was celebrated by a feast, and among the more modern Jews it is the custom in some parts for the bride. Groom to place a ring on the bride’s finger. The ring was regarded among the Hebrews as a token of fidelity (Genesis 41:42) and of adoption into a family. (Luke 15:25) Between the betrothal sad the marriage so interval elapsed, varying from a few days in the patriarchal age, (Genesis 24:55) to a full year for virgins and a month for widows in later times. During this period the bride-elect lived with her friends, and all communication between herself and her future husband was carried on through the medium of a friend deputed for the purpose, termed the “friend of the bridegroom. ” (John 3:29) She was now virtually regarded as the wife of her future husband; hence faithlessness on her part was punishable with death, (22:23,24) the husband having, however, the option of “putting her away. ” (24:1; Matthew 1:19) The essence of the marriage ceremony consisted in the removal of the bride from her father’s house to that of the bridegroom or his father. The bridegroom prepared himself for the occasion by putting on a festive dress, and especially by placing on his head a handsome nuptial turban. (Psalms 45:8; Song of Solomon 4:10,11) The bride was veiled. Her robes were white, (Revelation 19:8) and sometimes embroidered with gold thread, (Psalms 45:13,14) and covered with perfumes! (Psalms 45:8) she was further decked out with jewels. (Isaiah 49:18; 61:10; Revelation 21:2) When the fixed hour arrived, which was, generally late in the evening, the bridegroom set forth from his house, attended by his groomsmen (Authorized Version “companions,” (Judges 14:11) “children of the bride-chamber,” (Matthew 9:15) preceded by a band of musicians or singers, (Genesis 31:27; Jeremiah 7:34; 16:9) and accompanied by persons hearing flambeaux, (Jeremiah 25:10) 2 Esdr. 10:2; (Matthew 25:7; Revelation 18:23) and took the bride with the friends to his own house. At the house a feast was prepared, to which all the friends and neighbors were invited, (Genesis 29:22; Matthew 22:1-10; Luke 14:8; John 2:2) and the festivities were protracted for seven or even fourteen days. (Judges 14:12; Job 8:19) The guests were provided by the host with fitting robes, (Matthew 22:11) and the feast was enlivened with riddles, (Judges 14:12) and other amusements. The last act in the ceremonial was the conducting of the bride to the bridal chamber, (Judges 15:1; Joel 2:16) where a canopy was prepared. (Psalms 19:5; Joel 2:16) The bride was still completely veiled, so that the deception practiced on Jacob, (Genesis 29:23) was not difficult. A newly married man was exempt from military service, or from any public business which might draw him away from his home, for the space of a year, (24:5) a similar privilege was granted to him who was ‘betrothed. (20:7)
• The social and domestic conditions of married life. The wife must have exercised an important influence in her own home. She appears to have taken her part in family affairs, and even to have enjoyed a considerable amount of independence. (Judges 4:18; 1 Samuel 25:14; 2 Kings 4:8) etc. In the New Testament the mutual relations of husband and wife are a subject of frequent exhortation. (Ephesians 5:22,33; Colossians 3:18,19; Titus 2:4,5; 1 Peter 3:1-7) The duties of the wife in the Hebrew household were multifarious; in addition to the general superintendence of the domestic arrangements, such as cooking, from which even women of rank were not exempt. (Genesis 18:8; 2 Samuel 13:5) and the distribution of food at meal times, (Proverbs 31:13) the manufacture of the clothing and of the various fabrics required in her home devolved upon her, (Proverbs 31:13,21,22) and if she were a model of activity and skill, she produced a surplus of fine linen shirts and girdles, which she sold and so, like a well-freighted merchant ship, brought in wealth to her husband from afar. (Proverbs 31:14,24) The legal rights of the wife are noticed in (Exodus 21:10) under the three heads of food, raiment, and duty of marriage or conjugal right.
• The allegorical and typical allusions to marriage have exclusive reference to one object, viz. , to exhibit the spiritual relationship between God and his people. In the Old Testament (Isaiah 54:5; Jeremiah 3:14; Hosea 2:19) In the New Testament the image of the bridegroom is transferred from Jehovah to Christ, (Matthew 9:15; John 3:29) and that of the bride to the Church, (2 Corinthians 11:2; Revelation 19:7; 21:2,9)
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Mars Hill – the hill of Mars or Ares, better known by the name of Areopagus, of which hill of Mars or Ares is a translation. The Areopagus was a rocky height in Athens, opposite the western end of the Acropolis. It rises gradually from the northern end, and terminates abruptly on the south, over against the Acropolis, at which point it is about fifty or sixty feet above the valley. The spot is memorable as the place of meeting of the Council of Areopagus. This body existed as a criminal tribunal before the time of Solon, and was the most ancient and venerable of all the Athenian courts. It consisted of all persons who had held the office of archon, and who were members of the council for life unless expelled for misconduct. Before the time of Solon the court tried only cases of willful murder, wounding, poison, and arson: but he gave it extensive powers of a censorial and political nature. The council continued to exist even under the Roman emperors. Its meetings were held on the southeastern summit of the rock. The Areopagus possesses peculiar interest to the Christian as the spot from which St. Paul delivered his memorable address to the men of Athens. (Acts 17:22 -31) St. Paul “disputed daily” in the “market” or agora, (Acts 17:17) which was situated south of the Areopagus in the valley lying between this and the hills of the Acropolis, the Pnyx and the Museum. Attracting more and more attention, “certain philosophers of the Epicureans and Stoics” brought him up from the valley, probably by the stone steps, to the Areopagus above, that they might listen to him more conveniently.
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Marsena – (worthy), one of the seven of Persia, “wise men which knew the times,” which saw the king’s face and sat first in the kingdom. (Esther 1:14)
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Martha – (a lady), the sister of Lazarus and Mary. [Lazarus] The facts recorded in Luke 10 and John 11 indicate a character devout after the customary Jewish type of devotion, sharing in Messianic hopes and accepting Jesus as the Christ. When she first comes before us, (Luke 10:38) her spirit is “cumbered with much serving,” is “careful and troubled about many things. ” Her love, though imperfect in its form, is yet recognized as true, and she has the distinction of being one whom Jesus loved. (John 11:5) Her position is obviously that of the elder sister the head and manager of the household. In the supper at Bethany (John 12:2) the old character shows itself still, but it has been freed from evil. She is no longer “cumbered,” no longer impatient. Activity has been calmed by trust.
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Mary –
I. A Roman Christian who is greeted by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, ch. (Romans 16:6) as having toiled hard for him.
II. (a tear) of Cle’ophas. So in Authorized Version, but accurately “of Clopas,” i. E. The wife of Clopas (or Alphaeus). She is brought before us for the first time on the day of the crucifixion, standing by the cross. (John 19:25) In the evening of the same day we find her sitting desolate at the tomb with Mary Magdalene, (Matthew 27:61; Mark 15:47) and at the dawn of Easter morning she was again there with sweet spices, which she had prepared on the Friday night, (Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:1; Luke 23:56) and was one of those who had “a vision of angels, which said that he was alive. ” (Luke 24:23) She had four sons and at least three daughters. The names of the daughters are unknown to us; those of the sons are, James, Joses, Jude and Simon, two of whom became enrolled among the twelve apostles [James The Less], and a third [Simon] may have succeeded his brother ill charge of the church of Jerusalem. By many she is thought to have been the sister of the Virgin Mary.
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Mary Magdalene – Different explanations have been given of this name; but the most natural is that she came from the town of Magdala. She appears before us for the first time in (Luke 8:2) among the women who “ministered unto him of their substance. ” All appear to have occupied a position of comparative wealth. With all the chief motive was that of gratitude for their deliverance from “evil spirits and infirmities. ” Of Mary it is said specially that “seven devils went out of her,” and the number indicates a possession of more than ordinary malignity. She was present during the closing hours of the agony on the cross. (John 19:25) She remained by the cross till all was over, and waited till the body was taken down and placed in the garden sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathaea, (Matthew 27:61; Mark 15:47; Luke 23:55) when she, with Salome and Mary the mother of James, “bought sweet spices that they might come and anoint” the body. (Mark 16:1) The next morning accordingly. In the earliest dawn, (Matthew 28:1; Mark 16:2) they came with Mary the mother of James to the sepulchre. Mary Magdalene had been to the tomb and had found it empty, and had seen the “vision of angels. ” (Matthew 28:5; Mark 16:6) To her first of all Jesus appeared after his resurrection. (John 20:14,15) Mary Magdalene has become the type of a class of repentant sinners; but there is no authority for identifying her with the “sinner” who anointed the feet of Jesus in (Luke 7:36-50) neither is there any authority for the supposition that Mary Magdalene is the same as the sister of Lazarus. Neither of these theories has the slightest foundation in fact.
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Mary, The Virgin – the mother of our Lord. There is no person perhaps in sacred or profane history around whom so many legends have been grouped a the Virgin Mary; and there are few whose authentic history is more concise. She was, like Joseph, of the tribe of Judah and of the lineage of David. (Psalms 132:11; Luke 1:32; Romans 1:3) She had a sister, named, like herself, (John 19:25) and she was connected by marriage, (Luke 1:36) with Elizabeth, who was of the tribe of Levi and of the lineage of Aaron. This is all that we know of her antecedents. She was betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth; but before her marriage she became with child by the Holy Ghost, and became the mother of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world. Her history at this time, her residence at Bethlehem, flight to Egypt, and return to her early home st Nazareth, are well known. Four times only does she appear after the commencement of Christ’s ministry. These four occasions are:
• The marriage at Cana in Galilee took place in the three months which intervened between the baptism of Christ and the passover of the year 27. Mary was present, and witnessed the first miracle performed by Christ, when he turned the water into wine. She had probably become a widow before this time.
• Capernaum, (John 2:12) and Nazareth, (Matthew 4:13; 13:54; Mark 6:1) appear to have been the residence of Mary for a considerable period. The next time that she is brought before us we find her at Capernaum, where she, with other relatives, had gone to inquire about the strange stories they had heard of her son Jesus. They sought an audience with our Lord, which was not granted, as he refused to admit any authority on the part of his relatives, or any privilege on account of their relationship.
• The next scene in Mary’s life brings us to the foot of the cross. With almost his last words Christ commended his mother to the care of him who had borne the name of the disciple whom Jesus loved: “Woman, behold thy son. ” And front that hour St. John assures us that he took her to his own abode. So far as Mary is portrayed to us in Scripture, she is, as we should have expected the most tender, the most faithful humble, patient and loving of women, but a woman still.
• In the days succeeding the ascension of Christ Mary met with the disciples in the upper room, (Acts 1:14) waiting for the coming of the Holy Spirit with power.
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Mary, Mother Of Mark – (Colossians 4:10) was sister to Barnabas. (Acts 4:36; 12:15) She was among the earliest disciples, and lived at Jerusalem. She gave up her house to be used as one of the chief places of meeting. The fact that Peter went to that house on his release from prison indicates that there was some special intimacy, (Acts 12:12) between them. (There is a tradition that the place of meeting of the disciples, and hence Mary’s house, was on the upper slope of Zion, and that it was here that the Holy Ghost came upon the disciples with tongues of flame on the day of Pentecost. ED.)
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Mary, Sister Of Lazarus – She and her sister Martha appear in (Luke 10:40) as receiving Christ in their house. Mary sat listening eagerly for every word that fell from the divine Teacher. She had chosen that good part, the “one thing needful. ” The same character shows itself in the history of (John 11:1). . . Her grief was deeper, but less active. Her first thought, when she saw the Teacher in whose power and love she that trusted, was one of complaint. But the great joy and love which her brother’s return to life called up in her poured themselves out in larger measure than had been seen before. The treasured alabaster box of ointment was brought forth at the final feast of Bethany. (John 12:3)
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Maschil – (song of wisdom), the title of thirteen Psalms 32,45,44,45,52-55,74,78,68,69,142 Ewald regards (Psalms 47:7) (Authorized Version, “sing ye praises with understanding; ” Heb. Maschil) as the key to the meaning of maschil, which in his opinion is a musical term denoting a melody requiring great skill in its execution.
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Mash – (drawn out), one of the sons of Aram. (Genesis 10:23) In (1 Chronicles 1:17) the name appears as Meshech. The name Mash is probably represented by the Mons Masius of classical writers, a range which forms the northern boundary of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates.
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Mashal – (entreaty), the same as Misheal or Mishal. (1 Chronicles 6:74)
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Massa – (burden), a son of Ishmael. (Genesis 26:14; 1 Chronicles 1:30) His descendants were not improbably the Masani, placed by Ptolemy in the east of Arabia, near the borders of Babylonia.
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Massah – (temptation), a name given to the spot, also called Meribah, where the Israelites tempted Jehovah. (Exodus 16:7; Psalms 95:8,9; Hebrews 3:8)
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Massrekah – (vineyard of noble vines), an ancient place, the native spot of Samiah, one of the old king of the Edomites. (Genesis 36:36; 1 Chronicles 1:47)
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Mathusala – Methuselah, the son of Enoch. (Luke 3:37)
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Matithiah – (gift of God).
• A Levite who presided over the offerings made in the pans. (1 Chronicles 9:31) comp. Levi 6:20 (Levi 6:12) etc.
• One of the Levites appointed by David to minister before the ark in the musical service, (1 Chronicles 16:5) “with harps upon Sheminith,” comp. (1 Chronicles 16:21) to lead the choir. (1 Chronicles 15:18,21; 26:3,21)
• One of the family of Nebo who had married a foreign wife, in the days of Ezra. (Ezra 10:43)
• Probably a priest, who stood at the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people. (Ezra 8:4)
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Matred – (pushing forward) daughter of Mezahab and mother of Mehetabel, who was wife of Hadar or Hadad of Pau, king of Edom. (Genesis 36:39; 1 Chronicles 1:50)
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Matri – (rain of Jehovah), a family of the tribe of Benjamin, to which Saul the King of Israel belonged. (1 Samuel 10:21)
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Mattan – (a gift).
• The priest of Baal slain before his altars in the idol temple at Jerusalem. (2 Kings 11:18; 2 Chronicles 23:17) He probably accompanied Athalia from Samaria.
• The father of Shephatiah. (Jeremiah 38:1)
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Mattanah – (gift of Jehovah), a station the latter part of the wandering of the Israelites. (Numbers 21:18,19) It was probably situated to the southeast of the Dead Sea.
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Mattaniah – (gift of Jehovah).
• The original name of Zedekiah king of Judah, which was changed when Nebuchadnezzar placed him on the throne. (2 Kings 24:17)
• A Levite singer of the sons of Asaph. (1 Chronicles 9:15) He was leader of the temple choir after its restoration, (Nehemiah 11:17; 12:8) in the time of Nehemiah, and took part in the musical service which accompanied the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem. (Nehemiah 12:25,35)
• A descendant of Asaph, and ancestor of Jahaziel the Levite, in the reign of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chronicles 20:14)
• One of the sons of Elam. (Ezra 10:26)
• One of the sons of Zattu. (Ezra 10:27)
• A descendant of Pahath-moab, (Ezra 10:30) and
• One of the sons of Bani. (Ezra 10:37) who all put away their foreign wives at Ezra’s command.
• A Levite, father of Zaccur and ancestor of Hanan the under-treasurer who had charge of the offerings for the Levites in the time of Nehemiah. (Nehemiah 13:13)
• One of the fourteen sons of Heman, whose office it was to blow the horns in the temple service appointed by David. (1 Chronicles 25:4,16)
• A descendant of Asaph the Levite minstrel, who assisted in the purification of the temple in the reign of Hezekiah. (2 Chronicles 29:13)
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Mattathah – (gift of Jehovah), probably a contraction of Mattathiah.
• Son of Nathan and grandson of David, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:31) (B. C. After 1014.)
• An Israelite, son of Hashun, who divorced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon. (Ezekiel 10:33) (B. C. 458.)
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Mattathias – (gift of Jehovah), the Greek form of Mattathiah.
• Son of Amos, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:25) (B. C. After 406.)
• Son of Semei. (Luke 3:26)
• The father of the Maccabees. (B. C. 168 and previous.)
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Mattenai – (gift of Jehovah), a contraction of Mattaniah.
• Two Israelites who divorced their Gentile wives after the return from the Babylonish captivity. (Ezra 10:33,37) (B. C. 469.)
• A priest, son of Joiarib, in the time of Joiakim. (Nehemiah 12:19) (B. C. After 536.)
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Matthan – (gift), grandfather of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary. (Matthew 1:15)
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Matthat – (gift of God), a form of the name Matthan.
• son of Levi, in the genealogy of Christ. (Luke 3:20) (B. C. After 623.)
• Grandfather of the Virgin Mary. (Luke 3:21)
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Matthew – (gift of Jehovah). (A contraction, as is also Matthias, of Mattathias. His original name was Levi, and his name Matthew was probably adopted as his new apostolic name was a Jew. His father’s name was Alphaeus. His home was at Capernaum His business was the collection of dues and customs from persons and goods crossing the Sea of Galilee, or passing along the great Damascus road which ran along the shore between Bethsaida, Julius and Capernaum. Christ called him from this work to he his disciple. He appears to have been a man of wealth, for he made a great feast in his own house, perhaps in order to introduce his former companions and friends to Jesus. His business would tend to give him a knowledge of human nature, and accurate business habits, and of how to make a way to the hearts of many publicans and sinners not otherwise easily reached. He is mentioned by name, after the resurrection of Christ, only in (Acts 1:15) but he must have lived many years as an apostle, since he was the author of the Gospel of Matthew which was written at least twenty years later. There is reason to believe that he remained for fifteen years at Jerusalem, after which he went as missionary to the Persians, Parthians and Medes. There is a legend that he died a martyr in Ethiopia. ED.)
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Matthew, Gospel Of –
• Its authorship. That this Gospel was written by the apostle Matthew there is no reason to doubt. Seventeen independent witnesses of the first four centuries attest its genuineness.
• Its original language. The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote originally in the Hebrew language. On the otherhand doubt is thrown over this opinion, both statements of by an examination of the fathers and by a consideration of peculiar forms of language employed in the Gospel itself. The question is unsettled, the best scholars not agreeing in their Judgment concerning it. If there was a Hebrew original, it disappeared at a very early age. The Greek Gospel which we now possess was it is almost certain, written in Matthew’s lifetime; and it is not at all improbable that he wrote the Gospel in both the Greek and Hebrew languages. Lyman Abbolt. It is almost certain that our Lord spoke in Greek with foreigners, but with his disciples and the Jewish people in Aramaic (a form of language closely allied to the Hebrew). Schaff. The Jewish historian Josephus furnishes an illustration of the fate of the Hebrew original of Matthew. Josephus himself informs us that he, wrote his great work “The History of the Jewish Wars,” originally in Hebrew, his native tongue, for the benefit of his own nation, and he afterward translated it into Greek. No notices of the Hebrew original now survive. Professor D. S. Gregory.
• The date. The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote first of the early Church is among the evangelists. Irenieus relates that Matthew wrote his Gospel while Peter and Paul were preaching, and founding the Church at Rome, after A. D. 61. It was published before the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 50. Alford. We would place our present Gospel between A. D. 60 and 66. If there was an original Hebrew Gospel, an earlier date belongs to it–Ellicott.
• Its object. This Gospel was probably written in Palestine for Jewish Christians. It is an historical proof that Jesus is the Messiah. Matthew is the Gospel for the Jew. It is the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the prophets. This Gospel takes the life of Jesus as it was lived on earth, and his character as it actually appeared, and places them alongside the life and character of the Messiah as sketched in the prophets, the historic by the side of the Prophetic, that the two may appear in their marvellous unity and in their perfect identity. Professor Gregory.
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Matthias – (gift of God), the apostle elected to fill the place of the traitor Judas. (Acts 1:26) All beyond this that we know of him for certainty is that he had been a constant attendant upon the Lord Jesus during the whole course of his ministry; for such was declared by St. Peter to be the necessary qualification of one who was to be a witness of the resurrection. It is said that he preached the gospel and suffered martyrdom in Ethiopia.
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Mattock – (Isaiah 7:25) The tool used in Arabia for loosening the ground, described by Neibuhr, answers generally to our mattock or grubbing-axe, i. E. A single-headed pickaxe. The ancient Egyptian hoe was of wood, and answered for hoe, spade and pick.
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Maul – (i. E. A hammer), a sort of battleaxe or hammer, used as an implement of war. (25:18)
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Mauzzim – (fortresses). The marginal note to the Authorized Version of (Daniel 11:38) “the god of forces,” gives as the equivalent of the last word “Mauzzim, or gods protectors, or munitions. ” There can be little doubt tha