Smith’s Bible Dictionary – L
Laadah, Laadan, Laban, Lacedaemonians, Lachet, Lachish, Lael, Lahad, Lahairoi, Lahmam, Lahmi, Laish, Lakes, Lakum, Lambs, Lamech, Lamentations Of Jeremiah, Lamp, Lancet, Language, Lantern, Laodicea, Laodiceans, Lapidoth, Lapwing, Lasea, Lasha, Lasharon, Latin, Latin Versions, Lattice, Laver, Law, Law Of Moses, Lawyer, Laying On Of Hands, Lazarus, Lead, Leaf, Leaves, Leah, Leasing, Leather, Leaven, Lebana, Lebanah, Lebanon, Lebaoth, Lebbaeus, Lebonah, Lecah, Leech, Leeks, Lees, Legion, Lehabim, Lehi, Lemuel, Lentils, Leopard, Leper, Leprosy, Leshem, Letushim, Leummim, Levi, Leviathan, Levites, Leviticus, Libanus, Libertines, Libnah, Libni, Libya, Lice, Lieutenants, Lign Aloes, Ligure, Likhi, Lily, Lime, Linen, Lintel, Linus, Lion, Lish, Lizard, Lmri, Loammi, Loan, Loaves, Lock, Locust, Lod, Lodebar, Lodge, To, Log, Lois, Lookingglas, Lord, Lords Day, The, Lords Prayer, Lords Supper, Loruhamah, Lot, Lotan, Lots, Feats Of, Love Feasts, Lubim, Lucas, Lucifer, Lucius, Lud, Ludim, Luhith, Luke, Luke, Gospel Of, Lunatics, Luz, Lycaonia, Lycia, Lydda, Lydia, Lysanias, Lysias, Lysias Claudius, Lysimachus, Lystra
Laadah – (order), the son of Shelah and grandson of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:21)
Laadan – (put in order).
• An Ephraimite, ancestor of Joshua the son of Nun. (1 Chronicles 7:26)
• The son of Gershom, elsewhere called Libni. (1 Chronicles 23:7,8,9; 26:21)
Laban – (white).
• Son of Bethuel, brother of Rebekah and father of Leah and Rachel. (B. C. About 1860-1740.) The elder branch of the family remained at Haran, Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan, and it is there that we first meet with Laban, as taking the leading part in the betrothal of his sister Rebekah to her cousin Isaac. (Genesis 24:10,29-60; 27:43; 29:5) The next time Laban appears in the sacred narrative it is as the host of his nephew Jacob at Haran. (Genesis 29:13,14) [Jacob] Jacob married Rachel and Leah, daughters of Laban, and remained with him 20 years, B. C. 1760-1740. But Laban’s dishonest and overreaching practice toward his nephew shows from what source Jacob inherited his tendency to sharp dealing. Nothing is said of Laban after Jacob left him.
• One of the landmarks named in the obscure and disputed passage (1:1) The mention of Hezeroth has perhaps led to the only conjecture regarding Laban of which the writer is aware, namely, that it is identical with Libnah. (Numbers 33:20)
Lacedaemonians – in Greece the inhabitants of Sparta or Lacedaemon, with whom the Jews claimed kindred. 1 Macc. 12:2,5,6,20,21; 14:20,23; 15:23; 2 Macc. 5:9.
Lachet – the thong or fastening by which the sandal was attached to the foot. It occurs int he proverbial expression in (Genesis 14:23) and is there used to denote something trivial or worthless. Another semi-proverbial expression in (Luke 3:16) points to the fact that the office of bearing and unfastening the shoes of great personages fell to the meanest slaves.
Lachish – (invincible), a city lying south of Jerusalem, on the borders of Simeon, and belonging to the Amorites, the king of which joined with four others, at the invitation of Adonizedek king of Jerusalem, to chastise the Gibeonites for their league with Israel. (Joshua 10:3,5) They were routed by Joshua at Beth-horon, and the king of Lachish fell a victim with the others under the trees at Makkedah. Ver. (Joshua 10:26) The destruction of the town shortly followed the death of the king. Vs. (Joshua 10:31-33) In the special statement that the attack lasted two days, in contradistinction to the other cities which were taken in one (see ver. 35), we gain our first glimpse of that strength of position for which Lachish was afterward remarkable. Lachish was one of the cities fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam after the revolt of the northern kingdom. (2 Chronicles 11:9) In the reign of Hezekiah it was one of the cities taken by Sennacherib. This siege is considered by Layard and Hincks to be depicted on the slabs found by the former in one of the chambers of the palace at Kouyunjik. After the return from captivity, Lachish with its surrounding “fields” was reoccupied by the Jews. (Nehemiah 11:30)
Lael – (of God), the father of Eliasaph. (Numbers 3:24)
Lahad – (oppression), son of Jahath, one of the descendants of Judah. (1 Chronicles 4:2)
Lahairoi – (well of the living God), The well. In this form is given in the Authorized Version of (Genesis 24:62) and Genesis25:11 The name of the famous well of Hagar’s relief, in the oasis of verdure round which Isaac afterward resided. It was southwest of Beersheba.
Lahmam – (provisions), a town in the lowland district of Judah. (Joshua 15:40)
Lahmi – (warrior), the brother of Goliath the Gittite, slain by Elhanan the son of Zair or Zaor. (1 Chronicles 20:5) (B. C. 1020.)
Laish – (lion), father of Phaltiel, to whom Saul had given Michal, David’s wife. (1 Samuel 25:44; 2 Samuel 3:15)
Lakes – [Palestina and Palestine]
Lakum – (fortification), properly formed the landmarks of the boundary of Naphtali. (Joshua 19:33)
Lambs – are the young of sheep, but originally included also the young of goats. They formed an important part of almost every sacrifice. (Exodus 29:38-41; Numbers 28:9,11; 29,13-40) etc. [On the paschal lamb see Passover]
Lamech – (powerful), properly Lemech.
• The fifth lineal descendant from Cain. (Genesis 4:18-24) He is the only one except Enoch, of the posterity of Cain, whose history is related with some detail. His two wives, Adah and Zillah, and his daughter Naamah, are, with Eve, the only antediluvian women whose names are mentioned by Moses. His three sons, Jabal, Jubal and Tubal-cain, are celebrated in Scripture as authors of useful inventions. The remarkable poem which Lamech uttered may perhaps be regarded as Lamech’s son of exultation on the invention of the sword by his son Tubal- cain, in the possession of which he foresaw a great advantage to himself and his family over any enemies.
• The father of Noah. (Genesis 5:29)
Lamentations Of Jeremiah –
I. Title. The Hebrew title of this book, Ecah, is taken, like the titles of the five books of Moses, from the Hebrew word with which it opens.
II. Author. The poems included in this collection appear in the Hebrew canon with no name attached to them, but Jeremiah has been almost universally regarded as their author.
III. Date. The poems belong unmistakably to the last days of the kingdom, or the commencement of the exile, B. C. 629-586. They are written by one who speaks, with the vividness and intensity of an eye-witness, of the misery which he bewails.
IV. Contents. The book consists of five chapter, each of which, however, is a separate poem, complete in itself, and having a distinct subject, but brought at the same time under a plan which includes them all. A complicated alphabetic structure pervades nearly the whole book.
A. Chs. 1,2 and 4 contain twenty-two verses each, arranged in alphabetic order, each verse falling into three nearly balanced clauses; ch. (Lamentations 2:19) forms an exception, as having a fourth clause.
B. Ch. 3 contains three short verses under each letter of the alphabet, the initial letter being three times repeated.
C. Ch. 5 contains the same number of verses as chs. 1,2,4, but without the alphabetic order. Jeremiah was not merely a patriot-poet, weeping over the ruin of his country; he was a prophet who had seen all this coming, and had foretold it as inevitable. There are perhaps few portions of the Old Testament which appear to have done the work they were meant to do more effectually than this. The book has supplied thousands with the fullest utterance for their sorrows in the critical periods of national or individual suffering. We may well believe that it soothed the weary years of the Babylonian exile. It enters largely into the order of the Latin Church for the services of passion-week. On the ninth day of the month of Ab (July-August), the Lamentations of Jeremiah were read, year by year, with fasting and weeping, to commemorate the misery out of which the people had been delivered.
• That part of the golden candlestick belonging to the tabernacle which bore the light; also of each of the ten candlesticks placed by Solomon in the temple before the holy of holies. (Exodus 25:37; 1 Kings 7:49; 2 Chronicles 4:20; 13:11; Zechariah 4:2) The lamps were lighted every evening and cleansed every morning. (Exodus 30:7,8)
• A torch or flambeau, such as was carried by the soldiers of Gideon. (Judges 7:16,20) comp. Judg 15:4 The use in marriage processions of lamps fed with oil is alluded to in the parable of the ten virgins. (Matthew 25:1) Modern Egyptian lamps consist of small glass vessels with a tube at the bottom containing a cotton wick twisted around a piece of straw. For night travelling, a lantern composed of waxed cloth strained over a sort of cylinder of wire rings, and a top and bottom of perforated copper. This would, in form at least, answer to the lamps within pitchers of Gideon. “The Hebrews, like the ancient Greeks and Romans, as well as the modern Orientals, were accustomed to burn lamps all night. This custom, with the effect produced by their going out or being extinguished, supplies various figures to the sacred writers. (2 Samuel 21:17; Proverbs 13:9; 20:20) On the other hand, the keeping up of a lamp’s light is used as a symbol of enduring and unbroken succession. (1 Kings 11:36; 15:4; Psalms 132:17) “–mcclintock and Strong.
Lancet – This word is found in (1 Kings 18:28) only. The Hebrew term is romach, which is elsewhere rendered, and appears to mean a javelin or light spear. In the original edition of the Authorized Version (1611) the word is “lancers. ”
Language – [Tongues, Confusion Of]
Lantern – (so called of its shining) occurs only in (John 18:3) (It there probably denotes any kind of covered light, in distinction from a simple taper or common house-light, as well as from a flambeau. Lanterns were much employed by the Romans in military operations. Two, of bronze, have been found among the ruins of Herculaneum and Pompeii. They are cylindrical, with translucent horn sides, the lamp within being furnished with an extinguisher. ED.)
Laodicea – (justice of the people), a town in the Roman province of Asia situated in the valley of the Maeander, on a small river called the Lycus, with Colossae and Hierapolis a few miles distant to the west. Built, or rather rebuilt, by one of the Seleucid monarchs, and named in honor of his wife, Laodicea became under the Roman government a place of some importance. Its trade was considerable; it lay on the line of a great road; and it was the seat of a conventus. From the third chapter and seventeenth verse of Revelation we should gather it was a place of great wealth. Christianity was introduced into Laodicea, not, however, as it would seem, through the direct agency of St. Paul. We have good reason for believing that when, in writing from Rome to the Christians of Colossae, he sent a greeting to those of Laodicea, he had not personally visited either place. But the preaching of the gospel at Ephesus, (Acts 18:19; Acts 19:41) must inevitably have resulted in the formation of churches in the neighboring cities, especially where Jews were settled; and there were Jews in Laodicea. In subsequent times it became a Christian city of eminence, the see of bishop and a meeting-place of councils. The Mohammedan invaders destroyed it, and it is now a scene of utter desolation, as was prophesied in (Revelation 3:14-22) and the extensive ruins near Denislu justify all that we read of Laodicea in Greek and Roman writers. Another biblical subject of interest is connected with Laodicea. From (Colossians 4:16) it appears that St. Paul wrote a letter to this place when he wrote the letter to Colossae. Ussher’s view is that it was the same as the Epistle to the Ephesians, which was a circular letter sent to Laodicea among other places. The apocryphal Epistola ad Laodicenses is a late and clumsy forgery.
Laodiceans – the inhabitants of Laodicea. (Colossians 4:16; Revelation 3:14)
Lapidoth – (torches), the inhabitants of Laodicea. (Colossians 4:16; Revelation 3:14)
Lapwing – (Heb. Duciphath) occurs only in (Leviticus 11:19) and in the parallel passage of (14:18) amongst the list of those birds which were forbidden by the law of Moses to be eaten by the Israelites. Commentators generally agree that the hoopoe is the bird intended. The hoopoe is an occasional visitor to England, arriving for the most part in the autumn. Its crest is very elegant; each of the long feathers forming it is tipped with black.
Lasea – (Acts 27:8) a city of Crete, the ruins of which were discovered in 1856, a few miles to the eastward of Fair Havens.
Lasha – (fissure), a place noticed in (Genesis 10:19) as marking the limit of the country of the Canaanites. It lay somewhere in the southeast of Palestine. Jerome and other writers identify it with Callirrhoe, a spot famous for hot springs, near the eastern shore of the Dead Sea.
Lasharon – (the plain), one of the Canaanite towns whose kings were killed by Joshua. (Joshua 12:18)
Latin – the language spoken by the Romans, is mentioned only in (John 19:20) and Luke 23:38
Latin Versions – [See Vulgate, e#]
Lattice – this word is used for a latticed window or simply a network placed before a window or balcony. Perhaps the network through which Ahaziah fell and received his mortal injury was on the parapet of his palace. (2 Kings 1:2) (The latticed window is much used in warm eastern countries. It frequently projects from the wall (like our bay windows), and is formed of reticulated work, often highly ornamental, portions of which are hinged so that they may be opened or shut at pleasure. The object is to keep the apartments cool by intercepting the direct rays of the sun, while the air is permitted to circulate freely. Fairbairn. [See House and Window]
• In the tabernacle, a vessel of brass containing water for the priests to wash their hands and feet before offering sacrifice. It stood in the fore offering sacrifice. It stood in the court between the altar and the door of the tabernacle. (Exodus 30:19,21) It rested on a basis, i. E. A foot, which, was well as the laver itself, was made from the mirrors of the women who assembled at the door of the tabernacle court. (Exodus 38:8) The form of the laver is not specified, but may be assumed to have been circular. Like the other vessels belonging to the tabernacle, it was, together with its “foot,” consecrated with oil. (Leviticus 8:10,11)
• In Solomon’s temple, besides the great molten sea, there were ten lavers of brass, raised on bases, (1 Kings 7:27,39) five on the north and five on the south side of the court of the priests. They were used for washing the animals to be offered in burnt offerings. (2 Chronicles 4:6)
Law – The word is properly used, in Scripture as elsewhere, to express a definite commandment laid down by any recognized authority; but when the word is used with the article, and without any words of limitation, it refers to the expressed will to God, and in nine cases out of ten to the Mosaic law, or to the Pentateuch of which it forms the chief portion. The Hebrew word torah (law) lays more stress on its moral authority, as teaching the truth and guiding in the right way; the Greek nomos (law), on its constraining power as imposed and enforced by a recognized authority. The sense of the word, however, extends its scope and assumes a more abstracts character in the writings of St. Paul. Nomos, when used by him with the article, still refers in general to the law of Moses; but when used without the article, so as to embrace any manifestation of “law,” it includes all powers which act on the will of man by compulsion, or by the pressure of external motives, whether their commands be or be not expressed in definite forms. The occasional use of the word “law” (as in (Romans 3:27) “law of faith”) to denote an internal principle of action does not really mitigate against the general rule. It should also be noticed that the title “the Law” is occasionally used loosely to refer to the whole of the Old Testament, as in (John 10:34) referring to (Psalms 82:6) in (John 15:25) referring to (Psalms 35:19) and in (1 Corinthians 14:21) referring to (Isaiah 28:11,12)
Law Of Moses – It will be the object of this article to give a brief analysis of the substance of this law, to point out its main principles, and to explain the position which it occupies in the progress of divine revelation. In order to do this the more clearly, it seems best to speak of the law, 1st. In relation to the past; 2d. In its own intrinsic character.
I. In reference to the past, it is all-important, for the proper understanding of the law, to remember its entire dependence on the Abrahamic covenant. See (Galatians 3:17-24) That covenant had a twofold character. It contained the “spiritual promise” of the Messiah; but it contained also the temporal promises subsidiary to the former.
II. The nature of this relation of the law to the promise is clearly pointed out. The belief in God as the Redeemer of man, and the hope of his manifestation as such int he person of the Messiah, involved the belief that the Spiritual Power must be superior to all carnal obstructions, and that there was in man spiritual element which could rule his life by communion with a spirit from above. But it involved also the idea of an antagonistic power of evil, from which man was to be redeemed, existing in each individual, and existing also in the world at large.
III. Nor is it less essential to remark the period of the history at which it was given. It marked and determined the transition of Israel from the condition of a tribe to that of a nation, and its definite assumption of a distinct position and office in the history of the world.
IV. Yet, though new in its general conception, it was probably not wholly new in its materials. There must necessarily have been, before the law, commandments and revelations of a fragmentary character, under which Israel had hitherto grown up. So far therefore as they were consistent with the objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and the laws of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the Mosaic system.
V. In close connection with, and almost in consequence of, this reference to antiquity, we find an accommodation of the law to the temper and circumstances of the Israelites, to which our Lord refers int he case of divorce, (Matthew 19:7,8) as necessarily interfering with its absolute perfection. In many cases it rather should be said to guide and modify existing usages than actually to sanction them; and the ignorance of their existence may lead to a conception of its ordinances not only erroneous, but actually the reverse of the truth.
VI. In close connection with this subject we observe also the gradual process by which the law was revealed to the Israelites. In Ex 20-23, in direct connection with the revelation from Mount Sinai, that which may be called the rough outline of the Mosaic law is given by God, solemnly recorded by Moses, and accepted by the people. In Ex 25-31, there is a similar outline of the Mosaic ceremonial. On the basis of these it may be conceived that the fabric of the Mosaic system gradually grew up under the requirements of the time. The first revelation of the law in anything like a perfect form is found in the book of Deuteronomy. Yet even then the revelation was not final; it was the duty of the prophets to amend and explain it in special points, (Ezekiel 18:1). . . And to bring out more clearly its great principles.
In giving an analysis of the substance of the law, it will probably be better to treat it, as any other system of laws is usually treated, by dividing it into– I. Laws Civil; II. Laws Criminal: III. Laws Judicial and Constitutional; IV. Laws Ecclesiastical and Ceremonial.
I. LAWS CIVIL.
A. LAW OF persons.
1. Father and Son. The power of a father to be held sacred; cursing or smiting, (Exodus 21:15,17; Leviticus 20:9) and stubborn and willful disobedience, to be considered capital crimes. But uncontrolled power of life and death was apparently refused to the father, and vested only in the congregation. (21:18-21) Right of the first-born to a double portion of the inheritance not to be set aside by partiality. (21:15-17) Inheritance by daughters to be allowed in default of sons, provided, (Numbers 27:6-8) comp. Numb 36:1. . . That heiresses married in their own tribe. Daughters unmarried to be entirely dependent on their father. (Numbers 30:3-5)
2. Husband and Wife. The power of a husband to be so great that a wife could never be sui juris, or enter independently into any engagement, even before God. (Numbers 30:6-15) A widow or a divorced wife became independent, and did not against fall under her father’s power. Ver. (Numbers 30:9) Divorce (for uncleanness) allowed, but to be formal and irrevocable. (24:1-4) Marriage within certain degrees forbidden. (Leviticus 18:1). . . Etc. A slave wife, whether bought or captive, not to be actual property, nor to be sold; if illtreated, to be ipso facto free. (Exodus 21:7-9; 21:10-14) Slander against a wife’s virginity to be punished by fine,a nd by deprived of power of divorce; on the other hand, ante-connubial uncleanness in her to be punished by death. (22:13-21) the raising up of seed (Levirate law) a formal right to be claimed by the widow, under pain of infamy, with a view to preservation of families. (25:5-10)
3. MASTER AND Slave. Power of master so far limited that death under actual chastisement was punishable, (Exodus 21:20) and maiming was to give liberty ipso facto. Vs. (Exodus 21:26,27) The Hebrew slave to be freed at the sabbatical year, and provided with necessaries (his wife and children to go with only if they came to his master with him), unless by his own formal act he consented to be a perpetual slave. (Exodus 21:1-6; 15:12-18) In any case, it would seem, to be freed at the jubilee, (Leviticus 25:10) with his children. If sold to a resident alien, to be always redeemable, at a price proportioned to the distance of the jubilee. (Leviticus 25:47-54) Foreign slaves to be held and inherited as property forever, (Leviticus 25:45,46) and fugitive slaves from foreign nations not to be given up. (23:15)
4. STRANGERS. These seem never to have been sui juris, or able to protect themselves, and accordingly protection and kindness toward them are enjoined as a sacred duty. (Exodus 22:21; Leviticus 19:33,34)
B. LAW OF THINGS.
1. LAWS OF LAND (AND PROPERTY). �
a. All land to be the property of God alone, and its holders to be deemed his tenants. (Leviticus 25:23)
b. All sold land therefore to return to its original owners at the jubilee, and the price of sale to be calculated accordingly; and redemption on equitable terms to be allowed at all times. (Leviticus 25:25-27) A house sold to be redeemable within a year; and if not redeemed, to pass away altogether, ch. (Leviticus 25:29,30) But the houses of the Levites, or those in unwalled villages, to be redeemable at all times, in the same way as land; and the Levitical suburbs to be inalienable. Ch. (Leviticus 25:31-34)
c. Land or houses sanctified, or tithes, or unclean firstlings, to be capable of being redeemed, at six-fifths value (calculated according to the distance from the jubilee year by the priest); if devoted by the owner and unredeemed, to be hallowed at the jubilee forever, and given to the priests; if only by a possessor, to return to the owner at the jubilee. (Leviticus 27:14-34)
2. LAWS OF DEBT. �
a. All debts (to an Israelite) to be released at the seventh (sabbatical year; a blessing promised to obedience, and a curse on refusal to lend. (15:1-11)
b. Usury (from Israelites) not to be taken. (Exodus 22:25-27; 23:19,20)
c. Pledges not to be insolently or ruinously exacted. (24:6,10-13,17,18)
a. Census-money, a poll-tax (of a half shekel), to be paid for the service of the tabernacle. (Exodus 30:12-16) All spoil in war to be halved; of the combatants’ half, one five-hundreth, of the people’s, one fiftieth, to be paid for a “heave offering” to Jehovah.
b. Tithes. �
(1). Tithes of all produce to be given for maintenance of the Levites. (Numbers 18:20-24) (Of this one tenth to be paid as a heave offering for maintenance of the priests. Vs. (Numbers 18:24-32))
(2). Second tithe to be bestowed in religious feasting and charity, either at the holy place or (every third year) at home. (14:22-28)
(3). First-fruits of corn, wine and oil (at least one sixtieth, generally one fortieth, for the priests) to be offered at Jerusalem, with a solemn declaration of dependence on God the King of Israel. (Numbers 18:12,13; 26:1-15) Firstlings of clean beasts; the redemption money (five shekels) of man and (half shekel, or one shekel) of unclean beasts to be given to the priests after sacrifice. (Numbers 18:15-18)
c. Poor laws. �
(1). Gleanings (in field or vineyard) to be a legal right of the poor. (Leviticus 19:9,10; 24:19-22)
(2). Slight trespass (eating on the spot) to be allowed as legal. (23:24,25)
(3). Wages to be paid day by day. (24:15)
d. Maintenance of priests. (Numbers 18:8-32)
(1). Tenth of Levites’ tithe. (See 2a.)
(2). The heave and wave offerings (breast and right shoulder of all peace offerings).
(3). The meat and sin offerings, to be eaten solemnly and only in the holy place.
(4). First-fruits and redemption money. (See 2c.)
(5). Price of all devoted things, unless specially given for a sacred service. A man’s service, or that of his household, to be redeemed at 50 shekels for man, 30 for woman, 20 for boy and 10 for girl.
II. LAWS CRIMINAL.
A. OFFENCES AGAINST God (of the nature of treason.)
1. 1St Command. Acknowledgment of false gods, (Exodus 22:20) as e. G. Molech, (Leviticus 20:1-5) and generally all idolatry. (13; 17:2-5)
2. 2Nd Command. Witchcraft and false prophecy. (Exodus 22:18; 18:9-22; Leviticus 19:31)
3. 3Rd Command. Blasphemy. (Leviticus 24:15,16)
4. 4Th Command. Sabbath-breaking. (Numbers 15:32,36) Punishment in all cases, death by stoning. Idolatrous cities to be utterly destroyed.
B. OFFENCES AGAINST Man.
1. 5Th Command. Disobedience to or cursing or smiting of parents, (Exodus 21:15,17; Leviticus 20:9; 21:18-21) to be punished by death by stoning, publicly adjudged and inflicted; so also of disobedience to the priests (as judges) or the Supreme Judge. Comp. (1 Kings 21:10-14) (Naboth); (2 Chronicles 24:21) (Zechariah).
2. 6Th Command.
a. Murder to be punished by death without sanctuary or reprieve, or satisfaction. (Exodus 21:12,14; 19:11-13) Death of a slave, actually under the rod, to be punished. (Exodus 21:20,21)
b. Death by negligence to be punished by death. (Exodus 21:28-30)
c. Accidental homicide : the avenger of blood to seek safety by flight to a city of refuge, there to remain till the death of the high priest. (Numbers 35:9-28; 4:41-43; 19:4-10)
d. Uncertain murder to be expiated by formal disavowal and sacrifice by the elders of the nearest city. (21:1-9)
e. Assault to be punished by lex talionis, or damages. (Exodus 21:18,19,22-25; Leviticus 24:19,20)
3. 7Th Command.
a. Adultery to be punished by death of both offenders; the rape of a married or betrothed woman, by death of the offender. (22:13-27)
b. Rape or seduction of an unbetrothed virgin to be compensated by marriage, with dowry (50 shekels), and without power of divorce; or, if she be refused, by payment of full dowry. (Exodus 22:16,17; 22:28,29)
c. Unlawful marriages (incestuous, etc.) To be punished, some by death, some by childlessness. (Leviticus 20:1). . .
4. 8Th command.
a. Theft to be punished by fourfold or double restitution; or nocturnal robber might be slain as an outlaw. (Exodus 22:1-4)
b. Trespass and injury of things lent to be compensated. (Exodus 23:5-15)
c. Perversion of justice (by bribes, threats, etc.), and especially oppression of strangers, strictly forbidden. (Exodus 22:9) etc.
d. Kidnapping to be punished by death. (24:7)
5. 9Th Command. False witness to be punished by lex talionis. (Exodus 23:1-3; 19:16-21) Slander of a wife’s chastity, by fine and loss of power of divorce. (22:18,19) A fuller consideration of the tables of the Ten Commandments is given elsewhere. [Ten Commandments]
III. LAWS JUDICIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL.
1. Local judges (generally Levites as more skilled in the law) appointed, for ordinary matters, probably by the people with approbation of the supreme authority (as of Moses in the wilderness), (Exodus 18:25; 1:15-18) through all the land. (16:18)
2. Appeal to the priests (at the holy place), or to the judge ; their sentence final, and to be accepted under pain of death. See (17:8-13) comp. Appeal to Moses, (Exodus 18:26)
3. Two witnesses (at least) required in capital matters. (Numbers 35:30; 17:6,7)
4. Punishment, except by special command, to be personal, and not to extend to the family. (24:16) Stripes allowed and limited, (25:1-3) so as to avoid outrage on the human frame. All this would be to a great extent set aside–1st. By the summary jurisdiction of the king, see (1 Samuel 22:11-19) (Saul); (2 Samuel 12:1-5; 14:4-11; 1 Kings 3:16-28) which extended even to the deposition of the high priest. (1 Samuel 22:17,18; 1 Kings 2:26,27) The practical difficulty of its being carried out is seen in (2 Samuel 15:2-6) and would lead of course to a certain delegation of his power. 2Nd. By the appointment of the Seventy, (Numbers 11:24-30) with a solemn religious sanction. In later times there was a local sanhedrin of twenty-three in each city, and two such in Jerusalem, as well as the Great Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy members, besides the president, who was to be the high priest if duly qualified, and controlling even the king and high priest. The members were priest, scribes (Levites), and elders (of other tribes). A court of exactly this nature is noticed as appointed to supreme power by Jehoshaphat. See (2 Chronicles 19:8-11)
B. ROYAL POWER. The king’s power limited by the law, as written and formally accepted by the king; and directly forbidden to be despotic. (Military conquest discouraged by the prohibition of the use of horses. See (Joshua 11:6) For an example of obedience to this law see (2 Samuel 8:4) and of disobedience to it see (1 Kings 10:26-29) (17:14-20) comp. 1Sam 10:25 Yet he had power of taxation (to one tenth) and of compulsory service, (1 Samuel 8:10-18) the declaration of war, (1 Samuel 11:1). . . Etc. There are distinct traces of a “mutual contract,” (2 Samuel 5:3) a “league,” (2 Kings 11:17) the remonstrance with Rehoboam being clearly not extraordinary. (1 Kings 13:1-6) The princes of the congregation. The heads of the tribes, see (Joshua 9:15) seem to have had authority under Joshua to act for the people, comp. (1 Chronicles 27:16-22) and in the later times “the princes of Judah” seem to have had power to control both the king and the priests. See (Jeremiah 26:10-24; 38:4,5) etc.
C. ROYAL REVENUE.
1. Tenth of produce.
2. Domain land. (1 Chronicles 27:26-29) Note confiscation of criminal’s land. (1 Kings 21:15)
3. Bond service, (1 Kings 5:17,18) chiefly on foreigners. (1 Kings 9:20-22; 2 Chronicles 2:16,17)
4. Flocks and herds. (1 Chronicles 27:29-31)
5. Tributes (gifts) from foreign kings.
• Commerce ; especially in Solomon’s time. (1 Kings 10:22,29) etc.
IV. ECCLESIASTICAL AND CEREMONIAL LAW.
A. LAW OF Sacrifice (considered as the sign and the appointed means of the union with God, on which the holiness of the people depended).
1. ORDINARY SACRIFICES.
a. The whole burnt offering, (Leviticus 1:1). . . Of the herd or the flock; to be offered continually, (Exodus 29:38-42) and the fire on the altar never to be extinguished. (Leviticus 6:8-13)
b. The meat offering, (Leviticus 2; 6:14-23) of flour, oil and frankincense, unleavened and seasoned with salt.
c. The peace offering, (Leviticus 3:1; Leviticus 7:11-21) of the herd or the flock; either a thank offering or a vow or free-will offering.
d. The sin offering or trespass offering. Le 4,5,6
e. For sins committed in ignorance. Le 4
f. For vows unwittingly made and broken, or uncleanness unwittingly contracted. Levi 5
g. For sins wittingly committed. (Leviticus 6:1-7)
2. EXTRAORDINARY SACRIFICES.
a. At the consecration of priests. Le 8,9
b. At the purification of women. Le 12
c. At the cleansing of lepers. Le 13,14
d. On the great day of atonement. Le 16
e. On the great festivals. Le 23
B. LAW OF HOLINESS (arising from the union with God through sacrifice).
1. HOLINESS OF PERSONS.
a. Holiness of the whole people as “children of God,” (Exodus 19:5,6; Leviticus 11-15,17,18; 14:1-21) shown in
(1). The dedication of the first-born, (Exodus 13:2,12,13; 22:29,30) etc. ; and the offering of all firstlings and first-fruits. Deuteronomy 26, etc.
(2). Distinction of clean and unclean food. Levi 11; Deuteronomy 14.
(3). Provision for purification. Levi 12,13,14,15; (23:1-4)
(4). Laws against disfigurement. (Leviticus 19:27; 14:1) comp. (25:3) against excessive scourging.
(5). Laws against unnatural marriages and lusts. Le 18,20
b. Holiness of the priests (and Levites).
(1). Their consecration. Le 8,9; Ex 29
(2). Their special qualifications and restrictions. (Leviticus 21:1; Leviticus 22:1-9)
(3). Their rights, (18:1-6; Numbers 18:1). . . And authority. (17:8-13)
2. HOLINESS OF PLACES AND THINGS.
a. The tabernacle with the ark, the vail, the altars, the laver, the priestly robes, etc. Ex 25- 28,30.
b. The holy place chosen for the permanent erection of the tabernacle, (12:1; 14:22-29) where only all sacrifices were to be offered and all tithes, firstfruits, vows, etc. , to be given or eaten.
3. HOLINESS OF TIMES.
a. The Sabbath. (Exodus 20:9-11; 23:12) etc.
b. The sabbatical year. (Exodus 23:10,11; Leviticus 25:1-7) etc.
c. The year of jubilee. (Leviticus 25:8-16) etc.
d. The passover. (Exodus 12:3-27; Leviticus 23:4,5)
e. The feast of weeks (pentecost). (Leviticus 23:15) etc.
f. The feast of tabernacles. (Leviticus 23:33-43)
g. The feast of trumpets. (Leviticus 23:23-25)
h. The day of atonement. (Leviticus 23:26-32) etc.
Such is the substance of the Mosaic law. The leading principle of the whole is its THEOCRATIC CHARACTER, its reference, that is, of all action and thoughts of men directly and immediately to the will of God. It follows from this that it is to be regarded not merely as a law, that is, a rule of conduct based on known truth and acknowledged authority, but also as a revelation of God’s nature and his dispensations. But this theocratic character of the law depends necessarily on the belief in God, as not only the creator and sustainer of the world, but as, by special covenant, the head of the Jewish nation. This immediate reference to God as their king is clearly seen as the groundwork of their whole polity. From this theocratic nature of the law follow important deductions with regard to:
• the view which it takes of political society;
• the extent of the scope of the law;
• the penalties by which it is enforced; and
• the character which it seeks to impress on the people.
The Mosaic law seeks the basis of its polity, first, in the absolute sovereignty of God; next, in the relationship of each individual to God, and through God to his countrymen. It is clear that such a doctrine, while it contradicts none of the common theories, yet lies beneath them all. The law, as proceeding directly from God and referring directly to him, is necessarily absolute in its supremacy and unlimited in its scope. It is supreme over the governors, as being only the delegates of the Lord, and therefore it is incompatible with any despotic authority in them. On the other hand, it is supreme over the governed, recognizing no inherent rights in the individual as prevailing against or limiting the law. It regulated the whole life of an Israelite. His actions were rewarded and punished with great minuteness and strictness–and that according to the standard, not of their consequences but of their intrinsic morality. The penalties and rewards by which the law is enforced are such as depend on the direct theocracy. With regard to individual actions, it may be noticed that, as generally some penalties are inflicted by the subordinate and some only the supreme authority, so among the Israelites some penalties came from the hand of man, some directly from the providence of God. But perhaps the most important consequence of the theocratic nature of the law was the peculiar character of goodness which it sought to impress on the people. The Mosaic law, beginning with piety as its first object, enforces most emphatically the purity essential to those who, by their union with God, have recovered the hope of intrinsic goodness, while it views righteousness and love rather as deductions from these than as independent objects. The appeal is not to any dignity of human nature, but to the obligations of communion with a holy God. The subordination, therefore, of this idea also to the religious idea is enforced; and so long as the due supremacy of the latter was preserved, all other duties would find their places in proper harmony.
Lawyer – The title “lawyer” is generally supposed to be equivalent to the title “scribe. ” The scribe expounded the law in the synagogues and schools. [See Scribes]
Laying On Of Hands – This “formed at an early period a part of the ceremony observed on the appointment and consecration of persons to high and holy undertakings;” (and in the Christian Church was especially used in setting apart men to the ministry and to other holy offices. It is a symbolical act expressing the imparting of spiritual authority and power. ED.)
Lazarus – (whom God helps), another form of the Hebrew name Eleazar.
• Lazarus of Bethany, the brother of Martha and Mary. (John 11:1) All that we know of him is derived from the Gospel of St. John, and that records little more than the facts of his death and resurrection. The language of (John 11:1) implies that the sisters were the better known. Lazarus is “of Bethany, of the village of Mary and her sister Martha. ” From this and from the order of the three names in (John 11:5) we may reasonably infer that Lazarus was the youngest of the family. All the circumstances of John 11 and 12 point to wealth and social position above the average.
• The name of a poor man in the well-known parable of (Luke 16:19-31) The name of Lazarus has been perpetuated in an institution of the Christian Church. The leper of the Middle Ages appears as a lazzaro. The use of lazaretto and lazarhouse for the leper hospitals then founded in all parts of western Christendom, no less than that of lazaroni for the mendicants of Italian towns, is an indication of the effect of the parable upon the mind of Europe in the Middle Ages, and thence upon its later speech.
Lead – This is one of the most common of metals, found generally in veins of rocks, though seldom in a metallic state, and most commonly in combination with sulphur. It was early known to the ancients, and the allusions to it in Scripture indicate that the Hebrews were well acquainted with its uses. The rocks in the neighborhood of Sinai yielded it in large quantities, and it was found in Egypt. In (Job 19:24) the allusion is supposed to be to the practice of carving inscriptions upon stone and pouring molten lead into the cavities of the letters, to render them legible and at the same time preserve them from the action of the air.
Leaf, Leaves – The word occurs in the Authorized Version either in singular or plural number in three different senses.
• Leaf of a tree. The righteous are often compared to green leaves. (Jeremiah 17:8) The ungodly, on the other hand, are “as an oak whose leaf fadeth. ” (Isaiah 1:30)
• Leaves of doors. The hebrew word, which occurs very many times in the Bible, and which in (1 Kings 6:32) (margin) and 1Kin 6:34 Is translated “leaves” in the Authorized Version, signifies beams, ribs, sides, etc.
• Leaves of a book or roll occurs in this sense only in (Jeremiah 36:23) The Hebrew word (literally doors) would perhaps be more correctly translated columns.
Leah – (wearied), the daughter of Laban. (Genesis 29:16) The dullness or weakness of her eyes was so notable that it is mentioned as a contrast to the beautiful form and appearance of her younger sister Rachel. Her father took advantage of the opportunity which the local marriage rite afforded to pass her off in her sister’s stead on the unconscious bridegroom, and excused himself to Jacob by alleging that the custom of the country forbade the younger sister to be given first in marriage. Jacob’s preference of Rachel grew into hatred of Leah after he had married both sisters. Leah, however, bore to him in quick succession Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, then Issachar, Zebulun and Dinah, before Rachel had a child. She died some time after Jacob reached the south country in which his father Isaac lived. She was buried in the family grave in Machpelah, near Hebron. (Genesis 49:31) (B. C. About 1720.)
Leasing – (falsehood). This word is retained in the Authorized Version of (Psalms 4:2; 5:6) from the older English versions; but the Hebrew word of which it is the rendering is elsewhere almost uniformly translated “lies. ” (Psalms 40:4; 58:3) etc.
Leather – The notices of leather in the Bible are singularly few; indeed the word occurs but twice in the Authorized Version, and in each instance in reference to the same object, a girdle. (2 Kings 1:8; Matthew 3:4) There are, however, other instances in which the word “leather” might with propriety be substituted for “skin. ” (Leviticus 11:32; 13:48; Numbers 31:20) Though the material itself is seldom noticed, yet we cannot doubt that it was extensively used by the Jews; shoes, bottles, thongs, garments, ropes and other articles were made of it. The art of tanning, however, was held in low esteem by the Jews.
Leaven – Various substances were known to have fermenting qualities; but the ordinary leaven consisted of a lump of old dough in a high state of fermentation, which was mixed into the mass of dough prepared for baking. The use of leaven was strictly forbidden in all offerings made to the Lord by fire. During the passover the Jews were commanded to put every particle of leaven from the house. The most prominent idea associated with leaven in connection with the corruption which it had undergone,a nd which it communicated to bread in the process of fermentation. It is to this property of leaven that our Saviour points when he speaks of the “leaven (i. E. The corrupt doctrine) of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees,” (Matthew 16:6) and St. Paul, when he speaks of the “old leaven. ” (1 Corinthians 5:7) (Another quality in leaven is noticed in the Bible, namely, its secretly penetrating and diffusive power. In this respect it was emblematic of moral influence generally, whether good or bad; and hence our Saviour adopts it as illustrating the growth of the kingdom of heaven in the individual heart and in the world at large: because
• its source is from without;
• it is secret in its operation;
• it spreads by contact of particle with particle;
• it is widely diffusive, one particle of leaven being able to change any number of particles of flour; and because
• it does not act like water, moistening a certain amount of flour, but is like a plant, changing the particles it comes in contact with into its own nature, with like propagating power. ED.)
Lebana – (white), one of the Nethinim whose descendants returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel. (Nehemiah 7:48) He is called Lebanah.
Lebanah – (white) in (Ezra 2:45)
Lebanon – a mountain range in the north of Palestine. The name Lebanon signifies white, and was applied either on account of snow which, during a great part of the year, cover its whole summit, or on account of the white color of its limestone cliffs and peaks. It is the “white mountain”–the Mont Blane of Palestine. Lebanon is represented in Scripture as lying upon the northern border of the land of Israel. (1:7; 11:24; Joshua 1:4) Two distinct ranges bear this name. They run in parallel lines from southwest to northeast for about 90 geographical miles, enclosing between them a long, fertile valley from five to eight miles wide, anciently called Coele-Syria. The western range is the “Libanus” of the old geographers and the Lebanon of Scripture. The eastern range was called “Anti-Libanus” by geographers, and “Lebanon toward the sunrising” by the sacred writers. (Joshua 13:5)
• Lebanon–the western range– commences on the south of the deep ravine of the Litany, the ancient river Leontes, which drains the valley of Cole-Syria, and falls into the Mediterranean five miles north of Tyre. It runs northeast in a straight line parallel to the coast, to the opening from the Mediterranean into the plain of Emesa, called in Scripture the “entrance of Hamath. ” (Numbers 34:8) Here Nehr el-Kebir–the ancient river Eleutherus– sweeps round its northern end, as the Leontes does round its southern. The average elevation of the range is from 6000 to 8000 feet; but two peaks rise considerably higher. On the summits of both these peaks the snow remains in patches during the whole summer. The line of cultivation runs along at the height of about 6000 feet; and below this the features of the western slopes are entirely different. The rugged limestone banks are scantily clothed with the evergreen oak, and the sandstone with pines; while every available spot is carefully cultivated. The cultivation is wonderful, and shows what all Syria might be if under a good government. Fig trees cling to the naked rock; vines are trained along narrow ledges; long ranges of mulberries, on terraces like steps of stairs, cover the more gentle declivities; and dense groves of olives fill up the bottoms of the glens. Hundreds of villages are seen– here built among labyrinths of rocks, there clinging like among labyrinths of rocks, there clinging like swallows’ nests to the sides of cliffs; while convents, no less numerous, are perched on the top of every peak. The vine is still largely cultivated in every part of the mountain. Lebanon also abounds in olives, figs and mulberries; while some remnants exist of the forests of pine, oak and cedar which formerly covered it. (1 Kings 5:6; Ezra 3:7; Psalms 29:5; Isaiah 14:8) Considerable numbers of wild beasts still inhabit its retired glens and higher peaks; the writer has seen jackals, hyaenas, wolves, bears and panthers. (2 Kings 14:9; Song of Solomon 4:8); Habb 2:17 Along the base of Lebanon runs the irregular plain of Phoenicia –nowhere more than two miles wide, and often interrupted by bold rocky spurs that dip into the sea. The main ridge of Lebanon is composed of Jura limestone, and abounds in fossils. Long belts of more recent sandstone run along the western slopes, which are in places largely impregnated with iron. Lebanon was originally inhabited by the Hivites and Giblites. (Joshua 13:5,6; Judges 3:3) The whole mountain range was assigned to the Israelites, but was never conquered by them. (Joshua 13:2-6; Judges 3:1-3) During the Jewish monarchy it appears to have been subject of the Phoenicians. (1 Kings 5:2-6; Ezra 3:7) From the Greek conquest until modern times Lebanon had no separate history.
• Anti-Libanus. The main chain of Anti-Libanus commences in the plateau of Bashan, near the parallel of Caesarea Philippi, runs north to Hermon, and then northeast in a straight line till it stinks down into the great plain of Emesa, not far from the site of Riblah. Hermon is the loftiest peak; the next highest is a few miles north of the site of Abila, beside the village of Bludan, and has an elevation of about 7000 feet. The rest of the ridge averages about 5000 feet; it is in general bleak and barren, with shelving gray declivities, gray cliffs and gray rounded summits. Here and there we meet with thin forests of dwarf oak and juniper. The western slopes descend abruptly into the Buka’a ; but the features of the eastern are entirely different. Three side ridges here radiate from Hermon, like the ribs of an open fan, and form the supporting walls of three great terraces. Anti-Libanus is only once distinctly mentioned in Scripture, where it is accurately described as “Lebanon toward the sunrising. ” (Joshua 13:5)
Lebaoth – (lionesses), a town which forms one of the last group of the cities of “the south” in the enumeration of the possessions of Judah, (Joshua 15:32) probably identical with Beth-lebaoth.
Lebbaeus – (a man of heart), one name of Jude, who was one of the twelve apostles.
Lebonah – (frankincense), a place named in (Judges 21:19) only. Lebonah has survived to our times under the almost identical form of el-Lubban. It lies to the west of and close to the Nablus road, about eight miles north of Beitan (Bethel) and two from Seilun (Shiloh).
Lecah – (progress), a name mentioned in the genealogies of Judah, (1 Chronicles 4:21) only, as one of the descendants of Shelah, the third son of Judah by the Canaanites Bath-shua.
Leech – [HORSE-LEECH]
Leeks – (Heb. Chatsir). The leek was a bulbous vegetable resembling the onion. Its botanical name is Allium porrum. The Israelites in the wilderness longed for the leeks and onions of Egypt. (Numbers 11:5) The word chatsir, which in (Numbers 11:5) is translated leeks, occurs twenty times in the Hebrew text. The Hebrew term, which properly denotes grass, is derived from a root signifying “to be green,” and may therefore stand in this passage for any green food–lettuce, endive, etc. ; it would thus be applied somewhat in the same manner as we use the term “greens;” yet as the chatsir is mentioned together with onions and garlic in the text, and as the most ancient versions unanimously understand leeks by the Hebrew word, we may be satisfied with our own translation.
Lees – the coarser parts of a liquor, its sediment or dregs. “Wine on the lees” means a generous, full-bodied liquor. (Isaiah 25:6) Before the wine was consumed, it was necessary to strain off the lees; such wine was then termed “well refined. ” (Isaiah 25:6) To drink the lees, or “dregs,” was an expression for the endurance of extreme punishment. (Psalms 75:8)
Legion – the chief subdivision of the Roman army, containing about 6000 infantry, with a contingent of cavalry. The term does not occur in the Bible in its primary sense, but appears to have been adopted in order to express any large number, with the accessory ideas of order and subordination. (Matthew 26:53; Mark 5:9)
Lehabim – (fiery, flaming), occurring only in (Genesis 10:13) the name of a Mizraite people or tribe. There can be no doubt that they are the same as the Rebu or Lebu of the Egyptian inscriptions,a nd that from them Libya and the Libyans derived their name. These primitive Libyans appear to have inhabited the northern part of Africa to the west of Egypt, though latterly driven from the coast by the Greek colonists of the Cyrenaica.
Lehi – (jaw bone), a place in Judah, probably on the confines of the Philistines’ country, between it and the cliff Etam; the scene of Samson’s well-known exploit with the jaw bone. (Judges 15:9,14,19) It may perhaps be identified with Beit-Likiyeh, a village about two miles below the upper Beth-horon.
Lemuel – (dedicated to God), the name of an unknown king to whom his mother addressed the prudential maxims contained in (Proverbs 31:1-9) The rabbinical commentators identified Lemuel with Solomon. Others regard him as king or chief of an Arab tribe dwelling on the borders of Palestine, and elder brother of Agur, whose name stands at the head of (Proverbs 30:1)
Lentils – (Heb. ‘Adashim), a leguminous plant bearing seeds resembling small beans. The red pottage which Jacob prepared and for which Esau sold his birthright was made from them. (Genesis 25:34) There are three of four kinds of lentils, all of which are much esteemed in those countries where they are grown, viz. , the south of Europe, Asia and north Africa. The red lentil is still a favorite article of food in the East. Lentil bread is eaten by the poor of Egypt. The lentil is much used with other pulse in Roman Catholic countries during Lent; and some are of opinion that from this usage the season derives its name.
Leopard – (Heb. Namer) is invariably given by the Authorized Version as the translation of the Hebrew word, which occurs in the seven following passages: (Song of Solomon 4:8; Isaiah 11:6; Jeremiah 5:6; 13:23; Daniel 7:6; Hosea 13:7); Habb 1:8 Leopard occurs also in Ecclus. 28:23 and in (Revelation 13:2) From (Song of Solomon 4:8) we learn that the hilly ranges of Lebanon were in ancient times frequented by these animals. They are now not uncommonly seen in and about Lebanon and the southern maritime mountains of Syria. Under the name namer, which means “spotted,” it is not improbable that another animal, namely the cheetah (Gueparda jubata), may be included; which is tamed by the Mohammedans of Syria, who employ it in hunting the gazelle.
Leper, Leprosy – The predominant and characteristic form of leprosy in the Old Testament is a white variety, covering either the entire body or a large tract of its surface, which has obtained the name of Lepra mosaica. Such were the cases of Moses, Miriam, Naaman and Gehazi. (Exodus 4:6; Numbers 12:10; 2 Kings 5:1,27) comp. Levi 13:13 But, remarkably enough, in the Mosaic ritual diagnosis of the disease, (Leviticus 13:1; Leviticus 14:1). . . This kind, when overspreading the whole surface, appears to be regarded as “clean. ” (Leviticus 13:12,13,16,17) The Egyptian bondage, with its studied degradations and privations, and especially the work of the kiln under an Egyptian sun, must have had a frightful tendency to generate this class of disorders. The sudden and total change of food, air, dwelling and mode of life, caused by the exodus, to this nation of newly- emancipated slaves, may possibly have had a further tendency to produce skin disorders, and severe repressive measures may have been required in the desert- moving camp to secure the public health or to allay the panic of infection. Hence it is possible that many, perhaps most, of this repertory of symptoms may have disappeared with the period of the exodus, and the snow-white form, which had pre-existed, may alone have ordinarily continued in a later age. The principal morbid features are a rising or swelling, a scab or baldness, and a bright or white spot. (Leviticus 13:2) But especially a white swelling in the skin, with a change of the hair of the part from the natural black to white or yellow, ch. (Leviticus 13:3,4,10,20,25,30) or an appearance of a taint going “deeper than the skin,” or, again, “raw flesh” appearing in the swelling, ch. (Leviticus 13:10,14,15) was a critical sign of pollution. The tendency to spread seems especially to have been relied on. A spot most innocent in other respects, if it “spread much abroad,” was unclean; whereas, as before remarked, the man so wholly overspread with the evil that it could find no further range was on the contrary “clean. ” ch. (Leviticus 13:12,13) These two opposite criteria seem to show that whilst the disease manifested activity, the Mosaic law imputed pollution to and imposed segregation on the suffered, but that the point at which it might be viewed as having run its course was the signal for his readmission to communion. It is clear that the leprosy of Levi 13,14 means any severe disease spreading on the surface of the body in the way described, and so shocking of aspect, or so generally suspected of infection, that public feeling called for separation. It is now undoubted that the “leprosy” of modern Syria, and which has a wide range in Spain, Greece and Norway, is the Elephantiasis graecorum. It is said to have been brought home by the crusaders into the various countries of western and northern Europe. It certainly was not the distinctive white leprosy, nor do any of the described symptoms in Levi 13 point to elephantiasis. “White as snow,” (2 Kings 5:27) would be a inapplicable to elephantiasis as to small-pox. There remains a curious question as regards the leprosy of garments and houses. Some have though garments worn by leprous patients intended. This classing of garments and house-walls with the human epidermis, as leprous, has moved the mirth of some and the wonder of others. Yet modern science has established what goes far to vindicate the Mosaic classification as more philosophical than such cavils. It is now known that there are some skin diseases which originate in an acarus, and others which proceed from a fungus. In these we may probably find the solution of the paradox. The analogy between the insect which frets the human skin and that which frets the garment that covers it–between the fungous growth that lines the crevices of the epidermis and that which creeps in the interstices of masonry–is close enough for the purposes of a ceremonial law. It is manifest also that a disease in the human subject caused by an acarus or by a fungus would be certainly contagious, since the propagative cause could be transferred from person to person. (Geikie in his “Life of Christ” says: “Leprosy signifies smiting, because it was supposed to be a direct visitation of Heaven. It began with little specks on the eyelids and on the palms of the hands, and gradually spread over different parts of the body, bleaching the hair white wherever it showed itself, crusting the affected parts with shining scales, and causing swellings and sores. From the skin it slowly ate its way through the tissues, to the bones and joints, and even to the marrow, rotting the whole body piecemeal. The lungs, the organs of speech and hearing, and the eyes, were attacked in turn, till at last consumption or dropsy brought welcome death. The dread of infection kept men aloof from the sufferer; and the law proscribed him as above all men unclean. The disease was hereditary to the fourth generation. ” Leprosy in the United States. The Medical Record, February, 1881, states that from the statistics collected by the Dermatological Society it appears that there are between fifty and one hundred lepers in the United States at present. Is modern leprosy contagious?–Dr. H. S. Piffard of New York, in the Medical Record, February, 1881, decides that it is in a modified degree contagious. “A review of the evidence led to the conclusion that this disease was not contagious by ordinary contact; but it may be transmitted by the blood and secretions. A recent writer, Dr. Bross, a Jesuit missionary attached to the lazaretto at Trinidad, takes the ground that the disease in some way or other is transmissible. It is a well-established fact that when leprosy has once gained for itself a foothold in any locality, it is apt to remain there and spread. The case of the Sandwich Islands illustrates the danger. Forty years ago the disease did not exits there; now one-tenth of the inhabitants are lepers. ” This is further confirmed by the fact stated by Dr. J. Hutchinson, F. R. S. , that “We find that nearly everywhere the disease is most common on the seashore, and that, when it spreads inland, it generally occurs on the shores of lakes or along the course of large rivers. ” Leprosy as a type of sin. “Being the worst form of disease, leprosy was fixed upon by God to be the especial type of sin, and the injunctions regarding it had reference to its typical character. ” It was
• ever tending to increase;
• incurable except by the power of God;
• a shame and disgrace;
• rendering one alone in the world;
• deforming, unclean;
• “separating the soul from God, producing spiritual death; unfitting it forever for heaven and the company of they holy, and insuring its eternal banishment, as polluted and abominable. ”
• Another point is referred to by Thompson (in “The Land and the Book”): “Some, as they look on infancy, reject with horror the thought that sin exists within. But so might any one say who looked upon the beautiful babe in the arms of a leprous mother. But time brings forth the fearful malady. New-born babes of leprous parents are often as pretty and as healthy in appearance as any; but by and by its presence and workings become visible in some of the signs described in the thirteenth chapter of Leviticus. “–ED.)
Leshem – (precious stone), another form of Laish, afterward Dan, occurring in (Joshua 19:47)
Letushim – (hammered), the name of the second of the sons of Dedan son of Jokshan. (Genesis 25:3)
Leummim – (peoples), the name of the third of the descendants of Dedan son of Jokshan, (Genesis 25:3) being in the plural form, like his brethren, Asshurim and Letushim.
Levi – (joined).
• The name of the third son of Jacob by his wife Leah. (B. C. About 1753.) The name, derived from lavah, “to adhere,” gave utterance to the hope of the mother that the affections of her husband, which had hitherto rested on the favored Rachel, would at last be drawn to her: “This time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have borne him three sons. ” (Genesis 29:34) Levi, with his brother Simeon, avenged with a cruel slaughter the outrage of their sister Dinah. [Dinah] Levi, with his three sons, Gershon, Kohath and Merari, went down to Egypt with his father Jacob. (Genesis 47:11) When Jacob’s death draws near, and the sons are gathered round him, Levi and Simeon hear the old crime brought up again to receive its sentence. They no less than Reuben, the incestuous firstborn, had forfeited the privileges of their birthright. (Genesis 49:5-7) [Levites]
• Two of the ancestors of Jesus. (Luke 3:24,29)
• Son of Alphaeus or Matthew; one of the apostles. (Mark 2:14; Luke 5:27,29) [See Matthew]
Leviathan – (jointed monster) occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version, and once in the margin of (Job 3:8) where the text has “mourning. ” In the Hebrew Bible the word livyathan, which is, with the foregoing exception, always left untranslated in the Authorized Version, is found only in the following passages: (Job 3:8; 41:1; Psalms 74:14; 104:26; Isaiah 27:1) In the margin of (Job 3:8) and text of (Job 41:1) the crocodile is most clearly the animal denoted by the Hebrew word. (Psalms 74:14) also clearly points to this same saurian. The context of (Psalms 104:26) seems to show that in this passage the name represents some animal of the whale tribe, which is common in the Mediterranean; but it is somewhat uncertain what animal is denoted in (Isaiah 27:1) As the term leviathan is evidently used in no limited sense, it is not improbable that the “leviathan the piercing serpent,” or “leviathan the crooked serpent,” may denote some species of the great rock-snakes which are common in south and west Africa.
Levites – (descendants of Levi). Sometimes the name extends to the whole tribe, the priests included, (Exodus 6:25; Leviticus 25:32; Numbers 35:2; Joshua 21:3,41) etc; sometimes only to those members of the tribe who were not priests, and as distinguished from them. Sometimes again it is added as an epithet of the smaller portion of the tribe, and we read of “the priests the Levites. ” (Joshua 3:3; Ezekiel 44:15) The history of the tribe and of the functions attached to its several orders is essential to any right apprehension of the history of Israel as a people. It will fall naturally into four great periods:
I. The time of the exodus. There is no trace of the consecrated character of the Levites till the institution of a hereditary priesthood in the family of Aaron, during the first withdrawal of Moses to the solitude of Sinai. (Exodus 24:1) The next extension of the idea of the priesthood grew out of the terrible crisis of Exod 32. The tribe stood forth separate and apart, recognizing even in this stern work the spiritual as higher than the natural. From this time they occupied a distinct position. The tribe of Levi was to take the place of that earlier priesthood of the first-born as representatives of the holiness of the people. At the time of their first consecration there were 22,000 of them, almost exactly the number of the first-born males in the whole nation. As the tabernacle was the sign of the presence among the people of their unseen King, so the Levites were, among the other tribes of Israel, as the royal guard that waited exclusively on him. It was obviously essential for their work as the bearers and guardians of the sacred tent that there should be a fixed assignment of duties; and now accordingly we meet with the first outlines of the organization which afterward became permanent. The division of the tribe into the three sections that traced their descent from the sons of Levi formed the groundwork of it. The work which they all had to do required a man’s full strength, and therefore, though twenty was the starting-point for military service, Numb 1, they were not to enter on their active service till they were thirty. (Numbers 4:23,30,35) At fifty they were to be free from all duties but those of superintendence. (Numbers 8:25,26)
• The Kohathites, as nearest of kin to the priests, held from the first the highest offices. They were to bear all the vessels of the sanctuary, the ark itself included. (Numbers 3:31; 4:15; 31:35)
• the Gershonites had to carry the tent-hangings and curtains. (Numbers 4:22-26)
• The heavier burden of the boards, bars and pillars of the tabernacle fell on the sons of Merari. The Levites were to have no territorial possessions. In place of them they were to receive from the others the tithes of the produce of the land, from which they, in their turn, offered a tithe to the priests, as a recognition of their higher consecration. (Numbers 18:21,24,26; Nehemiah 10:37) Distinctness and diffusion were both to be secured by the assignment to the whole tribe of forty-eight cities, with an outlying “suburb,” (Numbers 35:2) of meadowland for the pasturage of their flocks and herds. The reverence of the people for them was to be heightened by the selection of six of these as cities of refuge. Through the whole land the Levites were to take the place of the old household priests, sharing in all festivals and rejoicings. (12:19; 14:26,27; 26:11) Every third year they were to have an additional share in the produce of the land. (14:28; 26:12) To “the priests the Levites” was to belong the office of preserving, transcribing and interpreting the law. (17:9-12; 31:26)
II. The period of the judges. The successor of Moses, though belonging to another tribe, did all that could be done to make the duty above named a reality. The submission of the Gibeonites enabled him to relieve the tribe-divisions of Gershon and Merari of the most burdensome of their duties. The conquered Hivites became “hewers of wood and drawers of water” for the house of Jehovah and for the congregation. (Joshua 9:27) As soon as the conquerors had advanced far enough to proceed to a partition of the country, the forty-eight cities were assigned to them.
III. The monarchy. When David’s kingdom was established, there came a fuller organization of the whole tribe. Their position in relation to the priesthood was once again definitely recognized. In the worship of the tabernacle under David, as afterward in that of the temple, the Levites were the gatekeepers, vergers, sacristans, choristers, of the central sanctuary of the nation. They were, in the language of (1 Chronicles 23:24-32) to which we may refer as almost the locus classicus on this subject, “to wait on the sons of Aaron for the service of the house of Jehovah, in the courts, and the chambers, and the purifying of all holy things. ” They were, besides this, “to stand every morning to thank and praise Jehovah, and likewise at even. ” They were, lastly, “to offer”–i. E. To assist the priest in offering– “all burnt sacrifices to Jehovah in the sabbaths and on the set feasts. ” They lived for the greater part of the year in their own cities, and came up at fixed periods to take their turn of work. (1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 26:1). . . The educational work which the Levites received for their peculiar duties, no less than their connection, more or less intimate, with the schools of the prophets, would tend to make them the teachers of the others, the transcribers and interpreters of the law, the chroniclers of the times in which they lived. (Thus they became to the Israelites what ministers and teachers are to the people now, and this teaching and training the people in morality and religion was no doubt one of the chief reasons why they were set apart by God from the people, and yet among the people. ED.) The revolt of the ten tribes, and the policy pursued by Jeroboam, who wished to make the priests the creatures and instruments of the king, and to establish a provincial and divided worship, caused them to leave the cities assigned to them in the territory of Israel, and gather round the metropolis of Judah. (2 Chronicles 11:13,14) In the kingdom of Judah they were, from this time forward, a powerful body, politically as well as ecclesiastically.
IV. After the captivity. During the period that followed the captivity of the Levites contributed to the formation of the so-called Great Synagogue. They, with the priests, formed the majority of the permanent Sanhedrin, and as such had a large share in the administration of justice even in capital cases. They appear but seldom in the history of the New Testament.
Leviticus – The third book in the Pentateuch is called Leviticus because it relates principally to the Levites and priests and their services. The book is generally held to have been written by Moses. Those critics even who hold a different opinion as to the other books of the Pentateuch assign this book in the main to him. One of the most notable features of the book is what may be called its spiritual meaning. That so elaborate a ritual looked beyond itself we cannot doubt. It was a prophecy of things to come; a shadow whereof the substance was Christ and his kingdom. We may not always be able to say what the exact relation is between the type and the antitype; but we cannot read the Epistle to the Hebrews and not acknowledge that the Levitical priests “served the pattern and type of heavenly things;” that the sacrifices of the law pointed to and found their interpretation in the Lamb of God; that the ordinances of outward purification signified the true inner cleansing of the heart and conscience from dead works to serve the living God. One idea–HOLINESS– moreover penetrates the whole of this vast and burdensome ceremonial, and gives it a real glory even apart from any prophetic significance.
Libanus – [Lebanon]
Libertines – This word, which occurs once only in the New Testament– (Acts 6:9)–is the Latin libertini, that is, “freedmen. ” They were probably Jews who, having been taken prisoners by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, had been reduced to slavery and had afterward been emancipated, and returned, permanently or for a time, to the country of their fathers.
Libnah – (whiteness).
• A royal city of the Canaanites which lay in the southwest part of the Holy Land, taken by Joshua immediately after the rout of Beth-horon. It was near Lachish, west of Makkedah. It was appropriated with its “suburbs” to the priests. (Joshua 21:13; 1 Chronicles 6:57) In the reign of Jehoram the son of Jehoshaphat it “revolted” form Judah at the same time with Edom. (2 Kings 8:22; 2 Chronicles 21:10) Probably the modern Ayak el-Menshiyeh.
• One of the stations at which the Israelites encamped on their journey between the wilderness of Sinai and Kadesh. (Numbers 33:20,21)
Libni – (white).
• The eldest son of Gershon the son of Levi, (Exodus 6:17; Numbers 3:18; 1 Chronicles 6:17,20) and ancestor of the family of the Libnites. (B. C. After 1700.)
• The son of Mahli or Mahali, son of Merari, (1 Chronicles 6:29) as the text at present stands. It is probable, however, that he is the same with the preceding, and that something has been omitted. Comp. Ver. (1 Chronicles 6:29) with 1Chr 6:20,42
Libya – This name occurs only in (Acts 2:10) It is applied by the Greek and Roman writers to the African continent, generally, however, excluding Egypt.
Lice – (Heb. Cinnam, cinnim). This word occurs in the Authorized Version only in (Exodus 8:16-18) and in (Psalms 105:31) both of which passages have reference to the third great plague of Egypt. The Hebrew word has given occasion to whole pages of discussion. Some commentators, and indeed modern writers generally, suppose that gnats are the animals intended by the original word; while, on the other hand, the Jewish rabbis, Josephus and others, are in favor of the translation of the Authorized Version. Upon the whole it appears that there is not sufficient authority for departing from this translation. Late travellers (e. G. Sir Samuel Baker) describe the visitation of vermin in very similar terms:–“It is as though the very dust were turned into lice. ” The lice which he describes are a sort of tick, not larger than a grain of sand, which when filled with blood expand to the size of a hazel nut. Canon Cook.
Lieutenants – The Hebrew achash darpan was the official title of the satraps or viceroys who governed the provinces of the Persian empire; it is rendered “prince” in (Daniel 3:2; 6:1)
Lign Aloes – [Aloes, gn Aloes#]
Ligure – (Heb. Leshem), a precious stone mentioned in (Exodus 28:19; 39:12) as the first in the third row of the high priest’s breastplate. It is impossible to say, with any certainty, what stone is denoted by the Hebrew term; but perhaps tourmaline, or more definitely the red variety known as rubellite, has better claims than any other mineral. Rubellite is a hard stone, and used as a gem, and is sometimes sold for red sapphire.
Likhi – (learned), a Manassite, son of Shemidah the son of Manasseh. (1 Chronicles 7:19)
Lily – (Heb. Shushan, shoshannah). Although there is little doubt that the Hebrew word denotes some plant of the lily species, it is by no means certain what individual of this class it specially designates. The plant must have been a conspicuous object on the shores of the Lake of Gennesaret, (Matthew 6:28; Luke 12:27) it must have flourished in the deep broad valleys of Palestine, (Song of Solomon 2:1) among the thorny shrubs, ib. (Song of Solomon 2:2) and pastures of the desert, ib. (Song of Solomon 2:16; 4:5; 6:3) and must have been remarkable for its rapid and luxuriant growth. (Hosea 14:5), Ecclus. 39:14. That its flowers were brilliant in color would seem to be indicated in (Matthew 6:28) where it is compared with the gorgeous robes of Solomon; and that this color was scarlet or purple is implied in (Song of Solomon 5:13) There appears to be no species of lily which so completely answers all these requirements as the Lilium chalcedonicum, or scarlet martagon, which grows in profusing in the Levant. But direct evidence on the point is still to be desired from the observation of travellers. (It is very probable that the term lily here is general, not referring to any particular species, but to a large class of flowers growing in Palestine, and resembling the lily, as the tulip, iris, gladiolus, etc. ED.)
Lime – the substance obtained form limestone, shells, etc. , by heat. It is noticed only three times in the Bible, viz. , in (27:2) (Authorized Version “plaster”), (Isaiah 33:12) and Amos 2:1
Linen – cloth made from flax. Several different Hebrew words are rendered linen, which may denote different fabrics of linen or different modes of manufacture. Egypt was the great centre of the linen trade. Some linen, made form the Egyptian byssus, a flax that grew on the banks of the Nile, was exceedingly soft and of dazzling whiteness. This linen has been sold for twice its weight in gold. Sir J. G. Wilkinson says of it, “The quality of the fine linen fully justifies all the praises of antiquity, and excites equal admiration at the present day, being to the touch comparable to silk, and not inferior in texture to our finest cambric. ”
Lintel – the beam which forms the upper part of the framework of a door.
Linus – (a net), a Christian at Rome, known to St. Paul and to Timothy, (2 Timothy 4:21) who was the first bishop of Rome after the apostles. (A. D. 64.)
Lion – “The most powerful, daring and impressive of all carnivorous animals, the most magnificent in aspect and awful in voice. ” At present lions do not exist in Palestine; but they must in ancient times have been numerous. The lion of Palestine was in all probability the Asiatic variety, described by Aristotle and Pliny as distinguished by its short and curly mane, and by being shorter and rounder in shape, like the sculptured lion found at Arban. It was less daring than the longer named species, but when driven by hunger it not only ventured to attack the flocks in the desert in presence of the shepherd, (1 Samuel 17:34; Isaiah 31:4) but laid waste towns and villages, (2 Kings 17:25,26; Proverbs 22:13; 26:13) and devoured men. (1 Kings 13:24; 20:36) Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old Testament, the lion was the achievement of the princely tribe of Judah, while in the closing book of the canon it received a deeper significance as the emblem of him who “prevailed to open the book and loose the seven seals thereof. ” (Revelation 5:5) On the other hand its fierceness and cruelty rendered it an appropriate metaphor for a fierce and malignant enemy. (Psalms 7:2; 22:21; 57:4; 2 Timothy 4:17) and hence for the arch-fiend himself. (1 Peter 5:8)
Lish – (lion), the city which was taken by the Danites, and under its new name of Dan became famous as the northern limit of the nation. (Judges 18:7,14,27,29) [Dan] It was near the sources of the Jordan. In the Authorized Version Laish is again mentioned in the account of Sennacherib’s march on Jerusalem. (Isaiah 10:30) This Laish is probably the small village Laishah, lying between Gallim and Anathoth in Benjamin, and of which hitherto no traces have been found. (Fairbairn’s “Imperial Bible Dictionary” suggests that it may be the present little village el-Isawiyeh, in a beautiful valley a mile northeast of Jerusalem. ED.)
Lizard – (that which clings to the ground) (Heb. Letaah. (Leviticus 11:30) Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia. The lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard (Ptyodactylus gecko) which is common in Egypt and in parts of Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Palestine. It is reddish brown spotted with white. The gecko lives on insects and worms, which it swallows whole. It derives its name from the peculiar sound which some of the species utter.
Lmri – (eloquent).
• A man of Judah, of the great family of Pharez. (1 Chronicles 9:4) (B. C. Much before 536.)
• Father or progenitor of Zaccur. (Nehemiah 3:2) (B. C. Before 446.)
Loammi – (not my people), the figurative name given by the prophet Hosea to his second son by Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, (Hosea 1:9) to denote the rejection of the kingdom of Israel by Jehovah. Its significance is explained in vs. 9,10
Loan – The law strictly forbade any interest to be taken for a loan to any poor person, and at first, as it seems, even in the case of a foreigner; but this prohibition was afterward limited to Hebrews only, from whom, of whatever rank, not only was no usury on any pretence to be exacted, but relief to the poor by way of loan was enjoined, and excuses for evading this duty were forbidden. (Exodus 22:25; Leviticus 25:35,37) As commerce increased, the practice of usury, and so also of suretyship, grew up; but the exaction of it from a Hebrew appears to have been regarded to a late period as discreditable. (Psalms 15:5; Proverbs 6:1,4; 11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 22:26; Jeremiah 15:10; Ezekiel 18:13) Systematic breach of the law in this respect was corrected by Nehemiah after the return from captivity. (Nehemiah 5:1,13) The money-changers, who had seats and tables in the temple, where traders whose profits arose chiefly from the exchange of money with those who came to pay their annual half-shekel. The Jewish law did not forbid temporary bondage in the case of debtors, but it forbade a Hebrew debtor to be detained as a bondman longer than the seventh year, or at farthest the year of jubilee. (Exodus 21:2; Leviticus 25:39,42; 15:9)
Loaves – [Bread]
Lock – Where European locks have not been introduced, the locks of eastern houses are usually of wood, and consist of a partly hollow bolt from fourteen inches to two feet long for external doors or gates, or from seven to nine inches for interior doors. The bold passes through a groove in a piece attached to the door into a socket in the door-post.
Locust – a well-known insect, of the grasshopper family, which commits terrible ravages on vegetation in the countries which it visits. “The common brown locust is about three inches in length, and the general form is that of a grasshopper. ” The most destructive of the locust tribe that occur in the Bible lands are the (Edipoda migratoria and the Acridium peregrinum ; and as both these species occur in Syria and Arabia, etc. , it is most probable that one or other is denoted in those passages which speak of the dreadful devastations committed by these insects. Locusts occur in great numbers, and sometimes obscure the sun. (Exodus 10:15; Judges 6:5; Jeremiah 46:23) Their voracity is alluded to in (Exodus 10:12,15; Joel 1:4,7) They make a fearful noise in their flight. (Joel 2:5; Revelation 9:9) Their irresistible progress is referred to in (Joel 2:8,9) They enter dwellings, and devour even the woodwork of houses. (Exodus 10:6; Joel 2:9,10) They do not fly in the night. (Nahum 3:17) The sea destroys the greater number. (Exodus 10:19; Joel 2:20) The flight of locusts is thus described by M. Olivier (Voyage dans l’ Empire Othoman, ii. 424): “With the burning south winds (of Syria) there come from the interior of Arabia and from the most southern parts of Persia clouds of locusts (Acridium peregrinum), whose ravages to these countries are as grievous and nearly as sudden as those of the heaviest hail in Europe. We witnessed them twice. It is difficult to express the effect produced on us by the sight of the whole atmosphere filled on all sides and to a great height by an innumerable quantity of these insects, whose flight was slow and uniform, and whose noise resembled that of rain: the sky was darkened, and the light of the sun considerably weakened. In a moment the terraces of the houses, the streets, and all the fields were covered by these insects, and in two days they had nearly devoured all the leaves of the plants. Happily they lived but a short time, and seemed to have migrated only to reproduce themselves and die; in fact, nearly all those we saw the next day had paired, and the day following the fields were covered with their dead bodies. ” “Locusts have been used as food from the earliest times. Herodotus speaks of a Libyan nation who dried their locusts in the sun and ate them with milk. The more common method, however, was to pull off the legs and wings and roast them in an iron dish. Then they thrown into a bag, and eaten like parched corn, each one taking a handful when he chose. “–Biblical Treasury. Sometimes the insects are ground and pounded, and then mixed with flour and water and made into cakes, or they are salted and then eaten; sometimes smoked; sometimes boiled or roasted; again, stewed, or fried in butter.
Lod – [Lydda]
Lodebar – (without pasture), a place named with Mahanaim, Rogelim and other transjordanic towns, (2 Samuel 17:27) and therefore no doubt on the east side of the Jordan. It was the native place of Machir-ben-Ammiel. (2 Samuel 9:4,5)
Lodge, To – This word, with one exception only, has, at least in the narrative portions of the Bible, almost invariably the force of “passing the night. ”
Log – [Weights and Measures AND Measures]
Lois – (agreeable), the grandmother of Timothy, and doubtless the mother of his mother, Eunice. (2 Timothy 1:5) It seems likely that Lois had resided long at Lystra; and almost certain that from her, as well as from Eunice, Timothy obtained his intimate knowledge of the Jewish Scriptures. (2 Timothy 3:15) (A. D. Before 64.)
Lookingglas – [MIRRORS]
Lord – [God]
Lords Day, The – (Kuriake Hemera), (Revelation 1:10) (only), the weekly festival of our Lord’s resurrection, and identified with “the first day of the week,” or “Sunday,” of every age of the Church. Scripture says very little concerning this day; but that little seems to indicate that the divinely-inspired apostles, by their practice and by their precepts, marked the first day of the week as a day for meeting together to break bread, for communicating and receiving instruction, for laying up offerings in store for charitable purposes, for occupation in holy thought and prayer. [See Sabbath]
Lords Prayer – the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples. (Matthew 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4) “In this prayer our Lord shows his disciples how an infinite variety of wants and requests can be compressed into a few humble petitions. It embodies every possible desire of a praying heart, a whole world of spiritual requirements; yet all in the most simple, condensed and humble form, resembling, in this respect, a pearl on which the light of heaven plays. “–Lange. “This prayer contains four great general sentiments, which constitute the very soul of religion,– sentiments which are the germs of all holy deeds in all worlds.
• Filial reverence : God is addressed not as the great unknown, not as the unsearchable governor, but as a father, the most intelligible, attractive and transforming name. It is a form of address almost unknown to the old covenant, now an then hinted at as reminding the children of their rebellion. (Isaiah 1:2); Mali 1:6 Or mentioned as a last resource of the orphan and desolate creature, (Isaiah 63:16) but never brought out in its fullness, as indeed it could not be, till he was come by whom we have received the adoption of sons. “–Alford.
• “Divine loyalty : ‘Thy kingdom come. ‘
• Conscious dependence : ‘Give us this day,’ etc.
• Unbounded confidence : ‘For thine is the power,’ etc. “–Dr. Thomas’ Genius of the Gospels. The doxology, “For thine is the kingdom” etc. , is wanting in many manuscripts. It is omitted in the Revised Version; but it nevertheless has the authority of some manuscripts, and is truly biblical, almost every word being found in (1 Chronicles 29:11) and is a true and fitting ending for prayer.
Lords Supper – The words which thus describe the great central act of the worship of the Christian Church occur but in a single passage of the New Testament– (1 Corinthians 11:20)
• Its institution. It was instituted on that night when Jesus and his disciples met together to eat the passover, (Matthew 26:19; Mark 14:16; Luke 22:13) (on Thursday evening, April 6, A. D. 30). It was probably instituted at the third cup (the cup of blessing) of the passover [see on Passover], Jesus taking one of the unleavened cakes used at the feast and breaking it and giving it to his disciples with the cup. The narratives of the Gospels show how strongly the disciples were impressed with the words which had given a new meaning to the old familiar acts. They had looked on the bread and the wine as memorials of the deliverance from Egypt. They were not told to partake of them “in remembrance” of their Master and Lord. The words “This is my body” gave to the unleavened bread a new character. They had been prepared for language that would otherwise have been so startling, by the teaching of John ch. (John 6:32-58) and they were thus taught to see in the bread that was broken the witness of the closest possible union and incorporation with their Lord. The cup, which was “the new testament in his blood,” would remind them, in like manner, of the wonderful prophecy in which that new covenant had been foretold. (Jeremiah 31:31-34) “Gradually and progressively he had prepared the minds of his disciples to realize the idea of his death as a sacrifice. He now gathers up all previous announcements in the institution of this sacrament. “–Cambridge Bible. The festival had been annual. No rule was given as to the time and frequency of the new feast that thus supervened on the old, but the command “Do this as oft as ye drink it,” (1 Corinthians 11:25) suggested the more continual recurrence of that which was to be their memorial of one whom they would wish never to forget. Luke, in the Acts, describes the baptized members of the Church as continuing steadfast in or to the teaching of the apostles, in fellowship with them and with each other, and in breaking of bread and in prayers. (Acts 2:42) We can scarcely doubt that this implies that the chief actual meal of each day was one in which they met as brothers, and which was either preceded or followed by the more solemn commemorative acts of the breaking of the bread and the drinking of the cup. It will be convenient to anticipate the language and the thoughts of a somewhat later date, and to say that, apparently, they thus united every day the Agape or feast of love with the celebration of the Eucharist. At some time, before or after the meal of which they partook as such, the bread and the wine would be given with some special form of words or acts, to indicate its character. New converts would need some explanation of the meaning and origin of the observance. What would be so fitting and so much in harmony with the precedents of the paschal feast as the narrative of what had passed on the night of its institution? (1 Corinthians 11:23-27)
• Its significance. The Lord’s Supper is a reminder of the leading truths of the gospel:
• Salvation, like this bread, is the gift of God’s love.
• We are reminded of the life of Christ–all he was and did and said.
• We are reminded, as by the passover, of the grievous bondage of sin from which Christ redeems us.
• It holds up the atonement, the body of Christ broken, his blood shed, for us.
• In Christ alone is forgiveness and salvation from sin, the first need of the soul.
• Christ is the food of the soul.
• We must partake by faith, or it will be of no avail.
• We are taught to distribute to one another the spiritual blessings God gives us.
• By this meal our daily bread is sanctified.
• The most intimate communion with God in Christ.
• Communion with one another.
• It is a feast of joy. “Nothing less than the actual joy of heaven is above it. ”
• It is a prophecy of Christ’s second coming, of the perfect triumph of his kingdom.
• It is holding up before the world the cross of Christ; not a selfish gathering of a few saints, but a proclamation of the Saviour for all. Why did Christ ordain bread to be used in the Lord’s Supper, and not a lamb ? Canon Walsham How replies, “Because the types and shadows were to cease when the real Sacrifice was come. There was to be no more shedding of blood when once his all- prevailing blood was shed. There must be nothing which might cast a doubt upon the all-sufficiency of that. ” (Then, the Lamb being sacrificed once for all, what is needed is to teach the world that Christ is now the bread of life. Perhaps also it was because bread was more easily provided, and fitted thus more easily to be a part of the universal ordinance. ED.)
• Was it a permanent ordinance?–“‘Do this in remembrance of me’ points to a permanent institution. The command is therefore binding on all who believe in Christ; and disobedience to it is sin, for the unbelief that keeps men away is one of the worst of sins. “–Prof. Riddle. “The subsequent practice of the apostles, (Acts 2:42,46; 20:7) and still more the fact that directions for the Lord’s Supper were made a matter of special revelation to Paul, (1 Corinthians 11:23) seem to make it clear that Christ intended the ordinance for a perpetual one, and that his apostles so understood it. “–Abbott.
• Method of observance. “The original supper was taken in a private house, an upper chamber, at night, around a table, reclining, women excluded, only the ordained apostles admitted. None of these conditions are maintained to-day by any Christian sect. ” But it must be kept with the same spirit and purpose now as then.
Loruhamah – (the uncompassionated), the name of the daughter of Hosea the prophet, given to denote the utterly ruined condition of the kingdom of Israel. (Hosea 1:6)
I. (literally a pebble). The custom of deciding doubtful questions by lot is one of great extent and high antiquity. Among the Jews lots were used with the expectation that God would so control them as to give a right direction to them. They were very often used by God’s appointment. “As to the mode of casting lots, we have no certain information. Probably several modes were practiced. ” “Very commonly among the Latins little counters of wood were put into a jar with so narrow a neck that only one could come out at a time. After the jar had been filled with water and the contents shaken, the lots were determined by the order in which the bits of wood, representing the several parties, came out with the water. In other cases they were put into a wide open jar, and the counters were drawn out by the hand. Sometimes again they were cast in the manner of dice. The soldiers who cast lots for Christ’s garments undoubtedly used these dice. “–Lyman Abbott.
II. (veil or covering), the son of Haran, and therefore the nephew of Abraham. (Genesis 11:27,31) (B. C. Before 1926-1898.) His sisters were Milcah the wife of Nahor, and Iscah, by some identified with Sarah. Haran died before the emigration of Terah and his family from Ur of the Chaldees, ver. 28, and Lot was therefore born there. He removed with the rest of his kindred to Charran, and again subsequently with Abraham and Sarai to Canaan. Ch. (Genesis 12:4,5) With them he took refuge in Egypt from a famine,a nd with them returned, first to the “south,” ch. (Genesis 13:1) and then to their original settlement between Bethel and Ai. Vs. (Genesis 13:3,4) But the pastures of the hills of Bethel, which had with ease contained the two strangers on their first arrival, were not able any longer to bear them, so much had their possessions of sheep, goats and cattle increased. Accordingly they separated, Lot choosing the fertile plain of the Jordan, and advancing as far as Sodom. (Genesis 13:10-14) The next occurrence in the life of Lot is his capture by the four kings of the east and his rescue by Abram. Ch. (Genesis 13:14) The last scene preserved to us in the history of Lot is too well known to need repetition. He was still living in Sodom, (Genesis 19:1). . . From which he was rescued by some angels on the day of its final overthrow. He fled first to Zoar, in which he found a temporary refuge during the destruction of the other cities of the plain. Where this place was situated is not known with certainty. [Zoar] The end of Lot’s wife is commonly treated as one of the difficulties of the Bible; but it surely need not be so. It cannot be necessary to create the details of the story where none are given. On these points the record is silent. The value and the significance of the story to us are contained in the allusion of Christ. (Luke 17:32) Later ages have not been satisfied so to leave the matter, but have insisted on identifying the “pillar” with some one of the fleeting forms which the perishable rock of the south end of the Dead Sea is constantly assuming in its process of decomposition and liquefaction. From the incestuous intercourse between Lot and his two daughters sprang the nations of Moab and Ammon.
Lotan – (covering), the eldest son of Seir the Horite. (Genesis 36:20,22,29; 1 Chronicles 1:38,39)
Lots, Feats Of – [Purim]
Love Feasts – (Agape), (2 Peter 2:13; Jude 1:12) an entertainment in which the poorer members of the church partook, furnished from the contributions of Christians resorting to the eucharistic celebration, but whether before or after may be doubted. The true account of the matter is probably that given by Chrysostom, who says that after the early community of goods had ceased the richer members brought to the church contributions of food and drink, of which, after the conclusion of the services and the celebration of the Lord’s Supper, all partook together, by this means helping to promote the principle of love among Christians. The intimate connection especially in early times, between the Eucharist itself and the love feasts has led some to speak of them as identical. The love feasts were forbidden to be held in churches by the Council of Laudicea, A. D. 320; but in some form or other they continued to a much later period.
Lubim – (dwellers in a thirsty land),a nation mentioned as contributing, together with Cushites and Sukkiim, to Shishak’s army, (2 Chronicles 12:3) and apparently as forming with Cushites the bulk of Zerah’s army, (2 Chronicles 16:8) spoken of by Nahum, (Nahum 3:9) with Put or Phut, as helping No-amon (Thebes), of which Cush and Egypt were the strength. Upon the Egyptian monuments we find representations of a people called Rebu or Lebu, who correspond to the Lubim, and who may be placed on the African coast to the westward of Egypt, perhaps extending far beyond the Cyrenaica.
Lucas – (Philemon 1:24) [Luke]
Lucifer – (light-bearer), found in (Isaiah 14:12) coupled with the epithet “son of the morning,” clearly signifies a “bright star,” and probably what we call the morning star. In this passage it is a symbolical representation of the king of Babylon in his splendor and in his fall. Its application, from St. Jerome downward, to Satan in his fall from heaven arises probably from the fact that the Babylonian empire is in Scripture represented as the type of tyrannical and self idolizing power, and especially connected with the empire of the Evil One in the Apocalypse.
• A kinsman or fellow tribesman of St. Paul, (Romans 16:21) by whom he is said by tradition to have been ordained bishop of the church of Cenchreae. He is thought by some to be the same with Lucius of Cyrene.
• Lucius of Cyrene is first mentioned in the New Testament in company with Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Manaen and Saul, who are described as prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch. (Acts 13:1) Whether Lucius was one of the seventy disciples is quite a matter of conjecture; but it is highly probable that he formed one of the congregation to whom St. Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, (Acts 2:10) and there can hardly be a doubt that he was one of “the men of Cyrene” who, being “scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen,” went to Antioch preaching the Lord Jesus. (Acts 11:19,20)
Lud – (strife) the fourth name in the list of the children of Shem, (Genesis 10:22) comp. 1Chr 1:17 Supposed to have been the ancestor of the Lydians.
Ludim – (strife), (Genesis 10:13; 1 Chronicles 1:11) a Mizraite people or tribe descended from Ludim the son of Mizraim; also called Lydians. It is probable that the Ludim were settled to the west of Egypt, perhaps farther than any other Mizraite tribe. Lud and the Ludim are mentioned in four passages of the prophets– (Isaiah 66:19; Jeremiah 46:9; Ezekiel 27:10; 38:5) There call be no doubt that but one nation is intended in these passages, and it seems that the preponderance of evidence is in favor of the Mizaraite Ludim.
Luhith – (made of tables or boards), The ascent of, a place in Moab, occurs only in (Isaiah 15:5) and the parallel passage of Jeremiah. (Jeremiah 48:5) In the days of Eusebius and Jerome it was still known, and stood between Areopolis (Rabbath-moab) and Zoar.
Luke – (light-giving), or Lu’cas, is an abbreviated form of Lucanus. It is not to be confounded with Lucius, (Acts 13:1; Romans 16:21) which belongs to a different person. The name Luke occurs three times in the New Testament– (Colossians 4:14; 2 Timothy 4:11); Phle 1:24–And probably in all three the third evangelist is the person spoken of. Combining the traditional element with the scriptural we are able to trace the following dim outline of the evangelist’s life. He was born at Antioch in Syria, and was taught the science of medicine. The well known tradition that Luke was also a painter, and of no mean skill, rests on the authority of late writers. He was not born a Jew, for he is not reckoned among those “of the circumcision” by St. Paul. Comp. (Colossians 4:11) with ver. 14. The date of his conversion is uncertain. He joined St. Paul at Troas, and shared his Journey into Macedonia. The sudden transition to the first person plural in (Acts 16:9) is most naturally explained after all the objections that have been urged, by supposing that Luke the writer of the Acts, formed one of St. Paul’s company from this point. As far as Philippi the evangelist journeyed with the apostle. The resumption of the third person on Paul’s departure from that place, (Acts 17:1) would show that Luke was now left behind. During the rest of St. Paul’s second missionary journey we hear of Luke no more; but on the third journey the same indication reminds us that Luke is again of the company, (Acts 20:5) having joined it apparently at Philippi, where he had been left. With the apostle he passed through Miletus, Tyre and Caesarea to Jerusalem. Ch. Acts 20:6; 21:18 As to his age and death there is the utmost uncertainty. He probably died a martyr, between A. D. 75 and A. D. 100. He wrote the Gospel that bears his name, and also the book of Acts.
Luke, Gospel Of – The third Gospel is ascribed, by the general consent of ancient Christendom, to “the beloved physician,” Luke, the friend and companion of the apostle Paul.
• Date of the Gospel of Luke. From (Acts 1:1) it is clear that the Gospel described “the former treatise” was written before the Acts of the Apostles; but how much earlier is uncertain. Perhaps it was written at Caesarea during St. Paul’s imprisonment there, A. D. 58-60.
• Place where the Gospel was written. If the time has been rightly indicated, the place would be Caesarea.
• Origin of the Gospel. The preface, contained in the first four verses of the Gospel, describes the object of its writer. Here are several facts to be observed. There were many narratives of the life of our Lord Current at the early time when Luke wrote his Gospel. The ground of fitness for the task St. Luke places in his having carefully followed out the whole course of events from the beginning. He does not claim the character of an eye-witness from the first but possibly he may have been a witness of some part of our Lord’s doings. The ancient opinion that Luke wrote his Gospel under the influence of Paul rests on the authority of Irenreus, Tertulian, Origen and Eusebius. The four verses could not have been put at the head of a history composed under the exclusive guidance of Paul or of any one apostle and as little could they have introduced a gospel simply communicated by another. The truth seems to be that St. Luke, seeking information from every quarter, sought it from the preaching of his be loved master St. Paul; and the apostle in his turn employed the knowledge acquired from other sources by his disciple.
• Purpose for which the Gospel was written. The evangelist professes to write that Theophilus “might know the certainty of those things wherein he had been instructed. ” ch, (Luke 1:4) This Theophilus was probably a native of Italy and perhaps an inhabitant of Rome, in tracing St. Paul’s journey to Rome, places which an Italian might be supposed not to know are described minutely, (Acts 27:8,12,16) but when he comes to Sicily and Italy this is neglected. Hence it would appear that the person for whom Luke wrote in the first instance was a Gentile reader; and accordingly we find traces in the Gospel of a leaning toward Gentile rather than Jewish converts.
• Language and style of the Gospel. It has never been doubted that the Gospel was written in Greek, whilst Hebraisms are frequent, classical idioms and Greek compound words abound, for which there is classical authority. (Prof. Gregory, in “Why Four Gospels” says that Luke wrote for Greek readers, and therefore the character and needs of the Greeks furnish the key to this Gospel. The Greek was the representation of reason and humanity. He looked upon himself as having the mission of perfecting man. He was intellectual, cultured, not without hope of a higher world. Luke’s Gospel therefore represented the character and career of Christ as answering the conception of a perfect and divine humanity. Reason, beauty righteousness and truth are exhibited as they meet in Jesus in their full splendor. Jesus was the Saviour of all men, redeeming them to a perfect and cultured manhood. ED.)
Lunatics – (from the Latin Luna, the moon, because insane persons, especially those who had lucid intervals, were once supposed to be affected by the changes of the moon). This word is used twice in the New Testament– (Matthew 4:24; 17:15) Translated epileptic in the Revised Version.) It is evident that the word itself refers to same disease affecting both the body and the mind, which might or might not be a sign of possession By the description of (Mark 9:17-26) it is concluded that this disease was epilepsy.
Luz – (almond tree). It seems impossible to discover with precision whether Luz and Bethel represent one and the same town–the former the Canannite, the latter the Hebrew, name–or whether they were distinct places, though in close proximity. The most probable conclusion is that the two places were, during the times preceding the conquest, distinct, Luz being the city and Bethel the pillar and altar of Jacob that after the destruction of Luz by the tribe of Ephraim the town of Bethel arose. When the original Luz was destroyed, through the treachery of one of its inhabitants, the man who had introduced the Israelites into the town went into the “land of the Hittites” and built a city which he named after the former one. (Judges 1:28) Its situation, as well as that of the land of the Hittites,” has never been discovered, and is one of the favorable puzzles of Scripture geographers.
Lycaonia – (land of Lycanon, or wolf land), a district of Asia Minor. From what is said in (Acts 14:11) of “the speech of Lycaonia,” it is evident that the inhabitants of the district, in St. Paul’s day, spoke something very different from ordinary Greek. Whether the language was some Syrian dialect or a corrupt form of Greek has been much debated. The fact that the Lycaonians were similar with the Greek mythology is consistent with either supposition. Lycaonia is for the most part a dreary plain, bare of trees, destitute of fresh water, and with several salt lakes. (It was about 20 miles long from east to west, and 13 miles wide. “Cappadocia is on the east, Galatia on the north, Phrygia on the west and Cilicia on the south “Among its chief cities are Derbe, Lystra and Iconium. ED.) After the provincial system of Rome had embraced the whole of Asia Minor, the boundaries of the provinces were variable; and Lycaonia was, politically, sometimes in Cappadocia, sometimes in Galatia. Paul visited it three times in his missionary tours.
Lycia – (land of Lycus) is the name of that southwestern region of the peninsula of Asia Minor which is immediately opposite the island of Rhodes. The Lycians were incorporated in the Persian empire, and their ships were conspicuous in the great war against the Greeks (Herod. Vii. 91, 92). After the death of Alexander the Great, Lycia was included in the Greek Seleucid kingdom, and was a part of the territory which the Romans forced Antiochus to cede. It was not till the reign of Claudius that Lycia became part of the Roman provincial system. At first it was combined with Pamiphylia. Such seems to have been the condition of the district when St. Paul visited the Lycian towns of Patara, (Acts 21:1) and Myra. (Acts 27:5) At a later period of the Roman empire Lyoia was a separate province, with Myra for it capital.
Lydda – (strife), the Greek form of the name, (Acts 9:32,35,38) which appears in the Hebrew records as Lod a town of Benjamin, founded by Shamed or Shamer. (1 Chronicles 8:12; Ezra 2:33; Nehemiah 7:37; 11:35) It is still called Lidd or Ludd, and stands in part of the great maritime plain which anciently bore the name of Sharon. It is nine miles from Joppa, and is the first town on the northernmost of the two roads between that place and Jerusalem. The watercourse outside the town is said still to bear the name of Abi-Butrus (Peter), in memory the apostle. It was destroyed by Vespasian, and was probably not rebuilt till the time of Hadrian, when it received the name of Diospois. When Eusebius wrote (A. D. 320-330) Diospolis was a well-known and much-frequented town. The modern town is, for a Mohammedan place, buy and prosperous.
I. The first European convert of St. Paul, and afterward his hostess during his first stay at Philippi. (Acts 18:14,15) also Acts 18:40 (A. D. 47.) She was a Jewish proselyte at the time of the apostle’s coming; and it was at the Jewish Sabbath- worship by the side of a stream ver 13, that the preaching of the gospel reached her heart. Her native place was Thyatira, in the province of Asia. Ver. 14; (Revelation 2:18) Thyatira was famous for its dyeing works; and Lydia wars connected with this trade, as a seller either of dye or of dyed goods. We infer that she was a person of considerable wealth.
II. (land of Lydus), a maritime province in the west of Asia Minor bounded by Mysia on the north, Phrygia on the east, and Caria on the south. It is enumerated among the districts which the Romans took away from Antiochos the Great after the battle of Magnesia in B. C. 190, and transferred to Eumenus II. King of Pergamus. Lydia is included in the “Asia” of the New Testament.
Lysanias – (that drives away sorrow), mentioned by St. Luke in one of his chronological passages, ch. (Luke 3:1) as being tetrarch. Of Abilene (i. E. The district round Abila) in the thirteenth year of Tiberius (A. D. 26), at the time when Herod Antipas was tetrarch of Galilee and Herod Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis.
Lysias – (dissolving), a nobleman of the blood-royal, 1Macc 3:32; 2Macc 11:1, who was entrusted he Antiochus Epiphanes (cir. B. C. 166) with the government of southern Syria and the guardianship of his son Antiochus Eupator. 1Macc 3:32; 2Macc. 10:11. After the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, B. C. 184, Lysias assumed the government as guardian of his son, who was pet a child. 1Macc 6:17. In B. C. 164 he, together with his ward, fell into the hands of Demetrius Soter, who put them both to death. 1Macc 7:2-4; 2Macc 14:2.
Lysias Claudius – a chief captain of the band, that is, tribune of the Roman cohort who rescued St. Paul from the hands of the infuriated mob at Jerusalem, and sent him under a guard to Felix, the governor or proconsul of Caesarea. (Acts 21:31) seq. ; Acts 23:26; 24:7 (A. D. 55.)
Lysimachus – “a son of Ptolemaeus of Jerusalem,” the Greek translator of the book of Esther. Comp. (Esther 9:20)
Lystra – This place has two points of interest in connection respectively with St. Paul’s first and second missionary Journeys:
• as the place where divine honors were offered to him, and where he was presently stoned, (Acts 14:1). . .
• as the home of his chosen companion and fellow missionary Timotheus. (Acts 16:1) Lystra was in the eastern part of the great plain of Lycaonia, and its site may be identified with the ruins called Bin-bir-Kilisseh, at the base of a conical mountain of volcanic structure, named the Karadagh.